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Plant, Cell & Environment

Cover image for Vol. 36 Issue 4

April 2013

Volume 36, Issue 4

Pages 733–905

  1. Commentary

    1. Top of page
    2. Commentary
    3. Review
    4. Original Articles
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      Mesophyll conductance: internal insights of leaf carbon exchange (pages 733–735)

      HOWARD GRIFFITHS and BRENT R. HELLIKER

      Version of Record online: 5 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12075

  2. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Commentary
    3. Review
    4. Original Articles
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      Light acclimation, retrograde signalling, cell death and immune defences in plants (pages 736–744)

      STANISŁAW KARPIŃSKI, MAGDALENA SZECHYŃSKA-HEBDA, WERONIKA WITUSZYŃSKA and PAWEŁ BURDIAK

      Version of Record online: 1 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12018

      Recent results suggest that plant immune defence also depends on the absorption of excessive light energy and photorespiration. This review confronts the classical view of plant immune defence and light acclimation with recently published data, and it is attempting to answer the question of how biotic and abiotic signalling pathways interact with one another. Presented data indicate that LESION SIMULATING DISEASE 1 (LSD1) regulates and integrates light acclimation, cell death and immune defence responses.

  3. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Commentary
    3. Review
    4. Original Articles
    1. You have free access to this content
      Temperature response of carbon isotope discrimination and mesophyll conductance in tobacco (pages 745–756)

      JOHN R. EVANS and SUSANNE VON CAEMMERER

      Version of Record online: 3 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2012.02591.x

      A linear relationship between mesophyll conductance and temperature (15–40°C) was observed in tobacco leaves using carbon isotope discrimination measurements. Photorespiration made a significant contribution to the discrimination signal, contributing more than mesophyll conductance at 40°C. The increase in mesophyll conductance with increasing leaf temperature resulted in the drawdown in CO2 partial pressure between intercellular airspaces and the sites of carboxylation decreasing substantially at high temperature.

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      CaWRKY40, a WRKY protein of pepper, plays an important role in the regulation of tolerance to heat stress and resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum infection (pages 757–774)

      FENG-FENG DANG, YU-NA WANG, LU YU, THOMAS EULGEM, YAN LAI, ZHI-QIN LIU, XU WANG, AI-LIAN QIU, TING-XIU ZHANG, JING LIN, YAN-SHENG CHEN, DE-YI GUAN, HAN-YANG CAI, SHAO-LIANG MOU and SHUI-LIN HE

      Version of Record online: 16 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12011

      Using reverse genetic approaches we show that CaWRKY40 promotes immunity against the bacterial pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum and tolerance against heat stress in pepper. Our findings are novel, because biological roles of WRKY transcription factors from Solanaceae have so far only been peripherally described. In addition, we are providing evidence for a WRKY-dependent regulatory mechanism that simultaneously promotes resistance against pathogens and heat-stress. This new WRKY function is unique and likely constitutes an important adaptation of pepper to conditions of high temperatures associated with enhanced pathogen pressure.

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      Unravelling mitochondrial retrograde regulation in the abiotic stress induction of rice ALTERNATIVE OXIDASE 1 genes (pages 775–788)

      CHUN-RONG LI, DAN-DAN LIANG, JUAN LI, YONG-BO DUAN, HAO LI, YA-CHUN YANG, RUI-YING QIN, LI LI, PENG-CHENG WEI and JIAN-BO YANG

      Version of Record online: 19 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12013

      Mitochondrial retrograde regulation (MRR) is the transduction of mitochondrial signals to mediate nuclear gene expression. Here, we showed the stress induction of MRR model gene AOX1 could be attenuated by a Mitochondrial superoxide dismutase in rice. Our results suggested the plants could initiate MRR in response to abiotic stress.

