Plant, Cell & Environment

Cover image for Vol. 36 Issue 11

November 2013

Volume 36, Issue 11

Pages 1911–2070

  1. Commentary

    1. Top of page
    2. Commentary
    3. Opinion
    4. Original Articles
  2. Opinion

    1. Top of page
    2. Commentary
    3. Opinion
    4. Original Articles
    1. Deconstructing crop processes and models via identities (pages 1919–1925)

      JOHN R. PORTER and SVEND CHRISTENSEN

      Article first published online: 17 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12107

      This paper is important because it offers examples of how simulation models can be used to develop understanding and predict how crops respond to environmental factors. It also presents and utilises a new concept, the Kaya-Porter identity, as a means of deconstructing biological use efficiencies into component parts as a stimulus to new thinking, models and experiments in crop physiology.

      Corrected by:

      Erratum: Deconstructing crop processes and models via identities

      Vol. 36, Issue 12, 2229, Article first published online: 24 OCT 2013

  3. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Commentary
    3. Opinion
    4. Original Articles
    1. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi reduce growth and infect roots of the non-host plant Arabidopsis thaliana (pages 1926–1937)

      RITA S. L. VEIGA, ANTONELLA FACCIO, ANDREA GENRE, CORNÉ M. J. PIETERSE, PAOLA BONFANTE and MARCEL G. A. van der HEIJDEN

      Article first published online: 29 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12102

      The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is widespread throughout the plant kingdom but most terrestrial ecosystems also contain a considerable number of non-mycorrhizal plants. The interaction of such non-host plants with AM fungi is still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated whether the non-mycorrhizal plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the model organism for plant molecular biology and genetics, interacts with AM fungi. We demonstrate, for the first time, that the presence of fungal networks formed by the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis reduces A. thaliana growth by 50% or more. In addition, by using bright field, confocal and electronic microscopy we show that this fungus can colonize roots of A. thaliana, although arbuscules were never observed. These results reveal high susceptibility of A. thaliana to R. irregularis, suggesting that A. thaliana is a suitable model plant to study non-host/AM fungi interactions and the biological basis of AM incompatibility.

    2. Cutting xylem under tension or supersaturated with gas can generate PLC and the appearance of rapid recovery from embolism (pages 1938–1949)

      JAMES K. WHEELER, BRETT A. HUGGETT, ALENA N. TOFTE, FULTON E. ROCKWELL and N. MICHELE HOLBROOK

      Article first published online: 20 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12139

      The assumption that cutting samples under water preserves the state of embolism in the xylem is shown to be incorrect. Cutting stems under water while tension exists in the xylem can induce embolism, and the degree of induced embolism increases with xylem tension. Excising samples when the xylem fluid is supersaturated with gas, as for in-situ air-injection, can also result in embolism formed at the moment of excision. Both of these artifacts can generate the appearance of rapid recovery from embolism, driving diurnal patterns in PLC or apparent repair after air injection as the saturation state relaxes with time. This work calls into question the view that cavitation under typical transpiration-induced levels of xylem tension, and subsequent diurnal repair, is an adaptive hydraulic strategy common to many plants.

    3. Meristem temperature substantially deviates from air temperature even in moderate environments: is the magnitude of this deviation species-specific? (pages 1950–1960)

      ANDREAS SAVVIDES, WIM van IEPEREN, JANNEKE A. DIELEMAN and LEO F. M. MARCELIS

      Article first published online: 15 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12101

      Meristem temperature drives plant development but is hardly ever quantified. Instead, air temperature is usually used as its approximation. We provide evidence that meristem temperature can substantially deviate from air temperature, even under moderate environments in a species-specific way. This study indicates that for properly linking growth and development of plants to temperature in future applications, for instance in climate change scenarios studies, Tmeristem should be used instead of Tair, as a species-specific trait highly reliant on various environmental factors.

    4. Effects of drought on mesophyll conductance and photosynthetic limitations at different tree canopy layers (pages 1961–1980)

      F. JAVIER CANO, DAVID SÁNCHEZ-GÓMEZ, JESÚS RODRÍGUEZ-CALCERRADA, CHARLES R. WARREN, LUIS GIL and ISMAEL ARANDA

      Article first published online: 24 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12103

      Mesophyll conductance (gm) is now recognised as a key limitation of photosynthesis that should be incorporated into canopy-level models of C exchange. Variation in gm through the canopy of trees has been investigated, but we do not know if water stress affects equally gm of all canopy layers. We investigated limitations to photosynthesis at different heights in a mixed adult stand of Quercus petraea and Fagus sylvatica trees during a moderately dry summer. Drought-induced increases in stomatal limitations were largest in leaves from the top canopy, whereas drought-induced increases in mesophyll limitations were largest in leaves from the lowest canopy.

    5. Analysis of cytosolic isocitrate dehydrogenase and glutathione reductase 1 in photoperiod-influenced responses to ozone using Arabidopsis knockout mutants (pages 1981–1991)

      ATA ALLAH DGHIM, AMNA MHAMDI, MARIE-NOËLLE VAULTIER, MARIE-PAULE HASENFRATZ-SAUDER, DIDIER LE THIEC, PIERRE DIZENGREMEL, GRAHAM NOCTOR and YVES JOLIVET

      Article first published online: 24 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12104

      The present report reveals a significant influence for growth day length conditions in determining the phenotypic outcome of Arabidopsis exposed to O3. Loss of cytosolic NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase function (knockout icdh mutant) did not markedly affect the response to O3, likely reflecting redundancy with other cytosolic NADPH-producing enzymes. Unlike icdh, a knockout mutant for glutathione reductase 1 (GR1) strongly affected the response by decreasing O3-triggered lesions, salicylic acid accumulation and induction of PR1. Thus, the GR1-glutathione system seems to play novel signalling roles during ozone exposure.

