• 1
    Phillips LJ, McGorry PD, Garner B et al. Stress, the hippocampus and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis: Implications for the development of psychotic disorders. Aust. N. Z. J. Psychiatry 2006; 40: 725741.
  • 2
    Walker E, Mittal V, Tessner K. Stress and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis in the developmental course of schizophrenia. Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. 2008; 4: 189216.
  • 3
    Upadhyaya AR, El-Sheikh R, MacMaster FP, Diwadkar VA, Keshavan MS. Pituitary volume in neuroleptic-naïve schizophrenia: A structural MRI study. Schizophr. Res. 2007; 90: 266273.
  • 4
    Garner B, Pariante CM, Wood SJ et al. Pituitary volume predicts future transition to psychosis in individuals at ultra-high risk of developing psychosis. Biol. Psychiatry 2005; 58: 417423.
  • 5
    Pariante CM, Vassilopoulou K, Velakoulis D et al. Pituitary volume in psychosis. Br. J. Psychiatry 2004; 185: 510.
  • 6
    Pariante CM, Dazzan P, Danese A et al. Increased pituitary volume in antipsychotic-free and antipsychotic-treated patients of the AEsop first-onset psychosis study. Neuropsychopharmacology 2005; 30: 19231931.
  • 7
    MacMaster FP, El-Sheikh R, Upadhyaya AR, Nutche J, Rosenberg DR, Keshavan M. Effect of antipsychotics on pituitary gland volume in treatment-naïve first-episode schizophrenia: A pilot study. Schizophr. Res. 2007b; 92: 207210.
  • 8
    Takahashi T, Zhou SY, Nakamura K et al. Longitudinal volume changes of the pituitary gland in patients with schizotypal disorder and first-episode schizophrenia. Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry 2011; 35: 177183.
  • 9
    Klomp A, Koolschijn PC, Pol HE, Kahn RS, Haren NE. Hypothalamus and pituitary volume in schizophrenia: A structural MRI study. Int. J. Neuropsychopharmacol. 2012; 15: 281288.
  • 10
    Takahashi T, Kido M, Nakamura K et al. Longitudinal MRI study of the pituitary volume in chronic schizophrenia: A preliminary report. Psychiatry Res. 2012; 202: 8487.
  • 11
    Tournikioti K, Tansella M, Perlini C et al. Normal pituitary volumes in chronic schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res. 2007; 154: 4148.
  • 12
    Sassi RB, Nicoletti M, Brambilla P et al. Decreased pituitary volume in patients with bipolar disorder. Biol. Psychiatry 2001; 50: 271280.
  • 13
    Yung AR, Yuen HP, McGorry PD et al. Mapping the onset of psychosis: The Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States. Aust. N. Z. J. Psychiatry 2005; 39: 964971.
  • 14
    Corcoran CM, Smith C, McLaughlin D, Auther A, Malaspina D, Cornblatt B. HPA axis function and symptoms in adolescents at clinical high risk for schizophrenia. Schizophr. Res. 2012; 135: 170174.
  • 15
    Mittal VA, Walker EF. Minor physical anomalies and vulnerability in prodromal youth. Schizophr. Res. 2011; 129: 116121.
  • 16
    Thompson KN, Berger G, Phillips LJ, Komesaroff P, Purcell R, McGorry PD. HPA axis functioning associated with transition to psychosis: Combined DEX/CRH test. J. Psychiatr. Res. 2007a; 41: 446450.
  • 17
    Thompson KN, Phillips LJ, Komesaroff P et al. Stress and HPA-axis functioning in young people at ultra high risk for psychosis. J. Psychiatr. Res. 2007b; 41: 561569.
  • 18
    Walker EF, Brennan PA, Esterberg M, Brasfield J, Pearce B, Compton MT. Longitudinal changes in cortisol secretion and conversion to psychosis in at-risk youth. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 2010; 119: 401408.
  • 19
    Aiello G, Horowitz M, Hepgul N, Pariante CM, Mondelli V. Stress abnormalities in individuals at risk for psychosis: A review of studies in subjects with familial risk or with ‘at risk’ mental state. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2012; 37: 16001613.
  • 20
    Büschlen J, Berger GE, Borgwardt SJ et al. Pituitary volume increase during emerging psychosis. Schizophr. Res. 2011; 125: 4148.
  • 21
    Mizuno M, Suzuki M, Matsumoto K et al. Clinical practice and research activities for early psychiatric intervention at Japanese leading centres. Early Interv. Psychiatry 2009; 3: 59.
  • 22
    Toru M. Psychotropic Manual, Third edn. Igaku-Shoin, Tokyo, 2008 (in Japanese).
  • 23
    Beck AT, Ward CH, Mendelson M, Mock J, Erbaugh J. An inventory for measuring depression. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 1961; 4: 561571.
  • 24
    Spielberger CD, Gorssuch RL, Lushene PR, Vagg PR, Jacobs GA. Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Consulting Psychologists Press, Palo Alto, CA, 1983.
  • 25
    World Health Organization. The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders: Diagnostic Criteria for Research. World Health Organization, Geneva, 1993.
  • 26
    Hirayasu Y, McCarley RW, Salisbury DF et al. Planum temporale and Heschl gyrus volume reduction in schizophrenia: A magnetic resonance imaging study of first-episode patients. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 2000; 57: 692699.