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      Silencing of tomato RBOH1 and MPK2 abolishes brassinosteroid-induced H2O2 generation and stress tolerance (pages 789–803)

      WEN-FENG NIE, MENG-MENG WANG, XIAO-JIAN XIA, YAN-HONG ZHOU, KAI SHI, ZHIXIANG CHEN and JING QUAN YU

      Version of Record online: 19 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12014

      BRs are involved in the regulation of stress responses and the mechanisms remain largely unclear. BRs upregulated transcript of RBOH1, MPK1 and MPK2, apoplastic H2O2 accumulation and activation of MPK1/2. MPK2 played a more critical role than MPK1 in BR-induced apoplastic H2O2 accumulation. BR-induced tolerance and MPK1/2 activation were compromised in RBOH1-, MPK2- and MPK1/2-silenced plants but not in MPK1-silenced plants. BR-induced stress tolerance likely involved a positive feedback loop among RBOH1, H2O2 and MPK2, leading to sustained apoplastic accumulation of H2O2 and related signaling processes.

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      Mutants impaired in vacuolar metal mobilization identify chloroplasts as a target for cadmium hypersensitivity in Arabidopsis thaliana (pages 804–817)

      HÉLÈNE MOLINS, LAURE MICHELET, VIVIANE LANQUAR, ASTRID AGORIO, JÉRÔME GIRAUDAT, THOMAS ROACH, ANJA KRIEGER-LISZKAY and SÉBASTIEN THOMINE

      Version of Record online: 24 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12016

      Two Arabidopsis thaliana mutants, cad1-3 impaired in phytochelatin synthesis and nramp3nramp4 impaired in release of vacuolar metals, display similar Cd hypersensitivities at the whole plant level but distinct responses to Cd at the biochemical level. The photosynthetic apparatus is much more severely affected by Cd in nramp3nramp4 than in cad1-3. The phenotype of nramp3nramp4 mutant highlights a critical role of the vacuole to supply essential metals to plastids and maintain photosynthetic function under stress.

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      Enhanced rates of herbicide metabolism in low herbicide-dose selected resistant Lolium rigidum (pages 818–827)

      Q. YU, H. HAN, G. R. CAWTHRAY, S. F. WANG and S. B. POWLES

      Version of Record online: 1 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12017

      Our recent studies with herbicide susceptible L. rigidum populations have demonstrated that recurrent selection with reduced herbicide rates results in rapid evolution of herbicide resistance. This current study demonstrates that the biochemical basis of low-dose selected resistance is associated with enhanced rates of herbicide metabolism (metabolic resistance) likely involving cytochrome P450s. This work highlights the important of metabolic resistance in resistance evolution and facilitates proactive measures to delay resistance evolution (e, g. use full pesticide rates and do not cut rates).

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      A putative role for TIP and PIP aquaporins in dynamics of leaf hydraulic and stomatal conductances in grapevine under water stress and re-watering (pages 828–843)

      ALICIA POU, HIPOLITO MEDRANO, JAUME FLEXAS and STEPHEN D. TYERMAN

      Version of Record online: 1 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12019

      We examine the role of aquaporins in regulating leaf hydraulic conductance of Vitis vinifera L. (cv Chardonnay) by studying effects of aquaporin inhibitors, and aquaporin gene expression during water stress and recovery. Water stress decreased hydraulic conductance by about 30% and was correlated with stomatal conductance. The expression of two aquaporin genes correlated with hydraulic conductance, and expression of a TIP aquaporin was highly correlated with stomatal conductance. Apoplasmic pathways for water flow appeared to be more prominent during water stress.

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      Calcium- and potassium-permeable plasma membrane transporters are activated by copper in Arabidopsis root tips: linking copper transport with cytosolic hydroxyl radical production (pages 844–855)

      ANA RODRIGO-MORENO, NURIA ANDRÉS-COLÁS, CHARLOTTE POSCHENRIEDER, BENET GUNSÉ, LOLA PEÑARRUBIA and SERGEY SHABALA

      Version of Record online: 1 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12020

      Transition metals can interact with ascorbate or hydrogen peroxide to form highly reactive hydroxyl radicals, with numerous implications to membrane transport activity and cell metabolism. So far, such interaction was described for extracellular (apoplastic) space but not cytosol. In this work, we show that copper transport into cytosol in root apex results in hydroxyl radical generation at the cytosolic side, with a consequent regulation of plasma membrane hydroxyl radical-sensitive Ca2+ and K+ transport systems, explaining a causal relationship between copper uptake and toxicity in plant roots.

