• 1
    Seeman MV. Interaction of sex, age, and neuroleptic dose. Compr. Psychiatry 1983; 24: 125128.
  • 2
    Bardenstein KK, McGlashan TH. Gender differences in affective, schizoaffective, and schizophrenic disorders. A review. Schizophr. Res. 1990; 3: 159172.
  • 3
    Hafner H, Riecher A, Maurer K, Loffler W, Munk-Jorgensen P, Stromgren E. How does gender influence age at first hospitalization for schizophrenia? A transnational case register study. Psychol. Med. 1989; 19: 903918.
  • 4
    Castle DJ, Murray RM. The epidemiology of late-onset schizophrenia. Schizophr. Bull. 1993; 19: 691700.
  • 5
    Grigoriadis S, Seeman MV. The role of estrogen in schizophrenia: Implications for schizophrenia practice guidelines for women. Can. J. Psychiatry 2002; 47: 437442.
  • 6
    Nopoulos P, Flaum M, Andreasen NC. Sex differences in brain morphology in schizophrenia. Am. J. Psychiatry 1997; 154: 16481654.
  • 7
    Gur RE, Turetsky BI, Cowell PE et al. Temporolimbic volume reductions in schizophrenia. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 2000; 57: 769775.
  • 8
    Job DE, Whalley HC, McConnell S, Glabus M, Johnstone EC, Lawrie SM. Structural gray matter differences between first-episode schizophrenics and normal controls using voxel-based morphometry. Neuroimage 2002; 17: 880889.
  • 9
    Suzuki M, Nohara S, Hagino H et al. Regional changes in brain gray and white matter in patients with schizophrenia demonstrated with voxel-based analysis of MRI. Schizophr. Res. 2002; 55: 4154.
  • 10
    Bryant NL, Buchanan RW, Vladar K, Breier A, Rothman M. Gender differences in temporal lobe structures of patients with schizophrenia: A volumetric MRI study. Am. J. Psychiatry 1999; 156: 603609.
  • 11
    Boccardi M, Ghidoni R, Govoni S et al. Effects of hormone therapy on brain morphology of healthy postmenopausal women: A voxel-based morphometry study. Menopause 2006; 13: 584591.
  • 12
    Lord C, Buss C, Lupien SJ, Pruessner JC. Hippocampal volumes are larger in postmenopausal women using estrogen therapy compared to past users, never users and men: A possible window of opportunity effect. Neurobiol. Aging 2008; 29: 95101.
  • 13
    Robertson D, Craig M, van Amelsvoort T et al. Effects of estrogen therapy on age-related differences in gray matter concentration. Climacteric 2009; 12: 301309.
  • 14
    Ashburner J, Friston KJ. Voxel-based morphometry: The methods. Neuroimage 2000; 11: 805821.
  • 15
    Koutsouleris N, Gaser C, Jager M et al. Structural correlates of psychopathological symptom dimensions in schizophrenia: A voxel-based morphometric study. Neuroimage 2008; 39: 16001612.
  • 16
    Premkumar P, Fannon D, Kuipers E, Cooke MA, Simmons A, Kumari V. Association between a longer duration of illness, age and lower frontal lobe grey matter volume in schizophrenia. Behav. Brain Res. 2008; 193: 132139.
  • 17
    McClure RK, Phillips I, Jazayerli R, Barnett A, Coppola R, Weinberger DR. Regional change in brain morphometry in schizophrenia associated with antipsychotic treatment. Psychiatry Res. 2006; 148: 121132.
  • 18
    Treloar AE. Menarche, menopause, and intervening fecundability. Hum. Biol. 1974; 46: 89107.
  • 19
    Overall JE, Brown WL. A factor analysis of several measures of choice behavior from a probability learning situation. J. Gen. Psychol. 1962; 66: 115128.
  • 20
    Faustmann PM, Ganz RE. Central cardio-autonomic disorganization in interictal states of epilepsy detected by phase space analysis. Int. J. Neurosci. 1994; 78: 4347.
  • 21
    Thiemann S, Csernansky JG, Berger PA. Rating scales in research: The case of negative symptoms. Psychiatry Res. 1987; 20: 4755.
  • 22
    Good CD, Johnsrude IS, Ashburner J, Henson RN, Friston KJ, Frackowiak RS. A voxel-based morphometric study of ageing in 465 normal adult human brains. Neuroimage 2001; 14: 2136.
  • 23
    Friston KJ, Tononi G, Reeke GN Jr, Sporns O, Edelman GM. Value-dependent selection in the brain: Simulation in a synthetic neural model. Neuroscience 1994; 59: 229243.
  • 24
    Friston KJ, Frith CD, Liddle PF, Dolan RJ, Lammertsma AA, Frackowiak RS. The relationship between global and local changes in PET scans. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 1990; 10: 458466.
  • 25
    Brett M, Johnsrude IS, Owen AM. The problem of functional localization in the human brain. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 2002; 3: 243249.
  • 26
    Rey M, Dellatolas G, Bancaud J, Talairach J. Hemispheric lateralization of motor and speech functions after early brain lesion: Study of 73 epileptic patients with intracarotid amytal test. Neuropsychologia 1988; 26: 167172.
  • 27
    Lancaster JL, Woldorff MG, Parsons LM et al. Automated Talairach atlas labels for functional brain mapping. Hum. Brain Mapp. 2000; 10: 120131.
  • 28
    Glahn DC, Laird AR, Ellison-Wright I et al. Meta-analysis of gray matter anomalies in schizophrenia: Application of anatomic likelihood estimation and network analysis. Biol. Psychiatry 2008; 64: 774781.
  • 29
    Honea R, Crow TJ, Passingham D, Mackay CE. Regional deficits in brain volume in schizophrenia: A meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry studies. Am. J. Psychiatry 2005; 162: 22332245.
  • 30
    Goldman-Rakic PS, Selemon LD. Functional and anatomical aspects of prefrontal pathology in schizophrenia. Schizophr. Bull. 1997; 23: 437458.
  • 31
    Boldsen JL, Jeune B. Distribution of age at menopause in two Danish samples. Hum. Biol. 1990; 62: 291300.
  • 32
    McKinlay SM, Bifano NL, McKinlay JB. Smoking and age at menopause in women. Ann. Intern. Med. 1985; 103: 350356.
  • 33
    Brambilla DJ, McKinlay SM. A prospective study of factors affecting age at menopause. J. Clin. Epidemiol. 1989; 42: 10311039.
  • 34
    Tamada T, Iwasaki H. [Age at natural menopause in Japanese women.] Nihon. Sanka Fujinka Gakkai Zasshi 1995; 47: 947952.
  • 35
    Smith S, Wheeler MJ, Murray R, O'Keane V. The effects of antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinaemia on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. J. Clin. Psychopharmacol. 2002; 22: 109114.
  • 36
    Al-Azzawi F, Palacios S. Hormonal changes during menopause. Maturitas 2009; 63: 135137.
  • 37
    Hafner H, der Heiden W, Hambrecht M et al. [A chapter in systematic schizophrenia research: The search for causal explanations for sex differences in age of onset.] Nervenarzt 1993; 64: 706716.
  • 38
    Resnick SM, Espeland MA, Jaramillo SA et al. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and regional brain volumes: The WHIMS-MRI Study. Neurology 2009; 72: 135142.
  • 39
    Greenberg DL, Payne ME, MacFall JR, Provenzale JM, Steffens DC, Krishnan RR. Differences in brain volumes among males and female hormone-therapy users and nonusers. Psychiatry Res. 2006; 147: 127134.