Plant, Cell & Environment

Cover image for Vol. 36 Issue 10

October 2013

Volume 36, Issue 10

Pages 1751–1910

  1. Commentary

    1. Top of page
    2. Commentary
    3. Original Articles
    4. Erratum
  2. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Commentary
    3. Original Articles
    4. Erratum
    1. You have free access to this content
      Closing in on maximum yield of chlorophyll fluorescence using a single multiphase flash of sub-saturating intensity (pages 1755–1770)

      S. D. LORIAUX, T. J. AVENSON, J. M. WELLES, D. K. MCDERMITT, R. D. ECKLES, B. RIENSCHE and B. GENTY

      Article first published online: 26 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12115

      Estimation of the maximum chlorophyll fluorescence yield under illumination, or Fm′, by traditional single saturation pulse methodology is prone to underestimation error due to rapid turnover within photosystem II. To overcome this problem, we introduce a novel approach that determines the relationship between apparent Fm′ and variable irradiance within a single ∼1 second multiphase flash (MPF), from which estimates of Fm′ at infinite irradiance can be derived. Through experiments and simulations, we demonstrate the importance of using MPF methodology for improving the accuracy of various parameters derived from chlorophyll fluorescence measurements, in particular for integrating fluorescence and gas exchange measurements.

    2. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi native from a Mediterranean saline area enhance maize tolerance to salinity through improved ion homeostasis (pages 1771–1782)

      BEATRIZ ESTRADA, RICARDO AROCA, FRANS J. M. MAATHUIS, JOSÉ MIGUEL BAREA and JUAN MANUEL RUIZ-LOZANO

      Article first published online: 14 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12082

      We investigated whether native AMF isolated from a Mediterranean saline area can help maize plants to overcome the negative effects of salinity stress better than non-AM plants or plants inoculated with non-native AMF. Plants inoculated with the native AMF had the highest shoot dry biomass at all salinity levels and showed increased K+, reduced Na+ accumulation and enhanced K+/Na+ ratios in their tissues. For the first time, these effects have been correlated with regulation of ZmAKT2, ZmSOS1 and ZmSKOR genes expression in maize roots, contributing to K+ and Na+ homeostasis in plants colonized by native AMF.

    3. The influence of leaf-atmosphere NH3(g) exchange on the isotopic composition of nitrogen in plants and the atmosphere (pages 1783–1801)

      JENNIFER E. JOHNSON and JOSEPH A. BERRY

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12087

      While the distribution of nitrogen isotopes in the biosphere has the potential to offer insights into the past, present, and future dynamics of the nitrogen cycle, to date many of the patterns along the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum have eluded interpretation. Here, we describe a new approach for modeling isotope fractionation in complex systems, as well as a new model of nitrogen isotope fractionation during leaf-atmosphere NH3(g) exchange. The results suggest that this often overlooked mechanism contributes meaningfully to variation in the nitrogen isotopic composition of organic nitrogen in plants as well as NH3(g) in the atmosphere, and should be considered in analyses of the distribution of nitrogen isotopes at natural abundance and tracer levels.

    4. Starch metabolism and antiflorigenic signals modulate the juvenile-to-adult phase transition in Arabidopsis (pages 1802–1811)

      IANIS G. MATSOUKAS, ANDREA J. MASSIAH and BRIAN THOMAS

      Article first published online: 23 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12088

      Knowledge of how environment influences juvenility could help with crop scheduling in commercial horticulture, decrease time to flowering and reduce waste with resulting benefits for the environment through lower inputs and energy required per unit of marketable product.

      In the manuscript, using an experimental assay that allows the length of the juvenile phase to be estimated in response to floral competence, and several mutants impaired in different genetic pathways, we show that multiple inputs influence the timing of the juvenile-to-adult phase transition in Arabidopsis.

