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Plant, Cell & Environment

Cover image for Vol. 35 Issue 9

September 2012

Volume 35, Issue 9

Pages 1533–1703

  1. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Original Articles
    1. You have free access to this content
      Quantifying succulence: a rapid, physiologically meaningful metric of plant water storage (pages 1533–1542)

      R. MATTHEW OGBURN and ERIKA J. EDWARDS

      Article first published online: 4 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02503.x

      This study addresses methods for quantifying succulence, drawing explicit linkages between the saturated water content of leaves (SWC) and important physiological, morphological, and anatomical traits. We show how plants have evolved modifications at both the cellular and whole-organism level to increase their water storage capacity. It is our hope that this metric will be adopted as a simple yet meaningful way to treat succulence as the quantitative characteristic that it is, opening new and fruitful avenues for research in comparative studies of succulence.

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      Heat shock-induced biphasic Ca2+ signature and OsCaM1-1 nuclear localization mediate downstream signalling in acquisition of thermotolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L.) (pages 1543–1557)

      HUI-CHEN WU, DAN-LI LUO, FLORENCE VIGNOLS and TSUNG-LUO JINN

      Article first published online: 10 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02508.x

      Heat shock-triggered rapid increases of the apoplastic Ca2+ influx induces a biphasic [Ca2+]cyt response in root cells but a monophasic response in epicotyl and leaf cells, together with the calmodulin OsCaM1-1 expression and its nuclear localization following the Ca2+ signature, are important in mediating downstream HS-responsive genes expression for the acquisition of thermotolerance in rice.

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      First observation of diffusion-limited plant root phosphorus uptake from nutrient solution (pages 1558–1566)

      JAKOB SANTNER, ERIK SMOLDERS, WALTER W. WENZEL and FIEN DEGRYSE

      Article first published online: 25 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02509.x

      The Michaelis-Menten model has been frequently used to model the uptake of ions by plants. In hydroponic experiments we found that buffering the phosphate concentration by Al2O3 nanoparticles increased the P uptake of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), indicating that Michaelis-Menten parameters determined in unbuffered solutions describe diffusion limitation rather than uptake control by phosphate transporters. We conclude that ion uptake from soil may be described by simply treating plant roots as a zero-sink.

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      Molecular characterization of the Lotus japonicus NRT1(PTR) and NRT2 families (pages 1567–1581)

      GIUSEPPINA CRISCUOLO, VLADIMIR TOTEV VALKOV, AURORA PARLATI, LUDOVICO MARTIN ALVES and MAURIZIO CHIURAZZI

      Article first published online: 19 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02510.x

      In this work the authors report the first systematic analysis of NRT/PTR and NRT2 gene expression profiles in legume plants in response to biotic and abiotic treatments. This paper establishes the foundation of future research on the physiological function of individual lotus nitrate transporters that can be very useful for the whole legume community. Since the processes of nodule formation, development and functioning are strongly affected by nitrate, this study underlines a possible involvement of nitrate transporters in these regulatory pathways.

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      HbCIPK2, a novel CBL-interacting protein kinase from halophyte Hordeum brevisubulatum, confers salt and osmotic stress tolerance (pages 1582–1600)

      RUIFEN LI, JUNWEN ZHANG, GUANGYU WU, HONGZHI WANG, YAJUAN CHEN and JIANHUA WEI

      Article first published online: 26 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02511.x

      Hordeum brevisubulatum is a valuable halophytic grass. To identify regulators and dissect the regulatory mechanisms for salt tolerance in H. brevisubulatum, we employed cDNA-AFLP technique to screen the differentially expressed fragments or genes in H. brevisubulatum seedling roots under salt stress, in which HbCIPK2 was identified to significantly respond to abiotic stresses, including NaCl. Constitutive over-expression of HbCIPK2 in Arabidopsis enhanced salt tolerance and rescued the salt sensitivity of sos2 knockouts, and over-expressing plants were found to have reduced shoot Na+ and increase K+ in the root, and improve the osmotic stress tolerance. HbCIPK2 from halophyte may function in different ways compared with CIPKs in glycophytes such as Arabidopsis, implying novel HbCIPK2-mediated salt signaling pathways or networks in halophyte H. brevisubulatum.

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      Hydraulic limits preceding mortality in a piñon–juniper woodland under experimental drought (pages 1601–1617)

      JENNIFER A. PLAUT, ENRICO A. YEPEZ, JUDSON HILL, ROBERT PANGLE, JOHN S. SPERRY, WILLIAM T. POCKMAN and NATE G. MCDOWELL

      Article first published online: 24 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02512.x

      We present the first field assessment of the physiological mechanisms leading to drought-related mortality in a piñon-juniper (Pinus edulis-Juniperus monosperma) woodland. After one year of 45% precipitation removal, 67% of droughted mature piñon died with concomitant infestation by bark beetles (Ips confusus) and bluestain fungus (Ophiostoma spp.); no mortality occurred in juniper or in control piñon. Safety margins from hydraulic failure were much smaller in piñon, especially droughted piñon, which also experienced chronically low hydraulic conductance and a seven-month period of near-zero gas exchange, versus two months for surviving piñon. Hydraulic limits to gas exchange, not hydraulic failure per se, promoted drought-related mortality in piñon pine.

