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Figure S1. Residual (%) GSH after 3 h in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) in the absence (control, n = 5) or in the presence of RHP (n = 5) or BHE (n = 5). (Initial substrate concentration: 2 mM; substrate/melanin=1:2 w/w). All values are expressed as the mean ± SD. Significant differences were determined by independent samples two-tailed t test. P < 0.05 is considered significant; exact P-values are shown in each plot.

Figure S2. Residual (%) GSH after 1 h (A), 2 h (B) or 3 h (C) in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) in the presence of variable amounts of RHP (n = 5 for each concentration) (initial concentration of GSH: 2 mM). All values are expressed as the mean ± SD. Trend lines and correlation coefficients are indicated.

Figure S3. Residual (%) GSH after 1 h in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) under different reaction conditions as indicated in the Methods section. All values are expressed as the mean ± SD (control, n = 7; other conditions, n = 5).

Figure S4. EPR spectra of CD-mel (A), RHP (B) and BHE (C). The signal at low magnetic field is due to iron ions. The intermediate signals indicate the presence of copper(II) ions. The singlet signal is from the melanin stable radical (g = 2.005). The presence of iron ions in the CD-mel sample is likely due to contaminants from the phosphate buffer used for melanin preparation.

Figure S5. EPR spectrum of RHP [0.5 mg/ml 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.4)] before (A) and after (B) 24 h incubation in the absence of GSH.

Figure S6. EPR spectrum of CD-mel [0.5 mg/ml 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.4)] before (A) and after 24 h incubation in the absence (B) or in the presence (C) of GSH (1: 5 w/w).

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