Photochemistry and Photobiology

Cover image for Vol. 87 Issue 5

September/October 2011

Volume 87, Issue 5

Pages 945–1188

  1. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Invited Reviews
    4. Research Articles
    5. Research Note
    1. Editorial (page 945)

      Jean Cadet

      Version of Record online: 2 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.00987.x

  2. Invited Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Invited Reviews
    4. Research Articles
    5. Research Note
    1. You have free access to this content
      Artificial Photosynthesis: From Molecular Catalysts for Light-driven Water Splitting to Photoelectrochemical Cells (pages 946–964)

      Eugen S. Andreiadis, Murielle Chavarot-Kerlidou, Marc Fontecave and Vincent Artero

      Version of Record online: 8 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.00966.x

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      This review surveys the recent achievements in the field of artificial photosynthesis and light-driven water splitting. Homogeneous photocatalytic H2- and O2-evolving systems (bioconstructs as well as synthetic molecules) are presented, with a specific focus on those containing noble-metal-free catalytic centres. Openings regarding the development of a fully molecular-based technological device for water splitting are discussed.

      Corrected by:

      Erratum: Artificial Photosynthesis: From Molecular Catalysts for Light-driven Water Splitting to Photoelectrochemical Cells

      Vol. 87, Issue 6, 1478, Version of Record online: 13 SEP 2011

    2. You have free access to this content
      The Consequences of UV-Induced Immunosuppression for Human Health (pages 965–977)

      Mary Norval and Gary M. Halliday

      Version of Record online: 17 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.00969.x

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      Exposure to UV radiation causes immune suppression. This can have both beneficial and adverse consequences for human health, the most important of the latter being skin cancer (illustrated). The balance between these two aspects in terms of personal sun exposure is considered.

    3. You have free access to this content
      Melanocortin 1 Receptor Variants: Functional Role and Pigmentary Associations (pages 978–987)

      Clio Dessinioti, Christina Antoniou, Andreas Katsambas and Alexander J. Stratigos

      Version of Record online: 17 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.00970.x

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      Most published articles have studied the association of MC1R variants with skin cancer risk. However, it is of interest why this association exists and how MC1R variants influence the function of the MC1 receptor. Our manuscript provides an overview on how the melanocortin system regulates pigmentation, the effect of MC1R variants on the physiologic function of the MC1 receptor, and how specific MC1R variants are associated with distinct human pigmentation phenotypes. The study of the biochemical properties of variant MC1R has important implications for our understanding of the molecular basis of skin carcinogenesis, and will provide important clues to key aspects of MC1R function and association with defined human skin phenotypes and susceptibility to skin cancer.

  3. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Invited Reviews
    4. Research Articles
    5. Research Note
    1. Preparation of TiO2 Thin Films Using Water-soluble Titanium Complexes and Their Photoinduced Properties (pages 988–994)

      Ken-ichi Katsumata, Yukiaki Ohno, Koji Tomita, Munetoshi Sakai, Akira Nakajima, Masato Kakihana, Akira Fujishima, Nobuhiro Matsushita and Kiyoshi Okada

      Version of Record online: 7 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.00944.x

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      Titanium dioxide (TiO2) films prepared by using water-soluble titanium complexes had different surface microstructures with the kind of the complexes. The contact angle on the samples decreased with UV irradiation time, but the hydrophilic conversion rate seems to be different from each other. With increasing the grain size on the film surface, the rate was slow. It is considered that grain size and stress yielded to the film surface are important factors on the photoinduced hydrophilicity.

    2. Photocatalytic Reduction of CO2 over Cu-TiO2/Molecular Sieve 5A Composite (pages 995–1001)

      Basavaraju Srinivas, Ballamoole Shubhamangala, Kannekanti Lalitha, Police Anil Kumar Reddy, Valluri Durga Kumari, Machiraju Subrahmanyam and Bhudev Ranjan De

      Version of Record online: 15 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.00946.x

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      TiO2 and different (wt% Cu) loaded TiO2 and supported on molecular sieve 5A catalysts were prepared by impregnation and solid-state dispersion methods. Photocatalytic reduction of CO2 in water and alkaline solution was investigated in a batch reactor. The Cu-TiO2 supported on molecular sieve catalyst promotes the charge separation which leads to an increase in the selective formation of oxalic acid in addition to methanol, acetic acid and traces of methane. The product formation is due to the high adsorption of CO2, water and product shape selectivity of the composite photocatalyst. The photocatalytic activity is related to its physicochemical properties.