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      Enhanced formation of aerenchyma and induction of a barrier to radial oxygen loss in adventitious roots of Zea nicaraguensis contribute to its waterlogging tolerance as compared with maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) (pages 1618–1630)

      TOMOMI ABIKO, LUKASZ KOTULA, KATSUHIRO SHIONO, AL IMRAN MALIK, TIMOTHY DAVID COLMER and MIKIO NAKAZONO

      Article first published online: 1 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02513.x

      Zea nicaraguensis (teosinte), a wild relative of maize (Zea mays ssp. mays), has a reputation for being waterlogging tolerant. We show that Z. nicaraguensis is superior to maize in transporting O2 from shoots to root tips due to formation of a large amount of aerenchyma and also a tight barrier to radial oxygen loss (ROL) in roots. Low rates of ROL from basal zones in roots of Z. nicaraguensis were associated with strong suberization and lignification of external cell layers. Our findings have significance for the improvement of waterlogging tolerance in maize, as Z. nicaraguensis can be hybridized with maize.

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      Structural assessment of the impact of environmental constraints on Arabidopsis thaliana leaf growth: a 3D approach (pages 1631–1646)

      NATHALIE WUYTS, CATHERINE MASSONNET, MYRIAM DAUZAT and CHRISTINE GRANIER

      Article first published online: 15 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02514.x

      Three-dimensional imaging was applied in a study of Arabidopsis thaliana leaf growth to determine leaf thickness and the cellular organisation of mesophyll tissues under moderate soil water deficit and two light conditions. The relationship between leaf surface area and thickness was not conserved, and responses in epidermal and palisade mesophyll tissues differed from those in spongy mesophyll tissue. By means of leaf functional mutants, it was shown that stomatal conductance does not have a major effect on leaf size or cellular organisation.

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      Simple models for stomatal conductance derived from a process model: cross-validation against sap flux data (pages 1647–1662)

      THOMAS N. BUCKLEY, TARRYN L. TURNBULL and MARK A. ADAMS

      Article first published online: 4 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02515.x

      Representation of stomatal physiology in models of plant-atmosphere gas exchange is minimal, and direct application of process-based models is limited by difficulty of parameter estimation. We derived simple models of stomatal conductance from a recent process-based model and tested them by cross validation against sap flux data. The derived models – which are driven by irradiance and evaporative demand and have 2-4 parameters that represent sums and products of biophysical parameters in the process model – reproduced 83-89% of observed variance in sap flux. We show how the models' parameters can accommodate experimental knowledge about species differences in the physiological basis of responses to long term environmental change.

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      Salt-induced chloroplast protrusion is the process of exclusion of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from chloroplasts into cytoplasm in leaves of rice (pages 1663–1671)

      KOJI YAMANE, SHIRO MITSUYA, MITSUTAKA TANIGUCHI and HIROSHI MIYAKE

      Article first published online: 3 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02516.x

      Chloroplast protrusions (CPs) are often observed under environmental stresses, but their role has not been elucidated. We examined the formation and fate of CP by electron microscopy and immuno-electron microscopy in rice plants under salinity. We suggest that CP is one of the pathways of Rubisco exclusion from chloroplasts into the vacuole for degradation.

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      Novel natural alleles at FLC and LVR loci account for enhanced vernalization responses in Arabidopsis thaliana (pages 1672–1684)

      EDUARDO SÁNCHEZ-BERMEJO, BELÉN MÉNDEZ-VIGO, F. XAVIER PICÓ, JOSÉ M. MARTÍNEZ-ZAPATER and CARLOS ALONSO-BLANCO

      Article first published online: 9 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02518.x

      Although vernalization is likely to be involved in plant climatic adaptation, the molecular bases of its natural quantitative variation still remain mostly unknown. QTL analysis of the enhanced vernalization response shown by the Ll-0 wild genotype of Arabidopsis thaliana identified the large effect loci FRI, FLC and HUA2, as well as two new small effect loci named as Llagostera vernalization response (LVR) 1 and 2. In addition, molecular and environmental characterization of the FLC allele from Ll-0 revealed Del(-57), a deletion in the untranslated leader, as a potential cis-regulatory FLC polymorphism that might confer climatic adaptation by increasing vernalization sensitivity.

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      Modulation of chlorophyll biosynthesis by water stress in rice seedlings during chloroplast biogenesis (pages 1685–1703)

      VIJAY K. DALAL and BAISHNAB C. TRIPATHY

      Article first published online: 17 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02520.x

      Water stress is the most prevalent stress frequently encountered by plants due to scanty rainfall that substantially alters plant metabolism i.e. plant growth, photosynthesis and yield. The present study reveals that chlorophyll biosynthesis is substantially down-regulated due to water stress during early seedling development. Chlorophyll biosynthesis is down-regulated at a very early step i.e. 5-aminolevulinic acid synthesis, due to reduced gene expression of enzymes of chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway under stress conditions that prevents the accumulation of harmful singlet oxygen generating tetrapyrroles. Down-regulation of chlorophyll content could act as a regulatory mechanism in plants to resist drought. Minimization of light absorption by reduced amounts of chlorophyll would down-regulate the electron transport to reduce the ROS production. The increased gene expression and protein abundance of glutamate semialdehyde aminotransferase suggest that it may play a crucial role in tolerance to abiotic stresses. Our results further demonstrate that the Shibata shift, observed during very early light-induced chloroplast development is impaired and chloroplast biogenesis is substantially down-regulated due to water stress.

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