Plant, Cell & Environment

Cover image for Vol. 36 Issue 1

January 2013

Volume 36, Issue 1

Pages 1–247

  1. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Original Articles
    1. Nitric oxide promotes MPK6-mediated caspase-3-like activation in cadmium-induced Arabidopsis thaliana programmed cell death (pages 1–15)

      YUN YE, ZHE LI and DA XING

      Article first published online: 14 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02543.x

      The aim of this paper was to investigate a possible NO signaling pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to ubiquitous toxic heavy metal Cd2+. We monitored caspase-3-like activation and NO production in vivo and then found that Cd2+-induced endogenous NO production contributed to caspase-3-like activation. Furthermore, we focused on investigating NO signaling pathway, our results indicated that NO promotes caspase-3-like activation via up-regulation of MPK6 activity.

    2. Inactivation of thioredoxin f1 leads to decreased light activation of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and altered diurnal starch turnover in leaves of Arabidopsis plants (pages 16–29)

      INA THORMÄHLEN, JOACHIM RUBER, EDDA VON ROEPENACK-LAHAYE, SVEN-MATTHIAS EHRLICH, VINCENT MASSOT, CHRISTINE HÜMMER, JUSTYNA TEZYCKA, EMMANUELLE ISSAKIDIS-BOURGUET and PETER GEIGENBERGER

      Article first published online: 26 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02549.x

      In this report, the role of chloroplast thioredoxin f (Trx f) in regulating ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) and starch synthesis has been investigated by using both biochemical and genetic approaches. Analyses of Arabidopsis knockout mutants show that a decrease in Trx f leads to a decrease in redox-activation of AGPase and starch accumulation in the light, while sucrose-dependent redox activation of AGPase in the dark remains unaffected. Metabolite profiling by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to pinpoint more global metabolic changes in response to a decrease in Trx f level. Results provide in planta evidence for the role played by Trx f in the light-activation of AGPase and photosynthetic carbon partitioning in plants.

    3. Induction of jasmonate signalling regulators MaMYC2s and their physical interactions with MaICE1 in methyl jasmonate-induced chilling tolerance in banana fruit (pages 30–51)

      MING-LEI ZHAO, JUN-NING WANG, WEI SHAN, JIA-GENG FAN, JIAN-FEI KUANG, KE-QIANG WU, XUE-PING LI, WEI-XIN CHEN, FANG-YUAN HE, JIAN-YE CHEN and WANG-JIN LU

      Article first published online: 21 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02551.x

      Two MYC2 genes, MaMYC2a and MaMYC2b, and one homolog of the inducer of the CBF gene, MaICE1 were isolated and characterized from banana fruit. MaMYC2a and MaMYC2b were induced rapidly following MeJA treatment during cold storage. MaMYC2s interacted with MaICE1, thus our work provides strong evidence that MaMYC2 is involved in MeJA-induced chilling tolerance in banana fruit through physically interacting and likely functionally coordinating with MaICE1, revealing a novel mechanism for ICE1 in response to cold stress as well as during development of induced chilling tolerance.

    4. Involvement of ASR genes in aluminium tolerance mechanisms in rice (pages 52–67)

      RAFAEL AUGUSTO ARENHART, JULIO CÉSAR DE LIMA, MARCELO PEDRON, FABRICIO E. L. CARVALHO, JOAQUIM ALBENISIO GOMES DA SILVEIRA, SILVIA BARCELOS ROSA, ANDREIA CAVERZAN, CLAUDIA M. B. ANDRADE, MARIANA SCHÜNEMANN, ROGÉRIO MARGIS and MÁRCIA MARGIS-PINHEIRO

      Article first published online: 4 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02553.x

      A number of studies have demonstrated that rice plants achieve aluminum (Al) tolerance through a novel mechanism that can be independent of root tip Al exclusion. Here we analyzed changes in gene expression of the rice ASR (Abscisic acid, stress and ripening) gene family in response to Al treatment. Transgenic knockdown plants for ASR genes presented increased Al susceptibility. Our results suggest that the ASR5 protein acts as a transcription factor regulating the expression of genes that collectively protect rice cells from aluminum-induced stress responses.