    3. Sol-Gel Low-temperature Synthesis of Stable Anatase-type TiO2 Nanoparticles Under Different Conditions and its Photocatalytic Activity (pages 1002–1008)

      Mohammad A. Behnajady, Hamed Eskandarloo, Nasser Modirshahla and Mohammad Shokri

      Version of Record online: 28 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.00954.x

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      A comparison between the effects of the five synthesis variables on the photocatalytic activity of synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles indicates that the acetic acid and water molar ratios have a larger effect in photocatalytic activity than other parameters.

    4. Photocatalytic Activity and Related Surface Properties of Transparent ZnO Films Prepared by a Low-temperature Aqueous Route (pages 1009–1015)

      Hajime Wagata, Ken-ichi Katsumata, Naoki Ohashi, Munetoshi Sakai, Akira Nakajima, Akira Fujishima, Kiyoshi Okada and Nobuhiro Matsushita

      Version of Record online: 16 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.00964.x

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      Transparent ZnO films were prepared by a spin-spray method at 90°C using solutions with various trisodium citrate concentrations. Photocatalytic activities of the ZnO films were evaluated from photodecomposition of methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution. With increasing citrate concentrations, the ZnO films came to have higher transmittances in visible region but lower MB decomposition rate. The results well corresponded to the O1s XPS spectra of the ZnO films, indicating increasing intensity of oxygen subpeaks by increasing citrate concentration. The possible mechanism for the photocatalytic activity was discussed from the viewpoint of film texture, crystal orientation and surface chemical state.

    5. Feasibility of Light-emitting Diode Uses for Annular Reactor Inner-coated with TiO2 or Nitrogen-doped TiO2 for Control of Dimethyl Sulfide (pages 1016–1023)

      Wan-Kuen Jo, Sung-Soo Eun and Seung-Ho Shin

      Version of Record online: 16 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.00965.x

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      Contrast to the photocatalytic decomposition (PD) efficiency, the ratios of PD efficiency to the electric power consumption were rather higher for the photocatalytic systems using UV- or visible-LED lamps, except for two LED lamps (yellow- and red-LED lamps), compared to the photocatalytic systems using conventional lamps.

    6. Structural Reorganizations Control Intermolecular Conductance and Charge Trapping in Paraquat-Tetraphenylborate Inverse Photochemical Cell (pages 1024–1030)

      Nikolai Lebedev, Scott A. Trammell, Walter Dressick, Gary S. Kedziora, Igor Griva and Joel M. Schnur

      Version of Record online: 16 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.00961.x

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      The formation of an inverse photochemical cell by association of a viologen derivative, l,l′-dimethyl 4,4′-bipyridinium and bis tetraphenylborate (formation of PQ(BPh4)2 complex) is accompanied by charge separation between the reactant leading to the formation of an internally ionized structure. The separated charges within the complex are stabilized due to the structural reorganization of both PQ (the twisting of pyridinium rings) and BPh4 (phenyl rings rotation), eliminating the possibility of electronic coupling of these components through the delocalized molecular orbitals. The quanta of light do not seem to be directly involved in the formation of the complex, but can provide energy for fast recombination of separated charges.

    7. Peptide Release upon Photoconversion of 2-Nitrobenzyl Compounds into Nitroso Derivatives (pages 1031–1035)

      Koji Nakayama, Inge Heise, Helmut Görner and Wolfgang Gärtner

      Version of Record online: 8 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.00957.x

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      Photocaged amino acids, histidine and aspartate were incorporated by chemical synthesis into peptides. The peptides show sequence motifs of proteins from the bacterial two-component signaling system. The light-labile protection group, 2-nitro-4,5-dimethoxybenzyl, could be removed by ultraviolet irradiation, releasing the active peptides. In both cases, the triplet forms and the aci-nitro species were generated transiently and yielded the 2-nitroso-4,5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde.

