Plant, Cell & Environment

Cover image for Vol. 37 Issue 6

June 2014

Volume 37, Issue 6

Pages 1259–1490

  1. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Review
    3. Commentaries
    4. Original Articles
    1. Type-II histone deacetylases: elusive plant nuclear signal transducers (pages 1259–1269)

      VINCENT GRANDPERRET, VALÉRIE NICOLAS-FRANCÈS, DAVID WENDEHENNE and STÉPHANE BOURQUE

      Version of Record online: 17 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12236

      Since the beginning of the 21st century, numerous studies have concluded the plant cell nucleus is one of the cellular compartments that define the specificity of the cellular response to an external stimulus or to a specific developmental stage. To that purpose, the nucleus contains all the enzymatic machinery required to carry out a wide variety of nuclear protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) which play an important role in signal transduction pathways leading to the modulation of specific sets of genes. PTMs include protein (de)acetylation which is controlled by the antagonistic activities of histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs). Regarding protein deacetylation, plants are of particular interest: in addition to the RPD3-HDA1 and Sir2 HDAC families that they share with other eukaryotic organisms, plants have developed a specific family called type-II HDACs (HD2s). Interestingly, these HD2s are well conserved in plants and control fundamental biological processes such as seed germination, flowering or the response to pathogens. The aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge regarding this fascinating but still poorly understood nuclear protein family.

  2. Commentaries

    1. Top of page
    2. Review
    3. Commentaries
    4. Original Articles
  3. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Review
    3. Commentaries
    4. Original Articles
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Low levels of ribosomal RNA partly account for the very high photosynthetic phosphorus-use efficiency of Proteaceae species (pages 1276–1298)

      RONAN SULPICE, HIROFUMI ISHIHARA, ARMIN SCHLERETH, GREGORY R. CAWTHRAY, BEATRICE ENCKE, PATRICK GIAVALISCO, ALEXANDER IVAKOV, STÉPHANIE ARRIVAULT, RICARDA JOST, NICOLE KROHN, JOHN KUO, ETIENNE LALIBERTÉ, STUART J. PEARSE, JOHN A. RAVEN, WOLF-RÜDIGER SCHEIBLE, FRANÇOIS TESTE, ERIK J. VENEKLAAS, MARK STITT and HANS LAMBERS

      Version of Record online: 23 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12240

      Proteaceae species in south-western Australia occur on phosphorus- impoverished soils. Their leaves contain very low phosphorus levels, but have relatively high rates of photosynthesis and activities of enzymes involved in primary metabolism, suggesting they do not compromise their metabolic machinery in order to save P. In contrast, we show that low ribosome abundance contributes to the high phosphorus-use efficiency of these Proteaceae species in three ways: less ribosomes means less P investment; the rate of growth and, hence, demand for phosphorus is decreased; young leaves show a delay in the formation of the photosynthetic machinery, exhibiting very low plastidic ribosome abundance and spreading investment of phosphorus in ribosomes over a longer time.

    2. Differential cadmium and zinc distribution in relation to their physiological impact in the leaves of the accumulating Zygophyllum fabago L. (pages 1299–1320)

      ISABELLE LEFÈVRE, KATARINA VOGEL-MIKUŠ, LUKA JEROMEL, PRIMOŽ VAVPETIČ, SÉBASTIEN PLANCHON, IZTOK ARČON, JOHANNES T VAN ELTEREN, GILLES LEPOINT, SYLVIE GOBERT, JENNY RENAUT, PRIMOŽ PELICON and STANLEY LUTTS

      Version of Record online: 17 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12234

      This paper focuses on the importance of histological element distribution in the understanding of plant response to heavy metal accumulation. Through a combined physiological, proteomic and metabolite approach associated to the study of ion compartmentation and complexation, we evidenced that the accumulating species Zygophyllum fabago set up different mechanisms to protect photosynthetically active tissues and to maintain cell turgor against Cd and Zn toxicity.

