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Mapping Grape Berry Photosynthesis by Chlorophyll Fluorescence Imaging: The Effect of Saturating Pulse Intensity in Different Tissues

Authors

  • Richard Breia,

    1. Departamento de Biologia and Centro de Investigação e de Tecnologias Agro-ambientais e Biológicas (CITAB), Universidade do Minho, Braga, Portugal
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  • Sónia Vieira,

    1. Departamento de Biologia Vegetal and Centro de Biodiversidade, Genómica Integrativa e Funcional (BioFIG), Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal
    2. Centro de Oceanografia, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal
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  • Jorge Marques da Silva,

    1. Departamento de Biologia Vegetal and Centro de Biodiversidade, Genómica Integrativa e Funcional (BioFIG), Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal
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  • Hernâni Gerós,

    1. Departamento de Biologia and Centro de Investigação e de Tecnologias Agro-ambientais e Biológicas (CITAB), Universidade do Minho, Braga, Portugal
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  • Ana Cunha

    Corresponding author
    • Departamento de Biologia and Centro de Investigação e de Tecnologias Agro-ambientais e Biológicas (CITAB), Universidade do Minho, Braga, Portugal
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Corresponding author email: accunha@bio.uminho.pt (Ana Cunha)

Abstract

Grape berry development and ripening depends mainly on imported photosynthates from leaves, however, fruit photosynthesis may also contribute to the carbon economy of the fruit. In this study pulse amplitude modulated chlorophyll fluorescence imaging (imaging-PAM) was used to assess photosynthetic properties of tissues of green grape berries. In particular, the effect of the saturation pulse (SP) intensity was investigated. A clear tissue-specific distribution pattern of photosynthetic competence was observed. The exocarp revealed the highest photosynthetic capacity and the lowest susceptibility to photoinhibition, and the mesocarp exhibited very low fluorescence signals and photochemical competence. Remarkably, the seed outer integument revealed a photosynthetic ability similar to that of the exocarp. At a SP intensity of 5000 μmol m−2 s−1 several photochemical parameters were decreased, including maximum fluorescence in dark-adapted (Fm) and light-adapted (F'm) samples and effective quantum yield of PSII (ΦII), but the inner tissues were susceptible to a SP intensity as low as 3200 μmol m−2 s−1 under light-adapted conditions, indicating a photoinhibitory interaction between SP and actinic light intensities and repetitive exposure to SP. These results open the way to further studies concerning the involvement of tissue-specific photosynthesis in the highly compartmentalized production and accumulation of organic compounds during grape berry development.

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