    8. Anion/Cation Induced Optical Switches Based on Luminescent Lanthanide (Tb3+ and Eu3+) Hydrogels (pages 1036–1041)

      Liguo Zhang, Chaoliang Tan, Qianming Wang and Cheng Cheng Zhang

      Version of Record online: 15 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.00947.x

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      Two novel Tb(III) and Eu(III) containing hydrogels were designed and have typical and easily distinguished narrow line emissions in the green and red region, respectively. In particular, the excitation wavelength for Eu complex can be extended into nearly visible light range (λex = 395 nm). Interestingly, we discover that these target materials not only exhibit selective emission response towards HSO4, but also give unique quenching to Cu2+.

    9. Enhanced Melanin Fluorescence by Stepwise Three-photon Excitation (pages 1042–1049)

      Josef Kerimo, Milind Rajadhyaksha and Charles A. DiMarzio

      Version of Record online: 28 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.00949.x

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      Eumelanin (from Sepia officinalis and black human hair) fluorescence was activated by near-infrared radiation and enhanced by almost three orders of magnitude. Two components with enhanced fluorescence were observed and could be distinguished by their excitation wavelength and laser power dependence. One was excited with wavelengths in the visible region and had linear absorption dependence (red color in the figure) and the other was excited in the near-infrared region with three photons (green color in the figure). The third-order dependence is due to a step-wise excited-state absorption process.

    10. Use of Engineered Unique Cysteine Residues to Facilitate Oriented Coupling of Proteins Directly to a Gold Substrate (pages 1050–1057)

      Gerhard J. Magis, John D. Olsen, Nicholas P. Reynolds, Graham J. Leggett, C. Neil Hunter, Thijs J. Aartsma and Raoul N. Frese

      Version of Record online: 28 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.00948.x

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      The integral membrane protein light-harvesting complex 2 of Rhodobacter sphaeroides has been engineered to express cysteine residues on either the cytoplasmic or periplasmic face of the complex. These cysteine residues permit the oriented attachment of the isolated complexes on a gold surface. The complexes are not denatured by this simple attachment procedure as demonstrated by fluorescence emission spectroscopy.

    11. Photoprotecting Action and Phytochemical Analysis of a Multiple Radical Scavenger Lipophilic Fraction Obtained from the Leaf of the Seagrass Thalassia testudinum (pages 1058–1066)

      Erik L. Regalado, María Rodríguez, Roberto Menéndez, Xavier Fernandez, Ivones Hernández, Ruth A. Morales, Miguel D. Fernández, Olivier P. Thomas, Jorge A. Pino, Ángel R. Concepción and Abilio Laguna

      Version of Record online: 7 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.00945.x

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      The lipophilic fraction F1 obtained from Thalassia testudinum mainly composed of benzene derivatives, strongly scavenged DPPH˙, HO˙, RO2˙ and O2˙; markedly inhibited the spontaneous lipid peroxidation in brain homogenates and the LPS-stimulated nitrite generation on RAW624.7 macrophages. In agreement with these findings, its topical application strikingly reduced skin damage on mice exposed to acute UVB radiation and significantly attenuated the lipid peroxidation in vivo after acute exposure to UVB irradiation. This suggests that the antioxidant activity of F1 partially accounted for its skin protective action.

    12. Production of ROS by Photosensitized Anthracene Under Sunlight and UV-R at Ambient Environmental Intensities (pages 1067–1076)

      Syed Faiz Mujtaba, Ashish Dwivedi, Mohana Krishna Reddy Mudiam, Daoud Ali, Neera Yadav and Ratan Singh Ray

      Version of Record online: 8 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.00955.x

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      Mechanism of anthracene was assessed on HaCaT cell line at ambient environmental intensities of sunlight/UV-R. Anthracene under sunlight/UV-R exposure produced anthrone and 9,10 anthracenedione. Generation of 1O2, O2•−, and OH was measured under UV-R/sunlight exposure. Photodegradation of 2-deoxyguanosine and linoleic acid peroxidation showed that ROS were mainly responsible for phototoxicity. Anthracene generates intracellular ROS in cell line. Maximum phototoxicity was observed under sunlight. Anthracene induced cell cycle arrest at G1 phase. RT-PCR study shows upregulation of CYP 1A1 and 1B1 genes. Thus, the study suggests that ROS and DNA damage were mainly responsible for anthracene phototoxicity.

