Plant, Cell & Environment

Cover image for Vol. 37 Issue 1

January 2014

Volume 37, Issue 1

Pages 1–272

  1. Review Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Article
    3. Commentary
    4. Original Articles
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The impact of environmental stress on male reproductive development in plants: biological processes and molecular mechanisms (pages 1–18)

      NICO DE STORME and DANNY GEELEN

      Article first published online: 9 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12142

      Environmental stress has a negative impact on plant male reproductive development with severe consequences for pollen fertility and seed yield. To outline the physiological basis of this phenomenon, this review outlines the different cellular mechanisms by which biotic and abiotic stress impair male sporogenesis and gametogenesis and mainly focuses on the role of sugar metabolism, oxidative stress, cytoskeletal dynamics, hormone signalling and tapetal development.

  2. Commentary

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Article
    3. Commentary
    4. Original Articles
  3. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Article
    3. Commentary
    4. Original Articles
    1. Can exploiting natural genetic variation in leaf photosynthesis contribute to increasing rice productivity? A simulation analysis (pages 22–34)

      JUNFEI GU, XINYOU YIN, TJEERD-JAN STOMPH and PAUL C. STRUIK

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12173

      The lack of significant correlation between crop yield and leaf photosynthetic rate (A) is noted frequently. We examined the extent to which natural genetic variation in A can contribute to increasing rice productivity, using the mechanistic crop model GECROS. We showed that genetic variation in A of 25% can result in 22-29% increase in biomass across different locations and years. Rice productivity could be improved by mining the natural variation in existing germplasm, especially the variation in parameters that determine light-limited photosynthesis.

    2. Recalcitrant vulnerability curves: methods of analysis and the concept of fibre bridges for enhanced cavitation resistance (pages 35–44)

      JING CAI, SHAN LI, HAIXIN ZHANG, SHUOXIN ZHANG and MELVIN T. TYREE

      Article first published online: 12 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12120

      Water flows between vessels through pits when two or more vessels are in direct contact, and many papers have focused on the role of pit area on the vulnerability of xylem to embolism. However, in many species vessels are relatively solitary and embedded in conductive ground tissue where water could flow between vessels via clusters of fiber tracheids or ‘fiber-bridges’. In this paper we estimate the hydraulic conductance of fiber-bridges in Hippophae rhamnoides L. shrubs and suggest that the recalcitrant vulnerability curves of this species might be explained by fiber-bridges. The concept of fiber-bridges is a new paradigm not previously considered in the literature about cavitation in woody plants.

    3. Arsenic alters uptake and distribution of sulphur in Pteris vittata (pages 45–53)

      TOSHIHIRO WATANABE, RAN KOUHO, TOMO KATAYOSE, NOBUYUKI KITAJIMA, NAOYA SAKAMOTO, NORIKO YAMAGUCHI, TAKURO SHINANO, HISAYOSHI YURIMOTO and MITSURU OSAKI

      Article first published online: 17 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12124

      In Pteris vittata, an arsenic (As) hyperaccumulator, As application enhanced the uptake of SO42−, which was used for low-molecular-weight thiol synthesis in fronds. Moreover, sulphur (S) absorbed with As accumulated locally in a vacuole-like organelle in epidermal cells of fronds, whereas S absorbed alone was distributed uniformly. Thus, this study demonstrates that As has a dramatic impact on the metabolisms and accumulation of S in P. vittata.

    4. GOLLUM [FeFe]-hydrogenase-like proteins are essential for plant development in normoxic conditions and modulate energy metabolism (pages 54–69)

      SAMUEL MONDY, AURORE LENGLET, VIVIANE COSSON, SANDRA PELLETIER, STÉPHANIE PATEYRON, FRANÇOISE GILARD, MARIJE SCHOLTE, LYSIANE BROCARD, JEAN-MALO COUZIGOU, GUILLAUME TCHERKEZ, MICHEL PÉAN and PASCAL RATET

      Article first published online: 29 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12128

      [FeFe]-hydrogenase-like genes encode [Fe4S4] containing proteins that are ubiquitous in eukaryotic cells. We show here that plant [FeFe]-hydrogenase-like GOLLUM genes are essential for plant development and cell cycle progression. The mutant phenotypes of these plants are seen in normoxic condions, but not under conditions of mild-hypoxia (5kPa O2). Transcriptomic and metabolomic experiments showed that the mutation enhances the expression of some hypoxia-induced genes under normal atmospheric O2 conditions and changes the cellular content of metabolites related to energy metabolism.

