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Plant, Cell & Environment

Cover image for Vol. 36 Issue 2

February 2013

Volume 36, Issue 2

Pages 249–501

  1. Opinion

    1. Top of page
    2. Opinion
    3. Original Articles
    4. Commentary
    5. Erratum
    1. You have free access to this content
      You're so vein: bundle sheath physiology, phylogeny and evolution in C3 and C4 plants (pages 249–261)

      HOWARD GRIFFITHS, GEORGE WELLER, LYDIA F. M. TOY and ROSS J. DENNIS

      Version of Record online: 20 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02585.x

      The physiological role of the Bundle Sheath in C3 lineages which gave rise to the C4 pathway is used to suggest factors which led to the origins, function and selective advantages of the BS in C3 lineages. Using a combination of published and original anatomical data, enhanced Bundle Sheath development occurs prior to reduced Inter Vein Distance (IVD) in the C3 lineages giving rise to C4 grasses (the ‘PACMAD’ clade). The global distribution of species defines the C3 to C4 progression in terms of the Aridity Index, consistent with a role in maintaining of leaf hydraulic conductance and cavitation repair as drivers for Bundle Sheath proliferation and the basis for C4 pathway evolution.

  2. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Opinion
    3. Original Articles
    4. Commentary
    5. Erratum
    1. You have free access to this content
      Optimal stomatal conductance in relation to photosynthesis in climatically contrasting Eucalyptus species under drought (pages 262–274)

      ARNAUD HÉROULT, YAN-SHIH LIN, AIMEE BOURNE, BELINDA E. MEDLYN and DAVID S. ELLSWORTH

      Version of Record online: 7 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02570.x

      In this study, we investigated species stomatal behaviour in relation to climate of origin and drought in a common-garden study of Eucalyptus species of different origins, and studied how optimal stomatal functioning is related to plant hydraulic architecture. We found a strong link between stomatal behaviour and plant hydraulic functioning that is related to long-standing theories of stomatal optimisation in plants from different climates. We believe that the structural-functional relationships underlying the coupling of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance are likely to move the field forward towards better parameterisations of drought responses of gas exchange. The study has significance ranging from leaf-level to whole-plant scales, for large-scale dynamic vegetation modelling, and for identifying traits for species success for plantations in dry climates.

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      Salt stress aggravates boron toxicity symptoms in banana leaves by impairing guttation (pages 275–287)

      OR SHAPIRA, YAIR ISRAELI, URI SHANI and AMNON SCHWARTZ

      Version of Record online: 7 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02572.x

      In banana leaves, the transport of water and solutes from the xylem of the veins to the mesophyll and epidermis is mediated by the vascular bundle sheath tissue, in analogy to the endodermis of the root. As a result molecules such as B and Mn, which may reach the lamina via the xylem sap at higher concentrations are prevented from accumulating in the mesophyll and remain confined to the vascular system. Some of the excess B may accumulate in the margins of the lamina, around the vascular bundle that lucks a complete bundle sheath. But most of the excess B will be released from the lamina daily by guttation. Guttation literally “cleans unwanted” molecules from the xylem vessels.

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      Hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide mediated cold- and dehydration-induced myo-inositol phosphate synthase that confers multiple resistances to abiotic stresses (pages 288–299)

      JIALI TAN, CONGYING WANG, BIN XIANG, RUIHONG HAN and ZHENFEI GUO

      Version of Record online: 1 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02573.x

      MfMIPS1 transcript was induced in response to cold, dehydration and salt stress, while MIPS transcript and myo-inositol were maintained longer and at higher level in M. falcata than in M. sativa during cold acclimation. MfMIPS1 transcript was induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO), but not responsive to abscisic acid (ABA). H2O2 and NO are involved in regulation of MfMIPS1 expression by cold and dehydration, but not by salt. Overexpression of MfMIPS1 in tobacco increased MIPS activity and levels of myo-inositol, galactinol, and raffinose, resulting in enhanced resistance to chilling, drought, and salt stresses in transgenic tobacco plants.

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      Overexpression of Arabidopsis acyl-CoA-binding protein ACBP2 enhances drought tolerance (pages 300–314)

      ZHI-YAN DU, MO-XIAN CHEN, QIN-FANG CHEN, SHI XIAO and MEE-LEN CHYE

      Version of Record online: 8 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02574.x

      Arabidopsis thaliana acyl-CoA-binding protein 2 (ACBP2) is a stress-responsive protein that is also important in embryogenesis. ACBP2 was observed to be induced by ABA and drought treatment, and placed a positive role in abscisic acid (ABA) signaling during seed germination, seedling development and drought response.