    13. Single Cell Responses to Spatially Controlled Photosensitized Production of Extracellular Singlet Oxygen (pages 1077–1091)

      Brian W. Pedersen, Louise E. Sinks, Thomas Breitenbach, Nickolass B. Schack, Sergei A. Vinogradov and Peter R. Ogilby

      Version of Record online: 28 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.00951.x

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      Use of extracellularly generated singlet oxygen can provide helpful insight in mechanistic studies of cell death.

    14. UVA, UVB and UVC Induce Differential Response Signaling Pathways Converged on the eIF2α Phosphorylation (pages 1092–1104)

      Julia Li Zhong, Li Yang, Fenglin Lü, Han Xiao, Ruoqi Xu, Lijuan Wang, Feng Zhu and Yiguo Zhang

      Version of Record online: 16 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.00963.x

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      Solar UV light is divided into UVA, UVB and UVC based on wavelengths. All of UVC and most of UVB are absorbed by the ozone layer if being not destroyed, while UVA accounts for more than 95% of UV irradiation reaching the Earth surface and thus represents a major cause of human skin injury and disease. Of particular interest, we have identified the specificity of multiple signaling transduction pathways (e.g. ERKs, JNKs, p38 kinase, PI-3 kinase and its family members ATM and ATR) that are activated by distinct UV wavelengths. UVA, UVB and UVC induce differential response signaling networks converged on eIF2α through its cognate kinase PKR. An important finding to note is that PKR is activated through phosporylation by either MSK1 or RSK1, two downstream kinases of MAPKs/PI-3 kinase-mediated signaling pathways. Consequently, distinct UV-induced pathological processes are activated possibly by overstimulation resulting from eIF2α reprogrammed protein translation and altered gene expression profiling.

    15. Ultraviolet-B Irradiation Induces Differential Regulations of Hyaluronidase Expression and Activity in Normal Human Keratinocytes (pages 1105–1112)

      Sandrine Kurdykowski, Solène Mine, Vincent Bardey, Louis Danoux, Christine Jeanmaire, Gilles Pauly, Eva Brabencova, Yanusz Wegrowski and François Xavier Maquart

      Version of Record online: 28 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.00959.x

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      The most important extrinsic factor in skin aging is UV-B irradiation. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is an abundant component of skin extracellular matrix and a decrease of HA during skin photoaging was reported previously. In this paper, we showed that UV-B irradiation induces a strong increase of hyaluronidase activity in keratinocytes. The degradation of epidermal HA by hyaluronidase might strongly alter epidermal homeostasis and may be implied in skin photoaging.

    16. Photodynamic Treatment of Chaoborus crystallinus Larvae with Chlorophyllin Induces Necrosis and Apoptosis (pages 1113–1122)

      Stephanie Wohllebe, Claudia Ulbrich, Daniela Grimm, Jessica Pietsch, Gilmar Erzinger, Roland Richter, Michael Lebert, Peter Rolf Richter and Donat-Peter Häder

      Version of Record online: 28 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.00958.x

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      Chlorophyll derivates are possible measures in control of mosquitos. Mosquito larvae were killed photodynamically after application of chlorophyll derivates such as chlorophyllin and subsequent irradiation. Using Chaoborus crystallinus as transparent model system effects of photodynamic treatment with chlorophyllin were determined on the cellular level. An uptake of about 13 ng of chlorphyllin was found to be sufficient in order to induce photodynamic destruction of the larvae. The intestine was found to be the main point of attack after incorporation of chlorophyllin. Apoptosis and necrosis were detected all above in the gut cells of treated larvae.

    17. A UVC Device for Intra-luminal Disinfection of Catheters: In Vitro Tests on Soft Polymer Tubes Contaminated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans (pages 1123–1128)

      Jimmy Bak, Tanja Begovic, Thomas Bjarnsholt and Anne Nielsen

      Version of Record online: 16 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.00962.x

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      The figure shows a UVC disinfection device, which can be connected to a Luer catheter hub. The newly developed device has recently been tested on soft polymer tubes contaminated with a pallet of microorganisms, including Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ca 103 CFU mL−1). The tubes were equipped with a modified catheter hub and interfaced to the disinfection device via a middle piece separating the disinfection device from the hub. Our results show UVC killing in a dose- and time-dependent manner, with no viable counts of bacteria after 2 min of radiation.