    5. Photosynthetic and anatomical responses of Eucalyptus grandis leaves to potassium and sodium supply in a field experiment (pages 70–81)

      PATRICIA BATTIE-LACLAU, JEAN-PAUL LACLAU, CONSTANCE BERI, LAURIANE MIETTON, MARTA R.ALMEIDA MUNIZ, BRUNA CERSÓZIMO ARENQUE, MARISA DE CASSIA PICCOLO, LIONEL JORDAN-MEILLE, JEAN-PIERRE BOUILLET and YANN NOUVELLON

      Article first published online: 10 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12131

      Potassium (K) has received much less attention than nitrogen and phosphorus despite its critical functions in plant physiology. We show that K fertilization significantly increases stomatal and mesophyll conductance as well as photosynthetic capacity in Eucalyptus grandis leaves. Large anatomical and physiological modifications of leaves in response to Na addition enhanced photosynthesis, which suggests a functional role of Na in K-deficient soils.

    6. Constraining 3-PG with a new δ13C submodel: a test using the δ13C of tree rings (pages 82–100)

      LIANG WEI, JOHN D. MARSHALL, TIMOTHY E. LINK, KATHLEEN L. KAVANAGH, ENHAO DU, ROBERT E. PANGLE, PETER J. GAG and NEREA UBIERNA

      Article first published online: 4 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12133

      Physiological Processes Predicting Growth (3-PG) is a semi-mechanistic model of forest growth that includes realistic simulations of canopy photosynthesis and stomatal conductance. We modified the model to predict stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) and then parameterized it with empirical data, including sap flux, at a heavily instrumented site in northern Idaho, USA. The model predicted δ13C and stand growth quite well; when we introduced error in the parameters, δ13C was quite responsive. We argue that such a diagnostic test would be useful in any model that includes realistic descriptions of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance of C3 plants.

    7. Natural variation in Early flowering1 contributes to early flowering in japonica rice under long days (pages 101–112)

      CHOON-TAK KWON, SOO-CHEUL YOO, BON-HYUK KOO, SUNG-HWAN CHO, JOON-WOO PARK, ZHANYING ZHANG, JINJIE LI, ZICHAO LI and NAM-CHON PAEK

      Article first published online: 4 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12134

      Seasonal and regional adaptability is essential for grain productivity in cereal crops including rice. Natural variations in photoperiod sensitivity and flowering time enable rice cultivation in a wide geographical range. This work reveals that two missense mutations of Early flowering1 ( EL1) are responsible for the Hd16 QTL and has contributed to early flowering in japonica rice under long day environments in high-latitude regions.

    8. The Arabidopsis GIBBERELLIN METHYL TRANSFERASE 1 suppresses gibberellin activity, reduces whole-plant transpiration and promotes drought tolerance in transgenic tomato (pages 113–123)

      IDO NIR, MENACHEM MOSHELION and DAVID WEISS

      Article first published online: 4 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12135

      Previous studies have shown that reduced gibberellin (GA) activity promotes plant tolerance to osmotic stresses, but the underlying mechanism is not clear yet. In this study we expressed the recently discovered GIBBERELLIN METHYL TRANSFERASE 1 ( GAMT1 ) gene in tomato plants to reduce the levels of active GAs. The transgenic plants exhibited typical GA-deficiency phenotypes and increased tolerance to drought stress. The transgenic leaves had smaller stomata with reduced pores, leading to reduced stomatal conductance and whole-plant transpiration.

    9. Acclimation to humidity modifies the link between leaf size and the density of veins and stomata (pages 124–131)

      MADELINE R. CARINS MURPHY, GREGORY J. JORDAN and TIMOTHY J. BRODRIBB

      Article first published online: 10 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12136

      In a previous paper we demonstrated how the density of veins and stomata remained tightly coordinated during plastic changes to leaf size in response to irradiance. Here we examine whether a similar process maintains the coordination of veins and stomata in plants grown under contrasting VPD treatments. We find that despite large changes to leaf size there is no significant acclimation of vein and stomatal density. This fascinating result points to contrasting anatomical mechanisms of response to irradiance and VPD, with cell size and cell number being specifically responsive to these different environmental stimuli. We suggest a general scheme for how leaf size, stomatal density and vein density respond to the environment.

    10. Stomatal responses to changes in vapor pressure deficit reflect tissue-specific differences in hydraulic conductance (pages 132–139)

      T. W. OCHELTREE, J. B. NIPPERT and P. V. V. PRASAD

      Article first published online: 20 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12137

      In order to better understand stomatal responses to changes in water vapor pressure deficit in grasses, we investigated the relationship between the hydraulic conductance of leaves and roots to changes in stomatal conductance and transpiration for 19 species of grasses. Stomatal sensitivity was related to the hydraulic conductance of leaf tissue relative to whole plant leaf area. Among the species exhibiting an ‘apparent feedforward response’, species with lower root hydraulic conductance began decreasing transpiration at lower values of vapor pressure deficit. These relationships were consistant across both C3 and C4 grasses, simplifying are ability to predict how these functional groups respond to changes in vapor pressure deficit.

