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Plant, Cell & Environment

Cover image for Plant, Cell & Environment

May 2013

Volume 36, Issue 5

Pages 907–1070

  1. Opinion

    1. Top of page
    2. Opinion
    3. Review
    4. Original Articles
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  2. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Opinion
    3. Review
    4. Original Articles
    1. You have free access to this content
      Involvement of auxin pathways in modulating root architecture during beneficial plant–microorganism interactions (pages 909–919)

      POORNIMA SUKUMAR, VALÉRIE LEGUÉ, ALICE VAYSSIÈRES, FRANCIS MARTIN, GERALD A. TUSKAN and UDAYA C. KALLURI

      Version of Record online: 11 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12036

      The community of researchers studying molecular plant-microbe interactions under the banners of fundamental plant science, biofuel-bioenergy, and crop productivity and sustainability research is expanding rapidly. The review summarizes multiple, separate lines of evidences linking auxin transport, signaling, and synthesis pathways to beneficial plant-microbe interactions and modulations in host root architecture. Compelling physiology and functional genomics-based evidence was found in support of a delicate and precise orchestration of distinct root phenotypic effects achieved via a shared auxin biosynthesis and signaling machinery involving signaling crosstalk. A hypothetical and simplified model on role of auxin in beneficial plant-microbe interactions is presented, and outstanding research challenges and potential future directions are discussed.

  3. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Opinion
    3. Review
    4. Original Articles
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      Leaf responses to drought stress in Mediterranean accessions of Solanum lycopersicum: anatomical adaptations in relation to gas exchange parameters (pages 920–935)

      JERONI GALMÉS, JOAN MANUEL OCHOGAVÍA, JORGE GAGO, EMILIO JOSÉ ROLDÁN, JOSEP CIFRE and MIQUEL ÀNGEL CONESA

      Version of Record online: 8 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12022

      The Balearic ‘Ramellet’ tomato cultivar showed acclimation to drought stress based on increased water use efficiency, resulting from the modification of stomatal and mesophyll (gm) conductances. In this work, we found that reasons behind gm increases are related to modification of mesophyll thickness and porosity, surface area of chloroplasts exposed to intercellular airspace (Sc) and gm/Sc ratio. Since that, leaf anatomical modifications, rather than biochemical factors, underlie physiological acclimation to water stress in ‘Ramellet’.

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      Testing a vapour-phase model of stomatal responses to humidity (pages 936–944)

      KEITH A. MOTT and DAVID PEAK

      Version of Record online: 8 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12026

      This work provides data that support a recently proposed vapour-phase mechanism for stomatal responses to humidity and temperature. The study tests two predictions of the model. First, that all leaves of given species grown under given conditions should have the same parameter values in the model, and second, that these parameter values should vary in predictable ways with leaf structure.

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      Arabidopsis ROP-interactive CRIB motif-containing protein 1 (RIC1) positively regulates auxin signalling and negatively regulates abscisic acid (ABA) signalling during root development (pages 945–955)

      YUNJUNG CHOI, YUREE LEE, SOO YOUNG KIM, YOUNGSOOK LEE and JAE-UNG HWANG

      Version of Record online: 19 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12028

      RIC1 is a signaling molecule that mediates ROP GTPase signaling. We studied the roles of RIC1 in root development in Arabidopsis and found that RIC1 promotes auxin responses but suppresses ABA responses in primary root growth and lateral root development.

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      Hydrogen gas acts as a novel bioactive molecule in enhancing plant tolerance to paraquat-induced oxidative stress via the modulation of heme oxygenase-1 signalling system (pages 956–969)

      QIJIANG JIN, KAIKAI ZHU, WEITI CUI, YANJIE XIE, BIN HAN and WENBIAO SHEN

      Version of Record online: 19 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12029

      The production of hydrogen gas (H2) and its physiological role have been less clear in higher plants. In this study, we demonstrated, for the first time, that H2 production in alfalfa seedlings displayed dose- and time-dependent increases during paraquat treatment. When supplemented with exogenous H2, seedlings displayed enhanced tolerance to multiple environment stresses including paraquat, drought, salt loading, and cold. The protected effect of H2 in paraquat-treated plants was mediated by heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) signaling.