    3. Osmotic stress at the barley root affects expression of circadian clock genes in the shoot (pages 1321–1337)

      ERMIAS HABTE, LUKAS M. MÜLLER, MUNQEZ SHTAYA, SETH J. DAVIS and MARIA VON KORFF

      Version of Record online: 9 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12242

      The objective of the study was 1. to characterize the effects of the circadian clock on physiological performance under osmotic stress in the important crop barley and 2. to study the plasticity of the clock in response to osmotic stress. We demonstrate that osmotic stress at the barley root altered clock gene expression in the shoot and thus acted as a spatial input signal into the clock. Clock genes controlled the expression of stress-response genes, but had minor effects on physiological traits, such as gas exchange. Unlike in Arabidopsis, barley primary assimilation was thus less controlled by the clock and more responsive to environmental perturbations, such as osmotic stress.

    4. Glucose inhibits root meristem growth via ABA INSENSITIVE 5, which represses PIN1 accumulation and auxin activity in Arabidopsis (pages 1338–1350)

      TING-TING YUAN, HENG-HAO XU, KUN-XIAO ZHANG, TING-TING GUO and YING-TANG LU

      Version of Record online: 10 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12233

      Glucose has been documented to play roles in plant growth and development, while its role in root elongation remains elusive. Our study demonstrates that high concentrations of glucose reduce the size of the root meristem zone by repressing PIN1 accumulation and thereby reducing auxin levels. ABA INSENSITIVE 5 (ABI5) also involves in this process by modulating glucose-regulated PIN1 accumulation. Taken together, our data suggest that ABI5 functions in the glucose-mediated inhibition of the root meristem zone by repressing PIN1 accumulation, thus leading to reduced auxin levels in roots.

    5. Day length dependent restructuring of the leaf transcriptome and metabolome in potato genotypes with contrasting tuberization phenotypes (pages 1351–1363)

      WAYNE L. MORRIS, ROBERT D. HANCOCK, LAURENCE J M. DUCREUX, JENNY A. MORRIS, MUHAMMAD USMAN, SUSAN R. VERRALL, SANJEEV K SHARMA, GLENN BRYAN, JAMES W. MCNICOL, PETE E. HEDLEY and MARK A. TAYLOR

      Version of Record online: 12 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12238

      The molecular mechanisms that control tuber formation have been investigated in detail over the past few decades because the control of tuber initiation, number and size uniformity is probably the largest economic constraint of modern potato production. Recent breakthroughs have identified components of the photoperiodic signalling pathway that leads to tuberisation. In this work we have characterised the biochemical and transcriptional responses in two divergent potato genotypes under contrasting day length regimes and revealed new insights into tuberisation and associated processes. Furthermore, we reveal the intriguing presence of an additional StSP6A allele that is associated with tuber formation under long day length conditions. Overall, the data presented in this study highlight the subtle interplay between components of the clock-CONSTANS-StSP6A axis which collectively may interact to fine-tune the timing of tuberisation.

    6. Pre-dawn stomatal opening does not substantially enhance early-morning photosynthesis in Helianthus annuus (pages 1364–1370)

      LISA AUCHINCLOSS, HSIEN M. EASLON, DIEDRE LEVINE, LISA DONOVAN and JAMES H. RICHARDS

      Version of Record online: 13 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12241

      Most C3 plant species have partially open stomata during the night especially in the 3–5 hours before dawn, yet the function of predawn stomatal opening has not been established. This work investigates the hypothesis that pre-dawn stomatal opening enhances early morning photosynthesis by reducing diffusion limitations to CO 2 at dawn. We found that, for well-watered Helianthus annuus, predawn opening did not substantially enhance early morning A, indicating that it is unlikely to affect A under well-watered agricultural conditions.

    7. Secondary metabolite from Nostoc XPORK14A inhibits photosynthesis and growth of Synechocystis PCC 6803 (pages 1371–1381)

      SUMATHY SHUNMUGAM, JOUNI JOKELA, MATTI WAHLSTEN, NATALIA BATTCHIKOVA, ATEEQ UR REHMAN, IMRE VASS, MAARIT KARONEN, JARI SINKKONEN, PERTTU PERMI, KAARINA SIVONEN, EVA-MARI ARO and YAGUT ALLAHVERDIYEVA

      Version of Record online: 23 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12243

      We identified the secondary metabolite of Nostoc XPORK14A causing these pronounced effects on Synechocystis PCC6803 cells by inhibiting photosynthesis and growth. This compound, designated as M22, has a non-peptide structure. We propose that M22 possesses a dual action mechanism: first, by photo-generation of reactive oxygen species in the presence of light, which in turn affects the photosynthetic machinery of Synechocystis PCC 6803; and second, by altering the in vivo redox status of cells, possibly through inhibition of protein kinases.