    11. Expression in Arabidopsis and cellular localization reveal involvement of rice NRAMP, OsNRAMP1, in arsenic transport and tolerance (pages 140–152)

      MANISH TIWARI, DEEPIKA SHARMA, SANJAY DWIVEDI, MUNNA SINGH, RUDRA DEO TRIPATHI and PRABODH KUMAR TRIVEDI

      Article first published online: 25 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12138

      Arsenic (As) is a highly toxic environmental pollutant which accumulates in rice grain and causes chronic and epidemic effects on human health. We report role of rice NRAMP (Natural Resistance-Associated Macrophage Protein) transporter, OsNRAMP1, in As, in addition to cadmium (Cd), accumulation through expression in yeast and Arabidopsis. Cellular localization revealed that OsNRAMP1 resides on plasma membrane of endodermis and pericycle cells and may assist in xylem loading for root to shoot mobilization. This is the first report demonstrating role of NRAMP in xylem mediated loading and enhanced accumulation of As and Cd in plants.

    12. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      How do trees die? A test of the hydraulic failure and carbon starvation hypotheses (pages 153–161)

      SANNA SEVANTO, NATE G. MCDOWELL, L. TURIN DICKMAN, ROBERT PANGLE and WILLIAM T. POCKMAN

      Article first published online: 30 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12141

      This study describes results of the first test of the leading, but controversial, hypotheses regarding how trees die during drought. Our results show that all of the hypothesized mortality mechanisms can occur in trees of the same, relatively isohydric species, but both the progress of symptoms and survival time during drought may vary with individual trees even in similar environmental conditions. The mortality process seems to be controlled by hydraulic limitations on carbohydrate transport and utilization, which determines plant survival time.

    13. Auxin-mediated nitrate signalling by NRT1.1 participates in the adaptive response of Arabidopsis root architecture to the spatial heterogeneity of nitrate availability (pages 162–174)

      EMMANUELLE MOUNIER, MARJORIE PERVENT, KARIN LJUNG, ALAIN GOJON and PHILIPPE NACRY

      Article first published online: 25 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12143

      This manuscript deals with the characterisation of the mechanism controlling in Arabidopsis the adaptive developmental response of the roots to the spatial heterogeneity of nitrate availability resulting in a preferential root colonisation of the N-rich patches of the soil

      We recently demonstrated that the dual-affinity nitrate transporter NRT1.1 that acts as a nitrate sensor does not transport only nitrate, but also facilitates influx of the phytohormone auxin leading to a modification of its gradients within the root system and then regulating lateral root emergence.

      Using a split-root system (low nitrate on one side, high nitrate on the other side), we show that NRT1.1 controls root colonization of nitrate-rich patches by on the one hand, specifically repressing lateral root development in the low nitrate side by lowering auxin levels in priomordia and lateral root tips, and on the other hand stimulating root growth on high nitrate side through a yet uncharacterized mechanism which does not rely on changes in auxin levels.

      These results make a clear connection between the original molecular/cellular mechanisms of nutrient sensing we recently identified and the integrated response of the plant to a major environmental constraint in agro-ecosystems and gives a novel view on how plants deals with nitrate patchiness in soil and mixed N nutrition.

    14. Mutation of Arabidopsis CATALASE2 results in hyponastic leaves by changes of auxin levels (pages 175–188)

      XIANG GAO, HONG-MEI YUAN, YE-QIN HU, JING LI and YING-TANG LU

      Article first published online: 30 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12144

      This work shows that the hyponastic leaves of cat2-1 is due to reduced auxin level resulted from high H2O2 accumulation of the plants grown under moderate intensity light. Additional results reveal that cross-talk between H2O2 and auxin signaling is mediated by changes in glutathione redox status.

    15. Intracellular localization and induction of a dynamic RNA-editing event of macro-algal V-ATPase subunit A (VHA-A) in response to copper (pages 189–203)

      C. A. MORRIS, J. R. OWEN, M. C. THOMAS, G. A. EL-HITI, J. L. HARWOOD and P. KILLE

      Article first published online: 30 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12145

      Our research aims to identify key molecular mechanisms used by organisms to maintain heavy metal homeostasis particularly when challenged by environmental contamination. This study compares the macroalga Fucus vesiculosus growing in a heavy metal contaminated estuary (Fal, Cornwall) displaying an environmental copper gradient to that from the uncontaminated sites as well as utilising a suite of laboratory based copper exposures. These studies revealed copper induced the total transcript and protein levels of subunit A of the V-ATPase (VHA-A), the critical catalytic subunit of this proton pump, as well as inducing a single nucleotide change in the RNA transcript sufficient to stimulate the accumulation of a truncated protein. This suggests that RNA editing can be a dynamic adaptive change and this has widespread connotations for the regulation of a key enzyme which is the critical factor for a number of essential processes for life, including setting up membrane potentials that allow transport and detoxification mechanisms.