    5. The shoot regeneration capacity of excised Arabidopsis cotyledons is established during the initial hours after injury and is modulated by a complex genetic network of light signalling (pages 68–86)

      BLAIR NAMETH, STEVEN J. DINKA, STEVEN P. CHATFIELD, ADAM MORRIS, JENNY ENGLISH, DORRETT LEWIS, ROSALINDA ORO and MANISH N. RAIZADA

      Article first published online: 3 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02554.x

      Since its beginnings in the 1950s, in vitro plant regeneration has suffered from considerable variability, a phenomenon which has limited plant stem cell research and applied efforts towards gene transformation, propagation of viral-free crops in poor nations and propagation of horticultural, medicinal and forest plant species. By undertaking systematic testing of excised Arabidopsis cotyledon explants, we show that variability in plant tissue cultures may arise from a previously unappreciated source, the dosage and quality of light experienced by a tissue within the initial hours after it has been excised, combined with interactions with hormone supplements.

    6. Genotype differences in 13C discrimination between atmosphere and leaf matter match differences in transpiration efficiency at leaf and whole-plant levels in hybrid Populus deltoides ×nigra (pages 87–102)

      FAHAD RASHEED, ERWIN DREYER, BÉATRICE RICHARD, FRANCK BRIGNOLAS, PIERRE MONTPIED and DIDIER LE THIEC

      Article first published online: 4 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02556.x

      Transpiration efficiency (TE, i.e., the ratio between biomass accumulation / water use by plant transpiration) has the potential to become an interesting trait for poplar breeding. A large genetic diversity of TE has been assessed through the use of 13C isotope composition in leaves as a proxy. Here we confirm that this diversity in 13C is tightly correlated with differences in TE at leaf level, and also in whole-plant TE. Nevertheless, the relative range of TE values is much larger at whole-plant than at leaf level: this shows that processes related to carbon allocation at whole-plant level or to transpiration during night may contribute to the diversity of whole-plant TE.

    7. Elevated growth temperatures alter hydraulic characteristics in trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) seedlings: implications for tree drought tolerance (pages 103–115)

      DANIELLE A. WAY, JEAN-CHRISTOPHE DOMEC and ROBERT B. JACKSON

      Article first published online: 8 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02557.x

      We investigated the effect of elevated growth temperatures on hydraulic characteristics of aspen and used the SPA model to predict how the physiological changes we observed might affect tree water use in the face of realistic climate fluctuations. Warming increased aspen growth and altered hydraulic resistance and vulnerability to cavitation in a tissue-dependent manner, such that roots, stems and leaves showed different responses to elevated temperatures. Modeling results showed that aspen that developed at warmer conditions experienced more frequent, severe droughts and had lower water use efficiency than aspen that grew under current temperature regimes. These results indicate that climate warming may increase tree water use due to physiological acclimation of hydraulic and growth traits, which could increase tree susceptibility to drought in future climates.

    8. Timing of photoperiodic competency causes phenological mismatch in balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera L.) (pages 116–127)

      RAJU Y. SOOLANAYAKANAHALLY, ROBERT D. GUY, SALIM N. SILIM and MINGHUA SONG

      Article first published online: 12 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02560.x

      We studied variation in phenology in a range-wide collection of Populus balsamifera L. (balsam poplar), an important temperate-boreal hardwood, planted into two common gardens with different climate but similar photoperiod. Early bud flush caused mid- and high-latitude genotypes to cease height growth well before the summer solstice, reducing biomass accretion and favouring root growth. Shoots became competent to respond to photoperiod ∼5 weeks after flushing, which would normally be enough to prevent premature dormancy induction in spring, but may not be if flush dates advance by a few weeks.

    9. Metabolic origin of δ15N values in nitrogenous compounds from Brassica napus L. leaves (pages 128–137)

      PAUL P. G. GAUTHIER, MARLENE LAMOTHE, ALINE MAHÉ, GEMMA MOLERO, SALVADOR NOGUÉS, MICHAEL HODGES and GUILLAUME TCHERKEZ

      Article first published online: 12 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02561.x

      Still, little is known on the natural isotope composition (δ15N) in individual metabolites and on 14N/15N isotope fractionations in plant metabolism. This lack of knowledge impedes our current understanding of 15N-distribution among plant tissues and of relationships between environmental conditions and whole-plant δ15N values. In the present paper, we carried out δ15N analyses on several leaf fractions and individual metabolites by taking advantage of quite recent isotope ratio mass spectrometry techniques. Our study further compares δ15N values obtained in the dark with that in the light, and observed values with that predicted with a metabolic model.