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      Toc33 and Toc64-III cooperate in precursor protein import into the chloroplasts of Arabidopsis thaliana (pages 970–983)

      MANUEL SOMMER, MAREIKE RUDOLF, BODO TILLMANN, JOANNA TRIPP, MAIK S. SOMMER and ENRICO SCHLEIFF

      Version of Record online: 7 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12030

      It has been established that the TOC components Toc159, Toc75 and Toc33 play crucial roles in chloroplast preprotein import, while the importance of Toc64-III for TOC function remained under debate. To link an involvement of Toc64-III to preprotein import and to the action of Toc33, single and double mutants thereof have been generated and phenotypically analyzed and the import capacity has been monitored in vivo. These experiments confirm that Toc64-III is required for preprotein import. In addition, the double mutant of toc64-III and toc33 shows a significantly reduced level of Toc75-III demonstrating that both TOC components act cooperatively for the insertion of at least this outer membrane protein.

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      Hydrologic linkages between a climate oscillation, river flows, growth, and wood Δ13C of male and female cottonwood trees (pages 984–993)

      STEWART B. ROOD, DEBORAH J. BALL, KAREN M. GILL, SOBADINI KALUTHOTA, MATTHEW G. LETTS and DAVID W. PEARCE

      Version of Record online: 29 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12031

      In dry regions around the Northern Hemisphere cottonwoods, or riparian poplars, provide the foundation for environmentally rich floodplain forests. In this study we demonstrated the hydrological linkages extending from headwater mountain water sources, to prairie river flows, and then to floodplain groundwater. We further found that in narrowleaf cottonwoods (Populus angustifolia), trunk growth and wood δ13C patterns were strongly coordinated with river flows over a two-decade period with high- versus low-flow intervals. We also observed sex differentiation, as the males apparently displayed more conservative growth and more efficient water use during a drought interval, and this could increase their drought adaptation.

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      Divergent low water potential response in Arabidopsis thaliana accessions Landsberg erecta and Shahdara (pages 994–1008)

      SANDEEP SHARMA, WENDAR LIN, JOJI GRACE VILLAMOR and PAUL E. VERSLUES

      Version of Record online: 28 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12032

      Arabidopsis thaliana accessions have extensive natural variation in environmental adaptation and Shahdara (Sha) in particular differs substantially from other accessions such as Landsberg erecta (Ler). Metabolite analysis, RNA sequencing and physiological experiments found striking differences in amino acid profile and gene expression between Ler and Sha at low water potential. The data show the differing metabolic response to low water potential of the two accessions and the possible influence of both biotic and abiotic factors in shaping the specific adaptation of Sha.

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      γ-Aminobutyric acid transaminase deficiency impairs central carbon metabolism and leads to cell wall defects during salt stress in Arabidopsis roots (pages 1009–1018)

      HUGUES RENAULT, ABDELHAK EL AMRANI, ADELINE BERGER, GRÉGORY MOUILLE, LUDIVINE SOUBIGOU-TACONNAT, ALAIN BOUCHEREAU and CAROLE DELEU

      Version of Record online: 29 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12033

      GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) is a ubiquitous non-protein amino acid that commonly accumulates in plants in response to stressful conditions. However, functions of GABA in plants remain still unclear. In this study, we provide metabolic and transcriptional evidences that GABA metabolism is involved in central carbon metabolism regulation upon salt stress in roots. Furthermore, we show that GABA transaminase deficiency results in deleterious consequences for root development and cell wall elaboration during salt stress. Our work thus highlights the critical function of GABA metabolism in root metabolic acclimation to saline conditions.