    5. Regulation and acclimation of leaf gas exchange in a piñon–juniper woodland exposed to three different precipitation regimes (pages 1812–1825)

      JEAN-MARC LIMOUSIN, CHRISTOPHER P. BICKFORD, LEE T. DICKMAN, ROBERT E. PANGLE, PATRICK J. HUDSON, AMANDA L. BOUTZ, NATHAN GEHRES, JESSICA L. OSUNA, WILLIAM T. POCKMAN and NATE G. MCDOWELL

      Article first published online: 28 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12089

      To investigate whether leaf gas-exchange rates and sensitivity to drought acclimate to precipitation regimes, we compared the seasonal variations of leaf gas-exchange in mature piñon pine and juniper across three different precipitation treatments: ambient precipitation, irrigation (+30% of ambient precipitation), and partial rainfall exclusion (−45%). Treatments significantly affected leaf water potential, stomatal conductance and photosynthesis for both isohydric piñon and anisohydric juniper. Despite their distinct drought resistance strategies, hydraulic limitation on leaf gas-exchange and acclimation to the precipitation regimes occurred in both species, leading to an intra-specific trade-off between maximum photosynthetic assimilation and resistance of photosynthesis to drought. This response will be most detrimental to the carbon balance of piñon under predicted increases in aridity in the southwestern USA.

    6. Ion gradients in xylem exudate and guttation fluid related to tissue ion levels along primary leaves of barley (pages 1826–1837)

      MAKIKO NAGAI, MIWA OHNISHI, TAKEO UEHARA, MUTSUMI YAMAGAMI, EIKO MIURA, MAI KAMAKURA, AKIRA KITAMURA, SHU-ICHI SAKAGUCHI, WATARU SAKAMOTO, TERUO SHIMMEN, HIDEHIRO FUKAKI, ROBERT J. REID, AKIO FURUKAWA and TETSURO MIMURA

      Article first published online: 8 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12090

      In this study, we show ion profiles in the xylem and leaf tissue, concerning with the physiological function of epithem cells of hydathode in ion metabolism in a barley primary leaf. Combination of physiological measurements of ion contents, visualization of cell functions and expression measurements of transporters along longitudinal leaf tissue suggested that a plant leaf has a new aspect involving with inorganic ion metabolism.

    7. Auxin and its transport play a role in plant tolerance to arsenite-induced oxidative stress in Arabidopsis thaliana (pages 1838–1849)

      APARNA KRISHNAMURTHY and BALA RATHINASABAPATHI

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12093

      Genetics of plant adaptations to arsenic stress are poorly understood. To probe plant responses to aresnite-induced oxidative stress, Arabidopsis thaliana wild type, and mutants impaired in auxin transport were studied. This research showed that auxin transport is important for plant tolerance to arsenite and auxin transporter AUX1 has a positive role on plant tolerance to arsenite via ROS mediated signaling.

    8. Ethylene limits abscisic acid- or soil drying-induced stomatal closure in aged wheat leaves (pages 1850–1859)

      LIN CHEN, IAN C. DODD, WILLIAM J. DAVIES and SALLY WILKINSON

      Article first published online: 18 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12094

      Although previous work has showed that leaf ageing reduced stomatal sensitivity to ABA (Atkinson et al. 1989; J. Exp Bot), study here is the first report which suggested that alterations in ethylene signalling are involved in this diminished response. Soil drying or ABA-induced stomatal closure of aged leaves was partly restored by pre-treating plants with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) which antagonizes ethylene receptors; or by inoculating soil around the roots with the rhizobacterium Variovorax paradoxus 5C-2 which has been shown that it can decrease concentrations of the immediate biosynthetic precursor of ethylene, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). Although old leaves showed similar ACC concentrations comparing to young leaves, they also showed a greater sensitivity of stomata to ethylene. Since old leaves continue to transpire despite lower photosynthetic rates (Atkinson et al. 1989; J. Exp Bot), our results suggest that management options to increase leaf water use efficiency and potentially crop water use efficiency, which may be of crucial importance when water supplies are limiting.