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      Antagonism between herbivore-induced plant volatiles and trichomes affects tritrophic interactions (pages 315–327)

      JIANING WEI, LIUHUA YAN, QIN REN, CHUANYOU LI, FENG GE and LE KANG

      Version of Record online: 8 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02575.x

      Trichome-based tomato resistance has long been suggested as an environmentally friendly insect-pest management strategy. However, the effect of this direct plant defence trait on the efficacy of indirect defence, such as herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs), remains largely unexplored. This study provides strong evidence that antagonism occurs between HIPVs and trichomes in an important crop tomato plant. This finding is essential for the development of trichome-based behavior-manipulated pest management strategies.

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      Arabidopsis thaliana ASN2 encoding asparagine synthetase is involved in the control of nitrogen assimilation and export during vegetative growth (pages 328–342)

      LAURE GAUFICHON, CÉLINE MASCLAUX-DAUBRESSE, GUILLAUME TCHERKEZ, MICHÈLE REISDORF-CREN, YUKIKO SAKAKIBARA, TOSHIHARU HASE, GILLES CLÉMENT, JEAN-CHRISTOPHE AVICE, OLIVIER GRANDJEAN, ANNE MARMAGNE, STÉPHANIE BOUTET-MERCEY, MARIANNE AZZOPARDI, FABIENNE SOULAY and AKIRA SUZUKI

      Version of Record online: 5 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02576.x

      This work demonstrates the specific functions of ASN2 encoding asparagine synthetase in Arabidopsis thaliana at a vegetative phase. ASN2 mediates assimilation of ammonium into asparagine within the phloem companion cells for use to nitrogen translocation in Arabidopsis. The lack of asparagine due to the ASN2 disruption causes an alteration of nitrogen distribution into amino acids in both leaves and phloem. The delayed senescence of the ASN2-deficient Arabidopsis lines provides evidence for the ASN2-mediated synthesis of asparagine that serves as a specific amide for the nitrogen remobilization.

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      Laser microdissection of grapevine leaf phloem infected by stolbur reveals site-specific gene responses associated to sucrose transport and metabolism (pages 343–355)

      SIMONETTA SANTI, SIMONE GRISAN, ALESSANDRO PIERASCO, FEDERICA DE MARCO and RITA MUSETTI

      Version of Record online: 7 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02577.x

      Bois Noir is an emergent disease of grapevine that has been associated to a phytoplasma belonging to the XII-A stolbur group. Since the molecular interactions between the pathogen and the plant host are still largely unclear, phloem tissue was isolated from healthy and infected leaves by means of Laser Microdissection and expression of plant genes involved in sucrose transport and metabolism examined. Site-specific expression analysis revealed inhibition of sucrose transport and possibly phloem loading, together with increased sucrose cleavage activity. These metabolic changes strongly suggest the establishment of a phytoplasma-induced switch from carbohydrate source to sink.

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      Reciprocal grafting separates the roles of the root and shoot in sex-related drought responses in Populus cathayana males and females (pages 356–364)

      YING HAN, YUHUA WANG, HAO JIANG, MAOLIN WANG, HELENA KORPELAINEN and CHUNYANG LI

      Version of Record online: 7 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02578.x

      In this study, we reciprocally grafted rootstocks and shoot scions from a drought tolerant P. cathayana male and drought sensitive P. cathayana female. Our results showed that the sensitivity of P. cathayana males and females to water stress is primarily driven by mechanisms localized in the roots, without major dependence on the shoot genotype. Besides, grafting female shoot scion onto male rootstock is a very effective means to improve water stress resistance in P. cathayana females.

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      The efficiency of C4 photosynthesis under low light conditions in Zea mays, Miscanthus x giganteus and Flaveria bidentis (pages 365–381)

      NEREA UBIERNA, WEI SUN, DAVID M. KRAMER and ASAPH B. COUSINS

      Version of Record online: 15 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02579.x

      We described the response of C4 photosynthetic efficiency to light. Zea mays, Miscanthus x giganteus and Flaveria bidentis used different strategies to optimize photosynthesis and minimize leakiness (ϕ) over a range of PARs, including low light. There was a small increase in ϕ from high (0.13) to low (0.27) PAR. Previous reports of very large ϕ (0.6 to 0.9) under limiting PARs might have originated from invalid simplifications of theoretical models of Δ.