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      Rhizospheric NO affects N uptake and metabolism in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings depending on soil N availability and N source (pages 1019–1026)

      JUDY SIMON, FANG DONG, FRANZ BUEGGER and HEINZ RENNENBERG

      Version of Record online: 3 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12034

      Signals controlling the competitive interactions for nitrogen between plants and soil microorganisms in the rhizosphere are to date mainly unknown, thus, we investigated the effects of rhizospheric NO concentration with varying soil N availability on N uptake and metabolism in fine roots of Scots pine seedlings. Our results show for the first time that NO affected N uptake by seedlings dependent on N source and soil N availability. The commonly accepted suppression of nitrate uptake in the presence of ammonium and glutamine was overruled at high NO. This study also provides first evidence for the effects of NO on nitrate and arginine uptake in a tree species and that rhizospheric NO does not only affect deciduous trees (i.e., beech), but also coniferous tree species (i.e., pine).

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      Aqueous pathways dominate permeation of solutes across Pisum sativum seed coats and mediate solute transport via diffusion and bulk flow of water (pages 1027–1036)

      SYLVIA NIEMANN, MARKUS BURGHARDT, CHRISTIAN POPP and MARKUS RIEDERER

      Version of Record online: 11 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12035

      The permeability of seed coats to solutes either of biological or anthropogenic origin plays a major role in germination, seedling growth and agrochemical seed treatment. Therefore, an experimental setup was designed allowing to investigate the mechanisms of seed coat permeation by steady-state experiments with isolated seed coats of Pisum sativum. Analysing the permeation of a set of organic model compounds showed that narrow aqueous pathways dominate the movement of solutes across the seed coats as indicated by a good correlation of permeances with the molecular sizes of the compounds and no correlation with their lipophilicity. The application of an osmotic water potential gradient across isolated seed coats leads to an increase in solute transfer indicating that the aqueous pathways form a water-filled continuum across the seed coat allowing the bulk flow of water.

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      Overexpression of the phosphatidylinositol synthase gene (ZmPIS) conferring drought stress tolerance by altering membrane lipid composition and increasing ABA synthesis in maize (pages 1037–1055)

      XIUXIA LIU, SHUMEI ZHAI, YAJIE ZHAO, BAOCHENG SUN, CHENG LIU, AIFANG YANG and JUREN ZHANG

      Version of Record online: 17 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12040

      In this study, the ZmPIS gene with a maize ubiquitin promoter was introduced into maize (Zea mays L.) inbred line DH4866 by an Agrobacterium-mediated method to explore the function of the ZmPIS gene in the response of maize to drought stress. The overexpression of ZmPIS in maize resulted in significantly elevated levels of most phospholipids, galactolipids in leaves compared with those in WT and markedly up-regulated expression of some genes involved in the phospholipids metabolism pathway and the ABA biosynthesis pathway after drought stress. Consistent with these results, the drought stress tolerance of the ZmPIS sense transgenic plants were enhanced significantly compared to WT maize plants. These results imply that ZmPIS regulate the plant response to drought stress through altering membrane lipid composition and increasing ABA synthesis in maize.

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      Effect of water deficit on the cell wall of the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera ‘Deglet nour’, Arecales) fruit during development (pages 1056–1070)

      ALI GRIBAA, FLAVIEN DARDELLE, ARNAUD LEHNER, CHRISTOPHE RIHOUEY, CAROLE BUREL, ALI FERCHICHI, AZEDDINE DRIOUICH and JEAN-CLAUDE MOLLET

      Version of Record online: 17 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12042

      Date palm is an important economical crop in many countries. However, in recent years, the Kebili region with the largest palm groves of Tunisia faced an important deficit of rain fall that can impaired the maturation and quality of the fruits especially in non-irrigated plantation. Water deficit does not stop fruit development but has a dramatic effect on fruit growth, pulp content and the cell wall composition and remodeling during maturation. The data indicate that the cell wall was more hydrophilic suggesting that these subtle changes in the cell wall property may participate in maintaining the water status of the cells and the flexibility of the cell wall under water deficit.

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