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      Tetraploid Rangpur lime rootstock increases drought tolerance via enhanced constitutive root abscisic acid production (pages 856–868)

      THIERRY ALLARIO, JAVIER BRUMOS, JOSE M. COLMENERO-FLORES, DOMINGO J. IGLESIAS, JOSE A. PINA, LUIS NAVARRO, MANUEL TALON, PATRICK OLLITRAULT and RAPHAËL MORILLON

      Version of Record online: 8 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12021

      In this paper, we characterized the physiological and molecular adaptation of Diploid (2x) and autotetraploid (4x) clones of Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia) rootstocks grafted with 2x Valencia Delta sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) for water deficit tolerance. We observed that V/2xRL presented higher water consumption than V/4xRL which was correlated to a greater abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis in 4x roots in control and stress conditions. We also demonstrated that in 4x roots present a much greater expression of drought responsive genes, including CsNCED1 (a pivotal regulatory gene of ABA biosynthesis). Then, tetraploidy modifies the expression of genes in the roots to regulate plant signaling and adaptation to stress. To our knowledge, these are the first results explaining the molecular and physiological determinants of water deficit tolerance in polyploids.

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      Electrochemical detection of extracellular hydrogen peroxide in Arabidopsis thaliana: a real-time marker of oxidative stress (pages 869–878)

      M. I. GONZÁLEZ-SÁNCHEZ, L. GONZÁLEZ-MACIA, M. T. PÉREZ-PRIOR, E. VALERO, J. HANCOCK and A. J. KILLARD

      Version of Record online: 8 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12023

      Evaluation of H2O2 content in extracellular media can be an important oxidative burst marker in plant cell cultures. This paper shows an electrochemical method based on a Pt-electrode which can be used for real-time course analysis of H2O2 concentrations in plant cell suspensions. The protocol has been satisfactory applied in Arabidopsis thaliana cell suspensions and could be a first step in the development of future electrodes for in vivo monitoring of H2O2.

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      Plant hydraulics and photosynthesis of 34 woody species from different successional stages of subtropical forests (pages 879–891)

      SHI-DAN ZHU, JUAN-JUAN SONG, RONG-HUA LI and QING YE

      Version of Record online: 8 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12024

      It is important to understand the eco-physiological characters of plants when exploring mechanisms underlying species substitution in the process of plant succession. In the present work, 34 woody species from different successional stages in subtropical forests in southern China were selected, to investigate plant traits such as hydraulic conductivity, gas exchange rates, leaf nutrient contents, xylem vulnerability to cavitation, turgor loss point, and carbon isotope ratio. Main findings of the manuscript were: i) both plant hydraulic conductance and photosynthetic capacity decreased significantly in the order of early to late successional stages; ii) changes in drought resistant traits measured for different successional species did not show a clear pattern. The results suggested that hydraulic-photosynthetic coordination (rather than drought tolerance) might be the key factor affecting species distributions along plant succession in subtropical forests.

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      Proteomic changes associated with freeze-thaw injury and post-thaw recovery in onion (Allium cepa L.) scales (pages 892–905)

      KETING CHEN, JENNY RENAUT, KJELL SERGEANT, HUI WEI and RAJEEV ARORA

      Version of Record online: 15 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12027

      Post-thaw recovery from a mild yet significantly injurious frost event is an important component of ultimate frost-survival of plant tissues, however, very little is known about the cellular / molecular mechanism of such recovery. Here, we provide the first report of the proteomic changes related to post-thaw recovery using onion scale as a model system. A total of 58 recovery-specific proteins were identified, including those involved in ion-homeostasis, proteostasis, ROS-scavenging, pathogenesis resistance, cell-wall remodeling, methionine metabolism and carbohydrate / energy metabolism. Potential roles for these proteins are discussed and a model is proposed to illustrate the key cellular events contributing to tissue recovery.

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