Photochemistry and Photobiology

Cover image for Vol. 87 Issue 6

November/December 2011

Volume 87, Issue 6

Pages 1189–1486

  1. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Invited Reviews
    4. Research Articles
    5. Research Notes
    6. Letters to the Editor
    7. Erratum
    8. Book Review
    9. List of Reviewers
    1. Editorial (page 1189)

      Jean Cadet

      Article first published online: 21 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.01009.x

  2. Invited Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Invited Reviews
    4. Research Articles
    5. Research Notes
    6. Letters to the Editor
    7. Erratum
    8. Book Review
    9. List of Reviewers
    1. You have free access to this content
      Photoinduced Proton-Coupled Electron Transfers in Biorelevant Phenolic Systems (pages 1190–1203)

      Julien Bonin and Marc Robert

      Article first published online: 3 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.00996.x

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      Proton-coupled electron transfer reactions (PCET) are ubiquitous in nature as well as in catalysis, e.g. in the activation of small molecules (water, dioxygen, dihydrogen, carbon dioxide). The review focuses on the use of photochemical techniques to study the mechanism of these PCET reactions, with particular emphasis on biorelevant phenolic molecules. Such compounds are widely encountered as cofactors in many enzymatic reactions and are also good model compounds. The various mechanisms (concerted vs stepwise) are presented and discussed, in particular the concerted reactions which provide the advantage avoiding the formation of high-energy intermediates, thus leading to efficient processes.

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      Photosensitization Reactions In Vitro and In Vivo (pages 1204–1213)

      Bonnie I. Kruft and Alexander Greer

      Article first published online: 3 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.00993.x

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      This review highlights progress in the area of photosensitization. Singlet oxygen is a key species produced in many dye-sensitized reactions, although electron- and hydrogen-transfer reactions can give rise to other reactive oxygen species, such as hydroxyl radicals and superoxide. An area of topical interest is photoprotection against yellowing, oxygenation and degradation.

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      Photosensitization Reactions of Fluoroquinolones and Their Biological Consequences (pages 1214–1229)

      Guido de Guidi, Giuseppina Bracchitta and Alfio Catalfo

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.00978.x

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      A focus on photosensitization by fluoroquinolone antibacterial drugs. An excursus in different models for the study of biosubstrate photodamage. Effect of polarity of the medium, ions, pH, binding with biomolecules in fluoroquinolones photochemistry. A description of the extensive and cross-targeted pathological implications based on systems of increasing molecular complexity. In vivo and in vitro evidences for photoallergy, phototoxicity, photomutagenesis and photocarcinogenesis mediated by these drugs.

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      γH2Ax: Biomarker of Damage or Functional Participant in DNA Repair “All that Glitters Is not Gold!” (pages 1230–1239)

      James E. Cleaver

      Article first published online: 3 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.00995.x

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      Source for image: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H2ax. The figure was created by the user EMW, userpage: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Emw. Nucleosomal structure showing the looping of DNA around the histone core and the extended tail of γH2Ax that is phosphorylated during the DNA damage response. Serine 139 is phosphorylated in response to DNA damage, whereas tyrosine 142 is phosphorylated constitutively and dephosphorylated in response to DNA damage. Whereas serine 139 phosphorylation supports repair of DNA double strand breaks, in response to UV damage it appears to be a biomarker for lethal blocked replication forks and apoptosis. Other nucleosomal histones are also subject to secondary modification by phosphorylation, acetylation, methylation and ubiquitination that generates binding sites for many regulatory proteins.

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      Temoporfin (Foscan®, 5,10,15,20-Tetra(m-hydroxyphenyl)chlorin)—A Second-generation Photosensitizer (pages 1240–1296)

      Mathias O. Senge and Johan C. Brandt

      Article first published online: 19 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.00986.x

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      5,10,15,20-Tetra(m-hydroxyphenylchlorin (mTHPC, Foscan®) is the first second-generation photosensitizer that has reached clinical use. As such it presents an illuminating example for the use and development of tetrapyrroles in photodynamic therapy. The figure shows SKGT-4 cells incubated with Foscan and stained for cytoplasmic membrane.

  3. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Invited Reviews
    4. Research Articles
    5. Research Notes
    6. Letters to the Editor
    7. Erratum
    8. Book Review
    9. List of Reviewers
    1. Theoretical Study of Electron Transfer in Rhodobacter sphaeroides Reaction Center (pages 1297–1307)

      Miyabi Hiyama and Nobuaki Koga

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.00997.x

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      We performed the ab initio MO calculations to investigate the field effects of protein on the electron transfer in Rhodobacter sphaeroides reaction center. The charge effect of proteins reorders the orbital energies for the electron to take a particular route. It is also found that the long side chain of bacteriochlorophyll a facilitates this particular route

    2. Synthesis of Mg-Doped TiO2 Nanoparticles under Different Conditions and its Photocatalytic Activity (pages 1308–1314)

      Mohammad A. Behnajady, Bahare Alizade and Nasser Modirshahla

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.01002.x

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      Mg-doped TiO2 nanoparticles display Type-III isotherm and H3 hysteresis, indicating a mesoporous structure and pore size distribution from BJH plot shows a narrow distribution around 3.5 nm which is consistent with this structure.

