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Plant, Cell & Environment

Cover image for Vol. 36 Issue 8

August 2013

Volume 36, Issue 8

Pages 1407–1572

  1. Commentary

    1. Top of page
    2. Commentary
    3. Original Articles
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  2. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Commentary
    3. Original Articles
    1. You have free access to this content
      Dynamic secretion changes in the salt glands of the mangrove tree species Avicennia officinalis in response to a changing saline environment (pages 1410–1422)

      WEE-KEE TAN, QINGSONG LIN, TIT-MENG LIM, PRAKASH KUMAR and CHIANG-SHIONG LOH

      Version of Record online: 21 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12068

      The specialized salt glands on the epidermis of halophytic plants secrete excess salts from tissues by a mechanism that is poorly understood. Here, we examined the salt glands of a tropical mangrove tree species (Avicennia officinalis) as putative salt and water bi-regulatory units that can respond swiftly to altering environmental cues. We uncovered rhythmic fluctuations of salt gland secretion rates that could be reversibly inhibited by water channel (aquaporin) blocker, and two aquaporin genes preferentially expressed in the salt gland cells were rapidly induced in response to increasing salt concentration. We propose that aquaporins are involved and contribute to the re-absorption of water during salt removal in A. officinalis salt glands, an adaptive feature that contributes to salt balance of trees growing in saline environments where freshwater availability is limited.

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      Interactive effects of water, light and heat stress on photosynthesis in Fremont cottonwood (pages 1423–1434)

      EMILY S. TOZZI, HSIEN MING EASLON and JAMES H. RICHARDS

      Version of Record online: 25 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12070

      Along many western North American rivers, human-altered flow patterns have led to reduced cottonwood seeding recruitment, and seedling death is often attributed to water stress. This study examined photosynthetic responses of Fremont cottonwood to the interactive effects of water, light, and heat stresses, which were hypothesized to be more important than water stress alone on the exposed point bar environments where seedlings establish. Our results show that interactions of heat stress, surprisingly mediated by reduced photosynthetic capacity and not damage to photosystems, water limitation and leaf orientation are important in determining stress to cottonwood leaves that leads to leaf death and eventual seedling mortality. Application of these results to modeling efforts is needed because current models of riparian seedling establishment use water stress alone as a limiting factor.

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      A retrospective, dual-isotope approach reveals individual predispositions to winter-drought induced tree dieback in the southernmost distribution limit of Scots pine (pages 1435–1448)

      JORDI VOLTAS, JESÚS JULIO CAMARERO, DAVID CARULLA, MÒNICA AGUILERA, ARACELI ORTIZ and JUAN PEDRO FERRIO

      Version of Record online: 25 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12072

      This work examined a winter-drought induced dieback at the Scots pine's southern edge through a dual-isotope approach (Δ13C and δ18O in tree-ring cellulose). Declining trees showed a stronger coupling between climate, growth and intrinsic water-use efficiency (WUEi) than non-declining individuals, which was likely associated with their native aptitude to grow more, take up more water and, also, exhibit a greater cavitation risk. This indicated that co-occurring individuals were differentially predisposed to winter-drought mortality.

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      TaASR1, a transcription factor gene in wheat, confers drought stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco (pages 1449–1464)

      WEI HU, CHAO HUANG, XIAOMIN DENG, SHIYI ZHOU, LIHONG CHEN, YIN LI, CHENG WANG, ZHANBING MA, QIANQIAN YUAN, YAN WANG, RUI CAI, XIAOYU LIANG, GUANGXIAO YANG and GUANGYUAN HE

      Version of Record online: 28 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12074

      Abscisic acid (ABA)-, stress-, and ripening-induced (ASR) proteins are reported to be involved in abiotic stresses. However, it is not known whether ASR genes confer drought stress tolerance by utilizing the antioxidant system. The findings of this study demonstrated TaASR1 function in drought/osmotic stress tolerance. TaASR1 conferred drought/osmotic stress tolerance through regulating the expression of stress-, and defense-associated genes and enhancing the antioxidant system, thus preventing plants from oxidative damage.

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      Long-distance abscisic acid signalling under different vertical soil moisture gradients depends on bulk root water potential and average soil water content in the root zone (pages 1465–1475)

      JAIME PUÉRTOLAS, ROSALÍA ALCOBENDAS, JUAN J. ALARCÓN and IAN C. DODD

      Version of Record online: 24 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12076

      Plant roots exposed to drying soil synthesise chemical signals such as ABA, which move from the roots to the shoots to limit transpiration, thereby increasing leaf water use efficiency. Our work tests alternative hypotheses as to how vertical soil moisture gradients quantitatively affect xylem ABA concentration. Unlike split-root experiments where xylem ABA concentration depended on both the soil water content of each compartment and the fractional water uptake from each (Dodd et al. 2008; Plant Cell Env. 31, 1263–1274), when plants are exposed to dry upper soil and moist soil at depth (as is typical of many field conditions), xylem ABA concentration was best predicted by average soil water content in the entire root-zone, because root ABA concentration was homogeneous across the root-zone and related to bulk root water potential. These results will help understand the physiological effects of different water-saving irrigation techniques applied in the field, where vertical gradients are an important source of soil moisture heterogeneity.