    8. Opening the black box: outcomes of interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and non-host genotypes of Medicago depend on fungal identity, interplay between P uptake pathways and external P supply (pages 1382–1392)

      E. FACELLI, T. DUAN, S E. SMITH, H M. CHRISTOPHERSEN, J M. FACELLI and F A. SMITH

      Version of Record online: 12 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12237

      Ecological studies of effects of soil microorganisms on plant-plant interactions are frequently based on a ‘black box’ approach; underlying mechanisms are not investigated and interpretation of data is based on generalised concepts. We provide direct evidence relating to arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) function in phosphorus (P) uptake and variations in effects of different AM fungi on plant interactions which should be taken into account in interpreting ecological data. Importantly, we found evidence of plant control of P uptake for only one of two AM fungi used, and growth responses to AM inoculation of plant genotypes (host and non-host) grown alone did not predict outcomes of intergenotypic interactions.

    9. Inhibition of germination of dormant barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grains by blue light as related to oxygen and hormonal regulation (pages 1393–1403)

      HAI HA HOANG, JULIEN SECHET, CHRISTOPHE BAILLY, JULIETTE LEYMARIE and FRANÇOISE CORBINEAU

      Version of Record online: 12 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12239

      This work demonstrates that blue light inhibits the germination of primary dormant grains placed at low temperature (10 °C), and that exposure longer than 5 days under blue light induces of secondary dormancy.The inability of primary dormant grains to germinate under blue light and induction of secondary dormancy are correlated with an increase in embryo ABA content resulting from an induction of the HvNCED genesand a decrease in HvABA8′OH-1 gene expression. Exposure to blue light also results in changes in GA metabolism gene expression and a strong decrease in HvExpA11 expression suggesting a reduced GA signalling. The reversion of blue light effect by green lightsuggests that this hormonal regulation probably involves cryptochrome.

    10. Altered growth and improved resistance of Arabidopsis against Pseudomonas syringae by overexpression of the basic amino acid transporter AtCAT1 (pages 1404–1414)

      HUAIYU YANG, SANDRA POSTEL, BIRGIT KEMMERLING and UWE LUDEWIG

      Version of Record online: 24 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12244

      The cationic amino acid transporter gene CAT1 was identified as part of a transcriptional pathogen response and its over-expression negatively affected the biomass, but improved the defense against pathogens via salicylic acid.

    11. Morphological and anatomical determinants of mesophyll conductance in wild relatives of tomato (Solanum sect. Lycopersicon, sect. Lycopersicoides; Solanaceae) (pages 1415–1426)

      CHRISTOPHER D. MUIR, ROGER P. HANGARTER, LEONIE C. MOYLE and PHILLIP A. DAVIS

      Version of Record online: 23 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12245

      Leaf anatomy varies widely, even between closely related species, but is nevertheless constrained by fundamental physics. We are interested in understanding the physiological costs and benefits of different leaf anatomies and how that might affect their evolution. In the wild tomato species we study, we find that increased investment in leaf structure hinders one component of photosynthetic performance, specifically, how rapidly carbon dioxide can reach chloroplasts. Even in tender, herbaceous leaves of tomatoes, moderate investment in tougher leaf structure adversely affects fundamental physiological processes.