  • 27
    Kasai K, Shenton ME, Salisbury DF et al. Progressive decrease of left Heschl gyrus and planum temporale gray matter volume in first-episode schizophrenia. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 2003; 60: 766775.
  • 28
    Schooler N, Rabinowitz J, Davidson M et al. Risperidone and haloperidol in first-episode psychosis: A long-term randomized trial. Am. J. Psychiatry 2005; 162: 947953.
  • 29
    Yap HL, Mahendran R, Lim D et al. Risperidone in the treatment of first episode psychosis. Singapore Med. J. 2001; 42: 170173.
  • 30
    Kato K, Saeki N, Yamaura A. Morphological changes on MR imaging of the normal pituitary gland related to age and sex: Main emphasis on pubescent females. J. Clin. Neurosci. 2002; 9: 5356.
  • 31
    Lurie SN, Doraiswamy PM, Husain MM et al. In vivo assessment of pituitary gland volume with magnetic resonance imaging: The effect of age. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 1990; 71: 505508.
  • 32
    MacMaster FP, Keshavan M, Mirza Y et al. Development and sexual dimorphism of the pituitary gland. Life Sci. 2007a; 80: 940944.
  • 33
    Takahashi T, Suzuki M, Tsunoda M et al. The association of genotypic combination of the DRD3 and BDNF polymorphisms on the adhesio interthalamica and medial temporal lobe structures. Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry 2008; 32: 12361242.
  • 34
    Andreasen NC. Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms/Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms [Manual]. University of Iowa Press, Iowa City, 1984.
  • 35
    Takahashi T, Suzuki M, Velakoulis D et al. Increased pituitary volume in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Schizophr. Res. 2009; 108: 114121.
  • 36
    Zhou SY, Suzuki M, Hagino H et al. Decreased volume and increased asymmetry of the anterior limb of the internal capsule in patients with schizophrenia. Biol. Psychiatry 2003; 54: 427436.
  • 37
    Nicolo JP, Berger GE, Garner BA et al. The effect of atypical antipsychotics on pituitary gland volume in patients with first-episode psychosis: A longitudinal MRI study. Schizophr. Res. 2010; 116: 4954.
  • 38
    Mittal VA, Dhruv S, Tessner KD, Walder DJ, Walker EF. The relations among putative biorisk markers in schizotypal adolescents: Minor physical anomalies, movement abnormalities, and salivary cortisol. Biol. Psychiatry 2007; 61: 11791186.
  • 39
    Mitropoulou V, Goodman M, Sevy S et al. Effects of acute metabolic stress on the dopaminergic and pituitary-adrenal axis activity in patients with schizotypal personality disorder. Schizophr. Res. 2004; 70: 2731.
  • 40
    Walker EF, Walder DJ, Reynolds F. Developmental changes in cortisol secretion in normal and at-risk youth. Dev. Psychopathol. 2001; 13: 721732.
  • 41
    Nordentoft M, Thorup A, Petersen L et al. Transition rates from schizotypal disorder to psychotic disorder for first-contact patients included in the OPUS trial. A randomized clinical trial of integrated treatment and standard treatment. Schizophr. Res. 2006; 83: 2940.
  • 42
    Habets P, Collip D, Myin-Germeys I et al. Pituitary volume, stress reactivity and genetic risk for psychotic disorder. Psychol. Med. 2012; 42: 15231533.
  • 43
    Elster AD. Modern imaging of the pituitary. Radiology 1993; 187: 114.
  • 44
    Miki Y, Kataoka ML, Shibata T et al. The pituitary gland: Changes on MR images during the 1st year after delivery. Radiology 2005; 235: 9991004.
  • 45
    Cohrs S, Röher C, Jordan W et al. The atypical antipsychotics olanzapine and quetiapine, but not haloperidol, reduce ACTH and cortisol secretion in healthy subjects. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2006; 185: 1118.
  • 46
    Scheepers FE, Gespen de Wied CC, Kahn RS. The effect of olanzapine treatment on m-chlorophenylpiperazine-induced hormone release in schizophrenia. J. Clin. Psychopharmacol. 2001; 21: 5755582.
  • 47
    Mondelli V, Dazzan P, Gabilondo A et al. Pituitary volume in unaffected relatives of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2008; 33: 10041012.
  • 48
    Aston J, Rechsteiner E, Bull N, Borgwardt S, Gschwandtner U, Riecher-Rössler A. Hyperprolactinaemia in early psychosis: Not only due to antipsychotics. Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry 2010; 34: 13421344.
  • 49
    Doraiswamy PM, Potts JM, Axelson DA et al. MR assessment of pituitary gland morphology in healthy volunteers: Age- and gender-related differences. AJNR Am. J. Neuroradiol. 1992; 13: 12951299.
  • 50
    Axelson DA, Doraiswamy PM, Boyko OB et al. In vivo assessment of pituitary volume with magnetic resonance imaging and systematic stereology: Relationship to dexamethasone suppression test results in patients. Psychiatry Res. 1992; 44: 6370.
  • 51
    Krishnan KR, Doraiswamy PM, Lurie SN et al. Pituitary size in depression. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 1991; 72: 256259.
  • 52
    MacMaster FP, Kusumakar V. MRI study of the pituitary gland in adolescent depression. J. Psychiatr. Res. 2004; 38: 231236.