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      Knockdown of GDCH gene reveals reactive oxygen species-induced leaf senescence in rice (pages 1476–1489)

      QIYING ZHOU, QIAN YU, ZHANQI WANG, YUFANG PAN, WENTANG LV, LILI ZHU, RONGZHI CHEN and GUANGCUN HE

      Version of Record online: 12 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12078

      Glycine decarboxylase complex (GDC), which is composed of P-, H-, T- and L-protein subunits, is ubiquitous in all organisms from bacteria to eukaryotic cells. While structural analysis has demonstrated that the H subunit of GDC (GDCH) plays a pivotal role in GDC, the biological role of GDCH in plant species is seldom reported. The present study investigated the function of the OsGDCH, stresses that result from knockdown of OsGDCH, and the interactions of these stresses with other cellular processes in rice plants through RNA interference (RNAi). Our results show that the OsGDCH is a typical photorespiratory gene and the severely suppressed OsGDCH-RNAi plants display a senescence syndrome under ambient CO2; senescence in the OsGDCH-RNAi rice plants is induced by ROS, and transcription factor OsWRKY72 may mediate the ROS-induced senescence.

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      C1 metabolism and the Calvin cycle function simultaneously and independently during HCHO metabolism and detoxification in Arabidopsis thaliana treated with HCHO solutions (pages 1490–1506)

      ZHONG-BANG SONG, SU-QIN XIAO, LAN YOU, SHA-SHA WANG, HAO TAN, KUN-ZHI LI and LI-MEI CHEN

      Version of Record online: 25 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12079

      The importance of the work: A brief summary statement (3-4 sentences maximum)

      This should explain the motivation for the work and summarize the findings

      It has been suggested that Arabidopsis thaliana can absorbed formaldehyde (HCHO) and oxidize it to formate (HCOOH). This study investigated the role of the C1 metabolism and the Calvin Cycle during H13CHO-metabolism in Arabidopsis. The results revealed two metabolic pathways of H13CHO: one was assimilated by the Calvin Cycle to produce [U-13C]Gluc; another was metabolized in the C1 metabolism to generated [3-13C]Ser. Both the Calvin Cycle and C1 metabolism functioned simultaneously and dependently during HCHO-metabolism in Arabidopsis.

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      The Arabidopsis tandem CCCH zinc finger proteins AtTZF4, 5 and 6 are involved in light-, abscisic acid- and gibberellic acid-mediated regulation of seed germination (pages 1507–1519)

      SRIMATHI BOGAMUWA and JYAN-CHYUN JANG

      Version of Record online: 14 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12084

      This report demonstrates that Processing Bodies (PBs) and Stress Granules (SGs) localized Arabidopsis tandem CCCH zinc finger protein AtTZF4, 5, and 6 are positive regulators for ABA- and negative regulators for light- and GA-mediated seed germination responses. AtTZF4, 5, and 6 affect seed germination by controlling genes critical for ABA and GA response.

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      Cold-induced organelle relocation in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha L. (pages 1520–1528)

      YUKA OGASAWARA, KIMITSUNE ISHIZAKI, TAKAYUKI KOHCHI and YUTAKA KODAMA

      Version of Record online: 19 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12085

      To understand organelle positioning under cold conditions, we studied cold-induced organelle relocation in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha L. Cold-induced relocation movements of chloroplasts, nuclei and peroxisomes, but not mitochondria, were found in living liverwort cells. Our findings suggest that several organelles concurrently change their positions to cope with cold temperature.

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      Performance of a new dynamic model for predicting diurnal time courses of stomatal conductance at the leaf level (pages 1529–1546)

      SILVÈRE VIALET-CHABRAND, ERWIN DREYER and OLIVER BRENDEL

      Version of Record online: 26 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12086

      Under natural conditions, plants are subjected to continuous changes of irradiance that drive variations of stomatal conductance (gs). We propose a new dynamic model to predict the temporal response of gs to irradiance. Compared with widely used steady-state models our dynamic model described daily time courses of gs with a higher accuracy. In particular, it was able to describe the hysteresis of gs responses to irradiance and the resulting rapid variations of intrinsic water-use efficiency.

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      What does optimization theory actually predict about crown profiles of photosynthetic capacity when models incorporate greater realism? (pages 1547–1563)

      THOMAS N. BUCKLEY, ALESSANDRO CESCATTI and GRAHAM D. FARQUHAR

      Version of Record online: 16 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12091

      Vertical profiles of photosynthetic capacity in plant canopies tend to be less steep than those of average irradiance, such that the capacity per unit of irradiance declines up through the canopy. Although previous analyses using simple models have concluded that this pattern is sub-optimal, we sought to determine whether a similar pattern would emerge from a more detailed model that included features such as sunflecks, variable N allocation to light capture, transdermal gradients of light and capacity in leaves, and constraints on mesophyll or stomatal conductance. Our simulations found that sunflecks caused scatter, but not systematic vertical gradients in capacity per unit irradiance, whereas variable leaf absorbance caused capacity per unit irradiance to increase up through the canopy, opposite to the observed pattern. By contrast, constraints on stomatal or mesophyll conductance were capable of reproducing the observed decline in capacity per unit irradiance up through the canopy.

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      Hydrogen sulphide may be a novel downstream signal molecule in nitric oxide-induced heat tolerance of maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings (pages 1564–1572)

      ZHONG-GUANG LI, SHI-ZHONG YANG, WEI-BIAO LONG, GUO-XIAN YANG and ZHEN-ZHEN SHEN

      Version of Record online: 8 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12092

      Pretreatment with the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) improved survival percentage of maize seedlings and alleviated an increase in electrolyte leakage and decrease in tissue vitality as well as accumulation of malondialdehyde. In addition, pretreatment with SNP enhanced the activity of L-cystine desulfhydrase, which in turn induced accumulation of endogenous H2S, while application of H2S donors, NaHS and GYY4137, increased endogenous H2S content, followed by mitigating increase in electrolyte leakage and enhancing survival percentage of seedlings under heat stress. Interestingly, SNP-induced heat tolerance was enhanced by application of NaHS and GYY4137, but eliminated by inhibitors of H2S synthesis DL-propargylglycine, aminooxy acetic acid, potassium pyruvate and hydroxylamine, and the H2S scavenger hypotaurine.

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