    16. Metabolite analysis of the effects of elevated CO2 and nitrogen fertilization on the association between tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus) and its fungal symbiont Neotyphodium coenophialum (pages 204–212)

      GERALDINE D. RYAN, SUSANNE RASMUSSEN, HONG XUE, ANTHONY J. PARSONS and JONATHAN A. NEWMAN

      Article first published online: 2 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12146

      Changes in environmental variables that alter nutrient allocation in plants may also alter nutrient exchange dynamics between plants and symbiotic partners. This study addresses how global change parameters such as increasing atmospheric CO2 and altered nitrogen availability can alter the interaction between tall fescue grass and a Neotyphodium fungal mutualist. The study finds that increased atmospheric CO2 enhances fungal growth but decreases the production of N-based fungal-derived anti-herbivore alkaloids. Such changes in the exchange of nutrients suggest that the strength of this mutualism may be altered in future high CO2 atmospheres.

    17. Replication protein A subunit 3 and the iron efficiency response in soybean (pages 213–234)

      SARAH E. ATWOOD, JAMIE A. O'ROURKE, GREGORY A. PEIFFER, TENGFEI YIN, MAHBUBUL MAJUMDER, CHUNQUAN ZHANG, SILVIA R. CIANZIO, JOHN H. HILL, DIANNE COOK, STEVEN A. WHITHAM, RANDY C. SHOEMAKER and MICHELLE A. GRAHAM

      Article first published online: 22 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12147

      Iron deficiency in soybean can result in interveinal chlorosis and decreased photosynthetic capacity, leading to stunting and yield loss. Previous research demonstrated that an iron efficient soybean line inhibited DNA replication genes in response to iron stress. By combining Virus Induced Gene Silencing and RNA-seq, we examine the role of Replication Protein A Subunit 3 (GmRPA3) in the soybean iron efficiency stress response. We demonstrate that inhibition of DNA replication induces nutrient salvaging, stress and defense responses during iron stress.

    18. The interaction between glucose and cytokinin signal transduction pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana (pages 235–253)

      SUNITA KUSHWAH and ASHVERYA LAXMI

      Article first published online: 9 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12149

      Cytokinins (CKs) and glucose (GLC) control a number of common responses in plants. Microarray along with physiological analysis revealed extensive interdependence/overlap between CK and GLC signal transduction pathways in Arabidopsis seedlings. GLC could transcriptionally affect 76% of CK-regulated genes at whole genome level, 89% of which are agonistically regulated. GLC can regulate several genes involved in CK metabolism and signaling. Physiologically, both GLC and CK could regulate hypocotyl length in dark integrating at the level of Type A ARRs and auxin signal transduction elements.

    19. Involvement of respiratory processes in the transient knockout of net CO2 uptake in Mimosa pudica upon heat stimulation (pages 254–260)

      SILKE LAUTNER, MICHAELA STUMMER, RAINER MATYSSEK, JÖRG FROMM and THORSTEN E. E. GRAMS

      Article first published online: 5 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12150

      This study aims at clarifying the involvement of respiration in heat induced transient knockout of leaf photosynthesis in Mimosa pudica. Under darkness, heat stimulation caused a transient increase of respiratory CO2 release simultaneously with stomatal opening, hence reflecting direct involvement of respiratory stimulation, whereas under illumination and elevated CO2 or 1% O2 transient decline in net CO2 uptake makes it unlikely that photorespiration is the metabolic origin of the respiratory CO2 release. In conclusion, the transient knockout of net CO2 uptake is at least partially attributed to an increased CO2 release through mitochondrial respiration as stimulated by electrical signals.

    20. Foggy days and dry nights determine crown-level water balance in a seasonal tropical montane cloud forest (pages 261–272)

      SYBIL G. GOTSCH, HEIDI ASBJORNSEN, FRISO HOLWERDA, GREGORY R. GOLDSMITH, ALEXIS E. WEINTRAUB and TODD E. DAWSON

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12151

      We investigated the effect of microclimatic on canopy ecophysiology and branch-level water balance in the dry-season of a seasonal Tropical Montane Cloud Forest in Veracruz, Mexico by quantifying both water inputs (via foliar uptake, FU) and outputs (day- and night-time transpiration, NT). Our results indicate that FU occurred on average 34% of the time and led to the recovery of 9 % (24 ± 9.1 L) of all the dry-season water transpired from one branch. Night-time transpiration accounted for approximately 17 % (46 L) of dry season transpiration from that same branch. Our results show the clear importance of fog for the canopy water relations of Q. lanceifolia, as well as for other TMCF plants.

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