    6. RNAseq-based transcriptome analysis of Lactuca sativa infected by the fungal necrotroph Botrytis cinerea (pages 1992–2007)

      KAAT DE CREMER, JANICK MATHYS, CHRISTINE VOS, LUTZ FROENICKE, RICHARD W. MICHELMORE, BRUNO P A. CAMMUE and BARBARA DE CONINCK

      Article first published online: 26 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12106

      This study includes an extended RNAseq analysis of the locally induced defence responses in leaves of lettuce after inoculation with Botrytis cinerea, an economically important pathogen affecting many dicot plant species. To our knowledge, this is the first reported quantitative transcriptomic study of lettuce, which was possible after the recent unravelling of the lettuce genome. The observed high number of differentially expressed genes allowed us to classify them according to the biological pathways indicating the induction of secondary metabolism, with the phenylpropanoid pathway and terpenoid biosynthesis among the most pronounced responses. Subsequent qRT-PCR-based gene expression analysis on a limited set of genes resulting from our RNAseq-study revealed a high similarity in (i) the response in locally infected versus systemic leaves and (ii) in the induction of similar pathways during compatible interactions of lettuce with necrotrophic versus biotrophic pathogens.

    7. The unconventional P-loop NTPase OsYchF1 and its regulator OsGAP1 play opposite roles in salinity stress tolerance (pages 2008–2020)

      MING-YAN CHEUNG, MAN-WAH LI, YUK-LIN YUNG, CHAO-QING WEN and HON-MING LAM

      Article first published online: 24 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12108

      Using the transgenic Arabidopsis and transgenic BY-2 cell systems, we showed that OsYchF1 plays a negative role in salinity stress response, probably via suppression of the anti-oxidation enzymatic activities, resulting in lipid peroxidation and accumulation of ROS. Its interaction partner OsGAP1 plays an opposite role. We also demonstrated the homologue of OsYchF1 and OsGAP1 in Arabidopsis thaliana (AtYchF1 and AtGAP1, respectively) may play similar roles as their rice counterparts. Therefore, our works have added new dimensions to the functional roles of plant YchF proteins and their regulators.

    8. Natural variation of salinity response, population structure and candidate genes associated with salinity tolerance in perennial ryegrass accessions (pages 2021–2033)

      JINCHI TANG, XIAOQING YU, NA LUO, FANGMING XIAO, JAMES J. CAMBERATO and YIWEI JIANG

      Article first published online: 1 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12112

      Exploration of natural variation in salinity response of plants facilitates the analysis of gene and trait association. Three population structures were identified in 56 accessions of perennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L.) accounting for 11% of phenotypic trait variations under 300 mM NaCl treatment. Significant associations were found between LpNHX1 and leaf K + / Na + under both control and salinity stress after controlling population structures. These results indicate allelic variation in LpNHX1 may affect salinity tolerance of perennial ryegrass.

    9. Long-term ammonium nutrition of Arabidopsis increases the extrachloroplastic NAD(P)H/NAD(P)+ ratio and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species level in leaves but does not impair photosynthetic capacity (pages 2034–2045)

      ANNA PODGÓRSKA, KATARZYNA GIECZEWSKA, KATARZYNA ŁUKAWSKA-KUŹMA, ALLAN G. RASMUSSON, PER GARDESTRÖM and BOŻENA SZAL

      Article first published online: 6 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12113

      Ammonium nutrition has been suggested to be associated with alterations in the oxidation-reduction state of leaf cells. Herein, we show that ammonium nutrition in Arabidopsis thaliana increases leaf NAD(P)H/NAD(P)+ ratio, reactive oxygen species content, and accumulation of biomolecules oxidized by free radicals. We also showed that ammonium nutrition changes mitochondrial electron transport chain activity, increasing mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production. Our results indicate that the functional impairment associated with ammonium nutrition is mainly associated with redox reactions outside the chloroplast.

    10. From flower to seed: identifying phenological markers and reliable growth functions to model reproductive development in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (pages 2046–2058)

      JOSE A. CLAVIJO MICHELANGELI, MEHUL BHAKTA, SALVADOR A. GEZAN, KENNETH J. BOOTE and C EDUARDO VALLEJOS

      Article first published online: 12 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12114

      The lack of dependable morphological indicators for developmental transitions during seed growth has hindered modeling work in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). This study presents a mathematical analysis of several key reproductive growth and development traits for the common bean. Reliable morphological indicators for the onset and end of the rapid seed growth phase were identified, expanding existing developmental indices. Previously undocumented differences between genotypes of distinct genepools suggest broad genetic variation and independent genetic control of pod and seed growth dynamics.

    11. Peribacteroid space acidification: a marker of mature bacteroid functioning in Medicago truncatula nodules (pages 2059–2070)

      OLIVIER PIERRE, GILBERT ENGLER, JULIE HOPKINS, FRÉDÉRIC BRAU, ERIC BONCOMPAGNI and DIDIER HÉROUART

      Article first published online: 17 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12116

      In Medicago truncatula / Sinorhizobium meliloti symbiotic nodules, we measured in vivo, using pH sensitive ratiometric probe, the pH of peribacteroid space (PBS) during the whole symbiotic process. We observed a progressive acidification of the PBS from zone II to zone III. Furthermore, PBS acidification and nodule functioning were disrupted by various treatments including abiotic stresses, symbiosis defective strains and pharmacological inhibitors.

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