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      High relative air humidity and continuous light reduce stomata functionality by affecting the ABA regulation in rose leaves (pages 382–392)

      LOUISE E. ARVE, MESERET T. TERFA, HANS RAGNAR GISLERØD, JORUNN E. OLSEN and SISSEL TORRE

      Version of Record online: 16 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02580.x

      High air humidity (RH) is commonly found in greenhouses, plastic tunnels and tissue culture propagation systems. The high RH induce stomata that have difficulties to close when exposed to stimuli's that normally lead to closure (drought, darkness). This work was performed to gain a better understanding on how the hormone abscisic acid (ABA) and its metabolites are regulated under moderate and high air humidity regimes. Our results provide new insight into the regulation of ABA and show that β-glucosidase is a key enzyme regulating the ABA pool in rose plants under different humidities and photoperiods.

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      Non-pathogenic rhizobacteria interfere with the attraction of parasitoids to aphid-induced plant volatiles via jasmonic acid signalling (pages 393–404)

      ANA PINEDA, ROXINA SOLER, BERHANE T. WELDEGERGIS, MPOKI M. SHIMWELA, JOOP J. A. VAN LOON and MARCEL DICKE

      Version of Record online: 13 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02581.x

      While recent studies are unraveling the mechanisms of how beneficial microbes interact with herbivorous insects, it remains unknown how plants mediate the interactions between soil microbes and carnivorous insects. Using Arabidopsis thaliana and the aphid Myzus persicae, we evaluate the underlying mechanisms involved in the plant-mediated interaction between the non-pathogenic rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens and the parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae, by combining ecological, chemical and molecular approaches. Our data shows that by modifying the blend of aphid-induced plant volatiles that depend on the JA-signaling pathway, non-pathogenic rhizobacteria interfere with the attraction of parasitoids of leaf herbivores.

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      Drought resistance in early and late secondary successional species from a tropical dry forest: the interplay between xylem resistance to embolism, sapwood water storage and leaf shedding (pages 405–418)

      FERNANDO PINEDA-GARCÍA, HORACIO PAZ and FREDERICK C. MEINZER

      Version of Record online: 13 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02582.x

      In this study we characterized patterns of variation in the resistance to soil drought among tropical dry forest tree seedlings, and tested whether risk of drought differs across sites of different successional stages and whether early and late-successional species differ in resistance to experimentally imposed soil drought. Although early successional sites were warmer and drier than mature forest, early and late-successional species did not differ in their resistance to soil drought, indicating multiple strategies within each group for coping with drought. We detected broad variation in resistance to soil drought among species and a trade-off between xylem resistance to embolism and leaf loss, apparently mediated by variation in sapwood water storage capacity; high sapwood water storage capacity seemed to uncouple seedling water status from that of the soil during several weeks of soil drying. Overall, resistance to soil drought of a given species resulted from the interplay between variation in xylem vulnerability to embolism, reliance on sapwood water reserves and leaf area reduction.

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      Sixteen years of winter stress: an assessment of cold hardiness, growth performance and survival of hybrid poplar clones at a boreal planting site (pages 419–428)

      STEFAN G. SCHREIBER, ANDREAS HAMANN, UWE G. HACKE and BARB R. THOMAS

      Version of Record online: 16 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02583.x

      Boreal planting environments pose special challenges to the long-term survival and productivity of forest plantations. Here, we studied and evaluated the effect of frequent freeze-thaw and extreme cold events on growth and survival of 47 hybrid poplars in a long-term field experiment. We found that narrower vessel diameters reduced freezing-induced embolism and are correlated with superior productivity after 16 growing seasons, whereas traits related to phenology and cold hardiness cannot explain survival and growth performance at our planting site. We conclude that vessel diameter is an essential adaptive trait to ensure long-term productivity of hybrid poplars in boreal planting environments.

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      Metabolic profiling of the methylerythritol phosphate pathway reveals the source of post-illumination isoprene burst from leaves (pages 429–437)

      ZIRU LI and THOMAS D. SHARKEY

      Version of Record online: 14 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02584.x

      Isoprene emission stops very rapidly when leaves are subjected to darkness but a short burst of isoprene is observed 10 min after imposing darkness. We measured the intermediates of the methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway that supplies the precursor for isoprene synthesis. We found that methylerythritol cyclodiphosphate (MEcDP) is not depleted when darkness is first imposed but disappears during the subsequent isoprene burst. Imposition of a nitrogen atmosphere also caused MEcDP to remain high while isoprene emission declined. We speculate on the importance of the role of reducing power in regulating the rate of isoprene emission.