    18. Calculation of Singlet Oxygen Dose Using Explicit and Implicit Dose Metrics During Benzoporphyrin Derivative Monoacid Ring A (BPD-MA)-PDT In Vitro and Correlation with MLL Cell Survival (pages 1129–1137)

      Mark A. Weston and Michael S. Patterson

      Version of Record online: 7 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.00942.x

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      Oxygen consumption, cell survival, fluorescence photobleaching and photoproduct formation were investigated during benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid (BPD-MA)-photodynamic therapy (PDT) of MAT-LyLu cells in vitro. Survival was correlated with the total amount of oxygen consumed by PDT. A photobleaching-based singlet oxygen dose metric was found to predict survival independent of intracellular BPD-MA concentration or treatment fluence rate. Two singlet oxygen dose metrics based on photoproduct kinetics could not be correlated with cell survival over the full range of intracellular BPD-MA concentrations used.

    19. Roles of Porphyrin and Iron Metabolisms in the δ-Aminolevulinic Acid (ALA)-induced Accumulation of Protoporphyrin and Photodamage of Tumor Cells (pages 1138–1145)

      Yoshiko Ohgari, Yoshinobu Miyata, Taeko Miyagi, Saki Gotoh, Takano Ohta, Takao Kataoka, Kazumichi Furuyama and Shigeru Taketani

      Version of Record online: 28 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.00950.x

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      When the expression of porphyrin-biosynthetic enzymes was increased, the δ-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-induced accumulation of protoporphyrin (PPIX) as well as photodamage was increased. Iron from heme by the HO reaction was reused for the heme production, and the decrease of the HO-1/-2 expression led to enhancement of the ALA-induced accumulation of PPIX and photodamage. The decrease of mitochondrial utilization of iron by the knockdown of mitoferrin-2 and frataxin also enhanced the ALA effect.

    20. Photodynamic Action of Rose Bengal Silica Nanoparticle Complex on Breast and Oral Cancer Cell Lines (pages 1146–1151)

      Abha Uppal, Beena Jain, Pradeep Kumar Gupta and Kaustuv Das

      Version of Record online: 17 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.00967.x

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      Rose Bengal was conjugated to organically modified silica nanoparticles by electrostatic or covalent method. The toxicity of the free drug and drug-nanoparticle complex was studied against oral (4451) and breast (MCF-7) cancer cell lines. Both complexes with nanoparticles were more phototoxic than free Rose Bengal, with the covalent complex being the more effective. The enhanced phototoxicity is attributed to the enhanced uptake of the drug-nanoparticle complex.

    21. A New Naturally Derived Photosensitizer and Its Phototoxicity on Head and Neck Cancer Cells (pages 1152–1158)

      Siang Hui Lim, Hong Boon Lee and Anthony Siong Hock Ho

      Version of Record online: 7 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.00939.x

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      151-Hydroxypurpurin-7-lactone ethyl methyl diester (compound 1) was evaluated in vitro in a panel of head and neck cancer cell lines for its photodynamic therapy (PDT) activity. In this study, compound 1 showed higher intracellular uptake and singlet oxygen production compared with pheophorbide-a, a known photosensitizer which was used as a reference. When irradiated with 9.6 J cm−2 of light, compound 1 showed improved in vitro PDT potency with IC50 of 0.14–0.22 μm and ability to induce G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis cell death.

    22. Low-level Laser Therapy Improves Skeletal Muscle Performance, Decreases Skeletal Muscle Damage and Modulates mRNA Expression of COX-1 and COX-2 in a Dose-dependent Manner (pages 1159–1163)

      Patrícia de Almeida, Rodrigo Álvaro Brandão Lopes-Martins, Shaiane Silva Tomazoni, José Antônio Silva Jr, Paulo de Tarso Camillo de Carvalho, Jan Magnus Bjordal and Ernesto Cesar Pinto Leal Junior

      Version of Record online: 17 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.00968.x

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      Skeletal muscle fatigue is a novel area of research in phototherapy. During the previous years, animal experiments and clinical trials performed by our research group have shown that red, infrared and mixed wavelengths successfully delayed the development of skeletal muscle fatigue and reduced the expected enhancement in muscle damage after exercises. However, effects in COX-1 and COX-2 still remain unknown. In this experiment, we observed that pre-exercise infrared laser irradiation (904 nm) with dose of 1.0 J enhances skeletal muscle performance and decreases post-exercise skeletal muscle damage. Additionally, 1.0 J group showed increased COX-1 and decreased COX-2 mRNA expression compared with control group and 0.1, 0.3 and 3.0 J laser groups.

