Development and validation of the Japanese version of the Athens Insomnia Scale

Authors

  • Isa Okajima PhD,

    Corresponding author
    1. Japan Somnology Center, Neuropsychiatric Research Institute, Japan
    2. Yoyogi Sleep Disorder Center, Tokyo, Japan
    • Department of Somnology, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan
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  • Shun Nakajima MA,

    1. Department of Somnology, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan
    2. Japan Somnology Center, Neuropsychiatric Research Institute, Japan
    3. Yoyogi Sleep Disorder Center, Tokyo, Japan
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  • Mina Kobayashi RPSGT,

    1. Department of Somnology, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan
    2. Japan Somnology Center, Neuropsychiatric Research Institute, Japan
    3. Yoyogi Sleep Disorder Center, Tokyo, Japan
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  • Yuichi Inoue PhD, MD

    1. Department of Somnology, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan
    2. Japan Somnology Center, Neuropsychiatric Research Institute, Japan
    3. Yoyogi Sleep Disorder Center, Tokyo, Japan
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Correspondence: Isa Okajima, PhD, Japan Somnology Center, Neuropsychiatric Research Institute, 1-24-10 Yoyogi, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 151-0053, Japan. Email: okajima@somnology.com

Abstract

Aim

The aim of this study was to develop and validate a Japanese version of the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS-J).

Methods

The AIS-J was created using a back-translation design. A total of 477 outpatients with chronic insomnia and 163 individuals from the general community were recruited. Participants were asked to complete the AIS-J along with two other insomnia scales – Japanese versions of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Insomnia Severity Index.

Results

The AIS-J consisted of a two-factor structure: ‘nocturnal sleep problem’ (items 1–5) and ‘daytime dysfunction’ (items 6–8). Internal consistencycoefficients ranged from 0.78 to 0.88. Correlations between the AIS-J and the aforementioned authorized scales were 0.81 and 0.85, respectively. Scores on the AIS-J were significantly higher for the insomnia group than for the control group. The AIS-J cut-off value for identifying pathological insomnia was estimated at 6 points or more, and the AIS-J-nocturnal cut-off value was estimated at 4 points or more.

Conclusions

The AIS-J has sufficient validity and diagnostic utility.

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