Development and Validation of the Performance Management Behavior Questionnaire


  • A previous version of this paper was presented at the Southern Management Association meeting in Savannah, Georgia, 2011. The survey validated in this study—the Performance Management Behavior Questionnaire (PMBQ)—is copyrighted by Kinicki and Associates, Inc.

Angelo Kinicki, Department of Management, W. P. Carey School of Business, Arizona State University, PO Box 874006, Tempe, AZ 85287-4006;


This study integrates literature on performance management and organizational behavior with input from managers to develop a 27-item measure of performance management behavior. We used 8 samples, including multisource data, to develop a reliable multidimensional scale that replicated across samples. The scale demonstrated content validity, both convergent and discriminant validity, and incremental validity, and criterion-related validity was established through the scale's relation with measures of management effectiveness and job attitudes. Overall, this study suggests that the Performance Management Behavior Questionnaire (PMBQ) is a reliable and valid measure and that performance management behaviors have important implications for both employees and organizations.