Syllable period (SP) selective calling song processing has been demonstrated for the prothoracic, AN2 auditory neurone that correlates very well with SP-selective phonotaxis by female cricket Gryllus bimaculatus De Geer. Both SP-selective processing by the AN2 and the phonotactic behaviour of the female exhibit substantial plasticity. Thus, the question remains as to whether the selective responses of the AN2 neurone and the selective behaviour of the female match in an individual female. The present study is designed to answer that question. The SP-selective phonotactic behaviour of individual females is evaluated, followed immediately by measuring the SP-selective responses of the same female's AN2 neurone. Very significant correlations are found between the selective responses of the AN2 neurone and the same female's selective behaviour. In 208 possible comparisons (26 females, eight behavioural and neuronal tests each), 186 resulted in matches between behaviour and neuronal processing. Dividing the SP-selective females into two groups (one group that responded phonotactically to the shortest SP tested and a second group that did not respond to this SP) resulted in significantly more selective responses to this shortest SP by the AN2 neurone in the females that responded phonotactically to the SP than for the females who did not respond to the shortest SP. The behavioural responses by these two groups to the other SPs tested are shown to be essentially identical.