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Ultraviolet Reflection Irradiances and Exposures in The Constructed Environment For Horizontal, Vertical and Inclined Surfaces


Corresponding author email: (Joanna Turner)


Ultraviolet (UV) reflection in the urban constructed environment is not well understood for topical issues such as measuring and modeling the received UV exposure due to that UV reflection for outdoor workers. Both predominantly specular and diffuse reflecting surface types have been identified and investigated for the erythemal UV reflection ratio variation due to solar zenith angle and orientation. This paper presents relationships between erythemal UV reflection ratios measured for non-horizontal and horizontal surfaces, with predominantly specular surface types indicating stronger relationships with solar zenith angles than diffuse reflecting surfaces types. Erythemal UV exposures caused by the same reflecting surface types at three inclinations are also investigated. Non-horizontal surfaces can increase erythemal UV exposures compared to erythemal UV exposures received from the same horizontal surface by factors of 1.07–1.46 for specific body sites and by 1.01–1.70 for averages of group body sites for zinc aluminium coated steel sheeting.