    23. Detection of Altered Extracellular Matrix in Surface Layers of Unstable Carotid Plaque: An Optical Spectroscopy, Birefringence and Microarray Genetic Analysis (pages 1164–1172)

      Renee M. Korol, Peter B. Canham, Li Liu, Kasinath Viswanathan, Gary G. Ferguson, Rob R. Hammond, Helen M. Finlay, Henry V Baker, Cecilia Lopez and Alexandra R. Lucas

      Version of Record online: 28 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.00960.x

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      Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy provides an effective nondestructive method of supplying information on connective tissue protein composition, specifically collagen and elastin. Optical spectroscopy was used to investigate the surface of human unstable carotid plaque and correlated with histology, birefringence and gene expression. Optical spectroscopy is an effective method for identifying clinically relevant compositional changes in connective tissue proteins associated with vascular remodeling despite the variability in plaque structure. Consistent regional differences were detected in the carotid specimens. In addition, birefringence measurements demonstrated mechanical rigidity and weakening of the fibrous cap with complementary changes in connective tissue gene expression.

    24. Association of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 Levels in Adult New Zealanders with Ethnicity, Skin Color and Self-Reported Skin Sensitivity to Sun Exposure (pages 1173–1178)

      Sofia Nessvi, Lisa Johansson, Jan Jopson, Alistair Stewart, Anthony Reeder, Richard McKenzie and Robert K. Scragg

      Version of Record online: 28 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.00956.x

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      The associations which self-defined ethnicity and skin color, objectively measured using a spectrophotometer, had with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3], was assessed in a multiethnic sample of 503 adult volunteers aged 18–85 years in New Zealand. Skin color was associated with 25(OH)D3, but this association mostly disappeared after adjusting for ethnicity. In contrast, ethnicity remained associated with 25(OH)D3 after adjusting for skin color and skin reaction-to-sun exposure. These results indicate that self-defined ethnicity is a major determinant of serum 25(OH)D3, with little additional variation explained by objective measures of skin color.

    25. Sun Protecting and Sun Exposing Behaviors: Testing Their Relationship Simultaneously with Indicators of Ultraviolet Exposure Among Adolescents (pages 1179–1183)

      Melinda Williams, Peter Caputi, Sandra C. Jones and Don Iverson

      Version of Record online: 28 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.00952.x

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      In this study, we tested three general linear models. The first model examined the extent to which sun protecting behaviors predicted three indicators of UV exposure (number of sunburns, degree of current tan and desired depth of tan). The second model examined the extent to which sun exposing behaviors predicted the indicators. In the third model, sun exposing and sun protecting behaviors were included in the same model. The results highlight that including sun exposing behaviors as well as sun protection behaviors provides a modest increase in explanatory power of UV exposure among adolescents.

  4. Research Note

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Invited Reviews
    4. Research Articles
    5. Research Note
    1. A Screening Technique Useful for Testing the Effectiveness of Novel “Self-Cleaning” Photocatalytic Surfaces (pages 1184–1188)

      Shane T. Finn, Jessica A. Strnad, Patricia D. Barreto, Megan E. Fox, Jorge Torres, James D. Sweeney and José C. Barreto

      Version of Record online: 16 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.00953.x

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      In this report, we describe a high-throughput screening methodology that can be used to quickly determine the effectiveness of newly synthesized photocatalysts, in the context of destroying organic molecules which have been painted onto a photocatalytic surface by spraying, with photocatalytic destruction proceeding in ambient air. Our method can utilize photocatalysts that are synthesized as powders (such as doped and undoped titanium oxide) and which are then calcined onto a glass substrate disk at 600°C. Herein, we have used UV illumination of sample surfaces but the method is general and can accommodate any region of the light spectrum.