    12. Biochemical and physiological mechanisms underlying effects of Cucumber mosaic virus on host-plant traits that mediate transmission by aphid vectors (pages 1427–1439)

      KERRY E. MAUCK, CONSUELO M. DE MORAES and MARK C. MESCHER

      Version of Record online: 13 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12249

      This study explores the biochemical mechanisms underlying the influence of a widespread plant pathogen, the non-persistently transmitted Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), on aspects of host-plant phenotype that influence interactions with aphid vectors. This virus has previously been shown to enhance the attractiveness of plants for aphids (via volatile cues), while simultaneously reducing host plant palatability and quality (stimulating dispersal and virus transmission). Our current results demonstrate that CMV infection reduces host plant quality by altering ratios of carbohydrates to free amino acids in both non-vascular cells (those first sampled by aphids and from which virions are acquired) and in phloem sap, and that infection results in an increase in organic volatile precursors and herbivore defense signaling molecules both constitutively and in response to aphid damage. These changes are consistent with observed effects on host-plant phenotype and patterns of vector behavior, as well as with existing knowledge about the use of host plant resources by CMV during replication and systemic spread. Our results thus provide new insight into the transmission ecology of a multi-host plant pathogen of significant economic and ecological importance.

    13. Plasticity of functional traits varies clinally along a rainfall gradient in Eucalyptus tricarpa (pages 1440–1451)

      ELIZABETH H. MCLEAN, SUZANNE M. PROBER, WILLIAM D. STOCK, DOROTHY A. STEANE, BRAD M. POTTS, RENÉ E. VAILLANCOURT and MARGARET BYRNE

      Version of Record online: 13 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12251

      Our study investigates the nature of adaptation to climate in a widespread tree species, a topic of current and growing scientific interest, given the ongoing pressures of climate change. However, surprisingly few studies to date have examined within-species patterns of phenotypic plasticity and local adaptation in climate related traits, in any detail. Our study reveals clinal variation across a rainfall gradient, not only in the values of functional traits, but in the plasticity of several morphological traits. The findings support the hypothesis that the adaptive value of plasticity depends on both the environment and the trait in question, with genetic variation for plasticity itself forming part of local adaptations to climate.

    14. Wood properties of Populus and Betula in long-term exposure to elevated CO2 and O3 (pages 1452–1463)

      KATRI KOSTIAINEN, PEKKA SARANPÄÄ, SVEN-OLOF LUNDQVIST, MARK E. KUBISKE and ELINA VAPAAVUORI

      Version of Record online: 28 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12261

      We studied whether growth changes induced by elevated CO2 and/or O3 were maintained during 11-year exposure in the field and how they reflected to wood structure of aspen and birch. Neither CO2 nor O3 responses were consistent throughout the experiment, but they both varied annually and were more often seen early in the experiment. Our results show that the CO2- and O3-exposed aspen trees displayed a differential balance between efficiency and safety of water transport: the CO2 trees with enhanced radial growth had fewer but hydraulically more efficient larger-diameter vessels. Our study indicates that short-term impact studies conducted with young seedlings may not give a realistic view of long-term ecosystem responses.

    15. Hydroxy-plastochromanol and plastoquinone-C as singlet oxygen products during photo-oxidative stress in Arabidopsis (pages 1464–1473)

      RENATA SZYMAŃSKA, BEATRYCZE NOWICKA and JERZY KRUK

      Version of Record online: 15 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12253

      Hydroxy-plastochromanol and plastoquinone-C, the hydroxyl derivatives of plastochromanol and plastoquinone-9, respectively, are specifically formed from the parent compounds upon the action of singlet oxygen and can be regarded as stable, specific, natural markers of photooxidative stress in vivo. Plastoquinone-C formation dominates during relatively short periods of high light stress, whereas hydroxy-plastochromanol is rather formed when singlet oxygen generation is less pronounced but long lasting.

    16. Metabolomic analysis reveals the potential metabolites and pathogenesis involved in mulberry yellow dwarf disease (pages 1474–1490)

      YING-PING GAI, XUE-JUAN HAN, YI-QUN LI, CHUAN-ZHONG YUAN, YAO-YAO MO, FANG-YUE GUO, QING-XIN LIU and XIAN-LING JI

      Version of Record online: 9 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/pce.12255

      A multi target metabolite profiling was characterized by GC/MS to provide for the first time a global analysis of the changes that occur in mulberry following infection by yellows dwarf phytoplasma. Together with global metabolite analysis, some gene expressions and biochemical changes were analyzed, and the potential molecular mechanisms of these changes were discussed. It was pointed out that both the leaf and phloem sap have a complicated metabolic response to phytoplasma infection, but their metabolic changes and response mechanisms were different.

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