    10. The role of effective leaf mixing length in the relationship between the δ18O of stem cellulose and source water across a salinity gradient (pages 138–148)

      PATRICIA V. ELLSWORTH, PATRICK Z. ELLSWORTH, WILLIAM T. ANDERSON and LEONEL S. L. STERNBERG

      Article first published online: 16 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02562.x

      This is a study of two potential obstacles to monitor sea level rise using oxygen isotope ratios of stem cellulose. Oxygen isotope ratios of stem cellulose did not record with a high fidelity changes in source water isotope ratios from ocean to freshwater across two coastal transects. Biochemical fractionations interfered with the oxygen isotope ratio of the stem water signal during its recording into the oxygen isotope ratio of stem cellulose in one of the transects. Changes in the leaf water oxygen isotopic enrichment between mangroves and freshwater plants interfered with the source water oxygen isotopic signal in the other transect. Further studies on the effects of salinity stress on biochemical and physiological oxygen isotope fractionation are necessary.

    11. Midday stomatal conductance is more related to stem rather than leaf water status in subtropical deciduous and evergreen broadleaf trees (pages 149–158)

      YONG-JIANG ZHANG, FREDERICK C. MEINZER, JIN-HUA QI, GUILLERMO GOLDSTEIN and KUN-FANG CAO

      Article first published online: 13 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02563.x

      The aim of this study was to understand the hydraulic determinants of midday gs, the coordination between leaf and stem hydraulics, and whether regulation of midday gs differed between deciduous and evergreen broadleaf tree species in a subtropical cloud forest of SW China. Midday gs was correlated positively with midday stem water potential across both groups of species, but not with midday leaf water potential. Species with higher stem hydraulic conductivity and greater daily reliance on stem hydraulic capacitance were able to maintain higher stem water potential and higher gs at midday. Deciduous species exhibited significantly higher stem hydraulic conductivity, greater reliance on stem capacitance, higher stem water potential and gs at midday than evergreen species.

    12. A diminution in ascorbate oxidase activity affects carbon allocation and improves yield in tomato under water deficit (pages 159–175)

      CÉCILE GARCHERY, NOÉ GEST, PHUC T. DO, MOFTAH ALHAGDOW, PIERRE BALDET, GUILLAUME MENARD, CHRISTOPHE ROTHAN, CAPUCINE MASSOT, HÉLÈNE GAUTIER, JAWAD AARROUF, ALISDAIR R. FERNIE and REBECCA STEVENS

      Article first published online: 18 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02564.x

      Ascorbate oxidase is an apoplastic enzyme which controls the redox state of the apoplastic ascorbate pool. RNA interference was used to decrease ascorbate oxidase activity in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). Fruit yield was increased in these lines under conditions where assimilate became limiting for wild type plants. Several alterations in the transgenic lines could contribute to the improved yield and favour transport of assimilate from leaves to fruits in the ascorbate oxidase lines.

    13. Post-translational regulation of acid invertase activity by vacuolar invertase inhibitor affects resistance to cold-induced sweetening of potato tubers (pages 176–185)

      MARIAN J. MCKENZIE, RONAN K. Y. CHEN, JOHN C. HARRIS, MATTHEW J. ASHWORTH and DAVID A. BRUMMELL

      Article first published online: 23 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02565.x

      The cold storage of potatoes can result in the accumulation of hexose reducing sugars, which upon frying or roasting of the tubers react with free asparagine to generate acrylamide, a probable carcinogen. This has become a serious public health concern. A primary control point for hexose sugar formation is the activity of vacuolar acid invertase. We show that acid invertase is controlled post-translationally by the expression of a vacuolar invertase inhibitor protein. Increasing the expression of this protein reduces cold sweetening, and lowers acrylamide production upon frying.

    14. Gene expression patterns underlying changes in xylem structure and function in response to increased nitrogen availability in hybrid poplar (pages 186–199)

      LENKA PLAVCOVÁ, UWE G. HACKE, ADRIANA M. ALMEIDA-RODRIGUEZ, ERYANG LI and CARL J. DOUGLAS

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02566.x

      In this paper we conducted a transcriptome-wide analysis of the developing xylem region of hybrid poplar in response to nitrogen fertilization in conjunction with a detailed characterization of the xylem anatomical and physiological phenotype. The results of this study enhance our knowledge of the effects of nitrogen availability on xylogenesis and provide us with gene candidates that might underlie xylem hydraulic and structural traits.