    9. Radial transport of salt and water in roots of the common reed (Phragmites australis Trin. ex Steudel) (pages 1860–1870)

      MICHAEL FRITZ and RUDOLF EHWALD

      Article first published online: 11 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12095

      The culms of the reed plant take up water and salt from brackish habitat water by fine laterals of the highly branched adventitious roots at the basal nodes. In this study it was found that the radial flux of water through these roots did not exert a true solvent drag to NaCl , thus indicating the absence of an effective hydraulic bypath through the apoplast. Results indicate further that the endodermis is the most significant barrier for radial apoplastic solute diffusion in the fine laterals, the main mechanism of NaCl -uptake from a saline environment. A high steady state concentration of NaCl in the xylem vessels of the fine lateral roots reduces the osmotic effect of the saline environment on water uptake.

    10. Association mapping for chilling tolerance in elite flint and dent maize inbred lines evaluated in growth chamber and field experiments (pages 1871–1887)

      ALEXANDER STRIGENS, NICLAS M. FREITAG, XAVIER GILBERT, CHRISTOPH GRIEDER, CHRISTIAN RIEDELSHEIMER, TOBIAS A. SCHRAG, RAINER MESSMER and ALBRECHT E. MELCHINGER

      Article first published online: 13 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12096

      The early development of maize plants in Western and Central Europe can be strongly impaired by the cold spells occurring during spring. Yet, selection for maize varieties with enhanced chilling tolerance is difficult due to climatic fluctuations and the sensitive response of maize plants to low temperatures. By performing high-resolution genome-wide association mapping in a diverse panel of maize inbred lines evaluated in controlled environments as well as in field experiments, we identified several genomic regions involved in chilling tolerance and early growth. Candidate genes frequently involved in signaling or gene expression regulation provide a key for understanding the complex mechanisms underlying chilling tolerance and this knowledge promises to facilitate breeding of chilling tolerant varieties with enhanced yield stability under unfavorable climatic conditions.

    11. Molecular evidence for phytosiderophore-induced improvement of iron nutrition of peanut intercropped with maize in calcareous soil (pages 1888–1902)

      HONGCHUN XIONG, YUSUKE KAKEI, TAKANORI KOBAYASHI, XIAOTONG GUO, MIKIO NAKAZONO, HIROKAZU TAKAHASHI, HIROMI NAKANISHI, HONGYUN SHEN, FUSUO ZHANG, NAOKO K. NISHIZAWA and YUANMEI ZUO

      Article first published online: 24 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12097

      • Intercropping of maize and peanut significantly improves iron nutrition of peanut in calcareous soils.
      • This work gives new insights on how Strategy I plants use Fe(III)–MAs from graminaceous plants at the molecular level.
      • The phytosiderophore deoxymugineic acid (DMA) was detected in the roots of intercropped peanuts and also the Fe(III)–DMA transporter AhYSL1 was identified in peanut roots.
      • Fe(III)–DMA dissolved by maize might be absorbed directly by neighboring peanuts in the peanut/maize intercropping system.
    12. Accurate measurement of optical properties of narrow leaves and conifer needles with a typical integrating sphere and spectroradiometer (pages 1903–1909)

      HIBIKI M. NODA, TAKESHI MOTOHKA, KAZUTAKA MURAKAMI, HIROYUKI MURAOKA and KENLO NISHIDA NASAHARA

      Article first published online: 15 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12100

      It was difficult to measure optical properties (reflectance and transmittance spectra) of narrow grass leaves and conifer needles by using a typical integrating sphere. We propose a new measurement protocol and calculation algorithms. The protocol does not damage sample leaves and is valid for various types of leaves, young leaves, mature green leaves and senescent leaves.

  3. Erratum

    1. Top of page
    2. Commentary
    3. Original Articles
    4. Erratum
    1. You have free access to this content
      Erratum (page 1910)

      Article first published online: 3 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12179

      This article corrects:

      Predictive modelling of complex agronomic and biological systems

      Vol. 36, Issue 9, 1700–1710, Article first published online: 4 JUL 2013

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