The Invisible Eye? Electronic Performance Monitoring and Employee Job Performance


  • Devasheesh P. Bhave

    Corresponding author
    1. Concordia University
    • Correspondence and requests for reprints should be addressed to Devasheesh Bhave, Lee Kong Chian School of Business, Singapore Management University, 50 Stamford Road, Singapore;

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  • The HR Division of the Academy of Management, the SHRM Foundation, and the Bell Research Center for Business Process Innovations provided valuable financial support for this study. This article is based on a portion of Devasheesh Bhave's doctoral dissertation at the University of Minnesota. Some of the analyses were presented at the 2010 Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology Conference in Atlanta, GA.

  • For their guidance, I particularly thank Theresa Glomb, Joyce Bono, John Budd, Susan Meyer-Goldstein, and Jason Shaw. I am grateful to Miriam Nelson and Clifford Jay for providing data access to the organizations that participated in this study, and to Jacquelyn Thompson for editing assistance. Reeshad Dalal, Gary Johns, Amit Kramer, and Alex Lefter very kindly commented on previous drafts of this article. Finally, I am thankful to Chad Van Iddekinge and two anonymous reviewers for their constructive feedback and suggestions throughout the review process.


To enhance employee performance, many organizations are increasingly using electronic performance monitoring (EPM). The relationship between the frequency of EPM use and employee performance is examined in 2 field studies. In Study 1, which uses a unique longitudinal data set, results reveal that shorter time lags between 2 consecutive employee performance assessments are related to better task performance as indicated by call quality metrics. A second field study using matched supervisor–employee and EPM system data is conducted in 2 call centers to extend these results and to focus more directly on the supervisors’ use of EPM and its relationship with additional performance criteria: counterproductive work behaviors (CWBs) and organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs). Results indicate that more frequent supervisory use of EPM is associated with better task performance and OCB. However, supervisory use of EPM was not significantly related to CWB.