    15. C3 plants enhance rates of photosynthesis by reassimilating photorespired and respired CO2 (pages 200–212)

      FLORIAN A. BUSCH, TAMMY L. SAGE, ASAPH B. COUSINS and ROWAN F. SAGE

      Article first published online: 23 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02567.x

      The significance of this work is that it shows for the first time that plants using the C3 photosynthetic pathway have evolved a mechanism to efficiently trap photorespired CO2 and channel it back into the chloroplast, where it can be reassimilated by Rubisco. Thereby photosynthesis is enhanced by about 10% (current CO2) up to more than 30% (at low CO2 of the late Pleistocene). Widespread use of this mechanism in tropical C3 plants could explain why the diversity of the world's C3 flora, and dominance of terrestrial net primary productivity, was maintained during the Pleistocene, when atmospheric CO2 concentrations fell below 200 ppm.

    16. Shoot atmospheric contact is of little importance to aeration of deeper portions of the wetland plant Meionectes brownii; submerged organs mainly acquire O2 from the water column or produce it endogenously in underwater photosynthesis (pages 213–223)

      SARAH MEGHAN RICH, OLE PEDERSEN, MARTHA LUDWIG and TIMOTHY DAVID COLMER

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02568.x

      PARTIAL shoot submergence is considered less stressful than complete submergence of plants, as aerial contact allows gas exchange with the atmosphere. In-situ microelectrode studies of the wetland plant Meionectes brownii showed that O2 dynamics in the submerged stems and aquatic roots of partially-submerged plants were similar to those of completely-submerged plants, with internal O2 concentrations in both organs dropping to less than 5 kPa by dawn regardless of submergence level. Anatomy at the nodes and the relationship between tissue porosity and rates of O2 diffusion through stems were studied. Regardless of the presence of an aerial connection, the deeper portions of submerged organs sourced most of their O2 via inwards diffusion from the water column during the night, and endogenous production in underwater photosynthesis during the daytime.

    17. Identification of OsbHLH133 as a regulator of iron distribution between roots and shoots in Oryza sativa (pages 224–236)

      LU WANG, YINGHUI YING, REENA NARSAI, LINGXIAO YE, LUQING ZHENG, JINGLUAN TIAN, JAMES WHELAN and HUIXIA SHOU

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02569.x

      Under nutrient deficient conditions, plants must have a mechanism to retain the limited nutrient resource within the roots in order to maintain root growth. Genes encoding the proteins involved in this nutrient retention in roots are largely unknown. This research has identified a new genetic element, which balances Fe homeostasis between roots and shoots.

    18. Interaction of xylem and phloem during exudation and wound occlusion in Cucurbita maxima (pages 237–247)

      MATTHIAS R. ZIMMERMANN, JENS B. HAFKE, AART J. E. VAN BEL and ALEXANDRA C. U. FURCH

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02571.x

      Collection of cucurbit exudates from cut petioles has been a powerful tool for gaining knowledge on phloem-sap composition without full notion of the complex exudation mechanism. Only few publications explicitly mentioned that exudates were collected from the basal side of the cut which exudes more copiously than the apical side. This is surprising since only exudation from the apical side is supposedly driven by phloem-pressure gradients. Composition of carbohydrates and pH-values at both wounding sides are equal, whereas protein concentration is higher at the basal side. Apparently, exudation is far more complex than just the delivery of phloem sap. Xylem involvement is indicated by lower protein concentrations after elimination of root pressure. Moreover, dye was sucked into xylem vessels owing to relaxation of negative pressure after cutting. The lateral water efflux from the vessels increases turgor of surrounding cells including sieve elements. Simultaneously, detached parietal proteins (PP1/PP2) induce occlusion of sieve plates and cover wound surface. If root pressure is strong enough, pure xylem sap can be collected after removal of the occlusion plug at the wound surface. The present findings provide a mechanism of sap exudation in Cucurbita maxima, in which the contribution of xylem water is integrated.

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