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      Effects of altered α- and β-branch carotenoid biosynthesis on photoprotection and whole-plant acclimation of Arabidopsis to photo-oxidative stress (pages 438–453)

      ROSANNA CALIANDRO, KERSTIN A. NAGEL, BERND KASTENHOLZ, ROBERTO BASSI, ZHIRONG LI, KRISHNA K. NIYOGI, BARRY J. POGSON, ULRICH SCHURR and SHIZUE MATSUBARA

      Version of Record online: 22 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02586.x

      Functions of α- and β-branch carotenoids in photoprotection and whole-plant acclimation to photo-oxidative stress were studied in Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type and carotenoid mutants, lut2, lut5, npq1 and szl1npq1. We show that the composition of de-epoxidised α- and β-branch xanthophylls affects not only the intensity and kinetics of NPQ but also the ability and capacity of plants to adjust the maximal NPQ level during acclimation to stress conditions. Furthermore, the results highlight a role of the α- and β-branch carotenoids for whole-plant acclimation (regulation of leaf and root growth), not only leaf photoprotection, under photo-oxidative stress.

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      High-throughput two-dimensional root system phenotyping platform facilitates genetic analysis of root growth and development (pages 454–466)

      RANDY T. CLARK, ADAM N. FAMOSO, KEYAN ZHAO, JON E. SHAFF, ERIC J. CRAFT, CARLOS D. BUSTAMANTE, SUSAN R. MCCOUCH, DANIEL J. ANESHANSLEY and LEON V. KOCHIAN

      Version of Record online: 3 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02587.x

      The establishment of high-throughput, multipurpose phenotyping tools is essential as researchers continue to investigate the physiological and molecular networks involved in plant root system development and architecture. A novel phenotyping platform was designed to grow, capture, process and measure root systems using digital imaging. This platform facilitates the high-throughput phenotyping of root systems while also allowing the non-destructive measurement of unique and challenging root phenotypes. The whole platform or selected imaging and analysis tools within the platform can be generally applicable to a wide range of plant species and root growth studies.

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      Measured and modelled leaf and stand-scale productivity across a soil moisture gradient and a severe drought (pages 467–483)

      J. K. WRIGHT, M. WILLIAMS, G. STARR, J. MCGEE and R. J. MITCHELL

      Version of Record online: 12 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02590.x

      Our research addresses the effect of climate variability on longleaf pine forest processes. We show that the effects are complex because responses occur at a range of scales, from leaf to stand, and are modulated by soil conditions. In a combined measurement and modelling study, we quantified the effects of soil texture on leaf and stand production, and showed that stands with lower soil moisture availability (i.e. sandier soils) were more resistant to drought stress than more productive stands on wetter soils.

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      The reorganization of actin filaments is required for vacuolar fusion of guard cells during stomatal opening in Arabidopsis (pages 484–497)

      LI-JUAN LI, FEI REN, XIN-QI GAO, PENG-CHENG WEI and XUE-CHEN WANG

      Version of Record online: 13 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02592.x

      In this study, we report the relationship between the reorganization of actin filaments (AFs) and vacuolar fusion revealed in pharmacological experiments, and characterizing stomatal opening in actin-related protein 2 (arp2) and arp3 mutants. Our results show that cytochalasin-D-induced depolymerization or phalloidin-induced stabilization of AFs leads to an increase in small unfused vacuoles during stomatal opening in wild-type (WT) Arabidopsis plants. Light-induced stomatal opening is retarded and vacuolar fusion in guard cells is impaired in arp2 and arp3 mutants, in which the reorganization and the dynamic parameters of AFs are aberrant compared with those of the WT. In WT, AFs tightly surround the small separated vacuoles, forming a ring that encircles the boundary membranes of vacuoles partly fused during stomatal opening. In contrast, in the mutants, most AFs and actin patches accumulate abnormally around the nuclei of the guard cells, which probably further impair vacuolar fusion and retard stomatal opening. Our results suggest that the reorganization of AFs regulate the vacuolar fusion in guard cells during stomatal opening through their co-localization and interplay with the vacuolar membrane.

  3. Commentary

    1. Top of page
    2. Opinion
    3. Original Articles
    4. Commentary
    5. Erratum
    1. You have free access to this content
  4. Erratum

    1. Top of page
    2. Opinion
    3. Original Articles
    4. Commentary
    5. Erratum
    1. You have free access to this content
      Erratum (page 501)

      Version of Record online: 3 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12044

      This article corrects:

      Virtual Special Issue (VSI) on whole-plant water transport

      Vol. 35, Issue 11, 1879–1880, Version of Record online: 8 OCT 2012

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