    3. Photooxidation of Alkaloids: Considerable Quantum Yield Enhancement by Rose Bengal-sensitized Singlet Molecular Oxygen Generation (pages 1315–1320)

      Helmut Görner, Zsombor Miskolczy, Mónika Megyesi and László Biczók

      Article first published online: 3 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.00994.x

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      The quantum yield of rose bengal-sensitized photooxidation of berberine and coralyne alkaloids increases significantly with pH. Singlet molecular oxygen plays an important role in the reaction mechanism.

    4. Immunological Detection of N-formylkynurenine in Porphyrin-Mediated Photooxided Lens α-crystallin (pages 1321–1329)

      Marilyn Ehrenshaft, Baozhong Zhao, Usha P. Andley, Ronald P. Mason and Joan E. Roberts

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.00979.x

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      In this study we used immunological techniques to detect N-formylkynurenine (NFK), a tryptophan oxidation product, in α-crystallin using an anti-NFK antibody. Here we show UVA-irradiated human lens epithelial cells containing the porphyrin THPP (mesotetra (m-hydroxyphenyl) porphine). Fluorescent confocal analysis was used to visualize (clockwise, starting at bottom left) nuclei (blue), NFK (green), and α-crystallin (red), the major lens protein. The final panel (bottom, right) shows the overlay image of the preceding three, and illustrates the potential for irreversible oxidative photodamage that porphyrin accumulation can inflict on the critical eye lens protein α-crystallin. Unirradiated porphyrin-containing cells do not accumulate NFK.

    5. A Hand-held Fiber-optic Implement for the Site-specific Delivery of Photosensitizer and Singlet Oxygen (pages 1330–1337)

      Adaickapillai Mahendran, Yasemin Kopkalli, Goutam Ghosh, Ashwini Ghogare, Mihaela Minnis, Bonnie I. Kruft, Matibur Zamadar, David Aebisher, Lesley Davenport and Alexander Greer

      Article first published online: 31 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.00971.x

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      A fiber optic device was developed that externally produced 1O2, in turn, freeing sensitizer from the probe tip upon fragmentation of a dioxetane intermediate. The maneuverable probe tip was placed in octanol and water solutions, as well as liposomes. The release of sensitizer was quantitative in octanol solution, but was inefficient in water where the hydrophobic dye remained adsorbed on the probe tip. The photocleaved sensitizer was found to partition into 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and L-α-phosphatidylcholine liposomes.

    6. Design of a Coupled Bioluminescent Assay for a Recombinant Pyruvate Kinase from a Thermophilic Geobacillus (pages 1338–1345)

      Soheila Mohammadi, Maryam Nikkhah, Mahboobeh Nazari and Saman Hosseinkhani

      Article first published online: 31 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.00973.x

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      Intensity of the initial light flash at variable PEP concentration per assay tube with saturation concentration of ADP (7 mm) and final concentrations of 0.006 mg mL−1 GPK. Assay conditions are described in Material and Methods. The inset shows Hill plot; the activity at 4.5 mm PEP was taken as the maximum of activity (Vmax).

    7. Activities, Kinetics and Emission Spectra of Bacterial Luciferase-Fluorescent Protein Fusion Enzymes (pages 1346–1353)

      Dachuan Ke and Shiao-Chun Tu

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.01001.x

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      Bacterial (Vibrio harveyi) luciferase was fused with the coral Discosoma sp. fluorescent protein mOrange via a flexible 5 residue (GGGGS) or 10 residue (GGGGSGGGGS) linker. The fusion enzymes retained full luciferase activities. Only the normal 490 nm bioluminescence was observed with luciferase in the absence or presence of free mOrange but bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) occurred in fusion enzymes as evidenced by the additional 560 nm emission component from mOrange. The fusion of luciferase with appropriate fluorescent proteins thus provides a new approach for controlled alteration of luciferase bioluminescence color.

    8. Alleviation of Adverse Effects of Drought Stress on Growth and Some Potential Physiological Attributes in Maize (Zea mays L.) by Seed Electromagnetic Treatment (pages 1354–1362)

      Namra Javed, Muhammad Ashraf, Nudrat Aisha Akram and Fahad Al-Qurainy

      Article first published online: 3 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.00990.x

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      Effects of varying preseed magnetic treatments on growth, chlorophyll pigments, photosynthesis, water relation attributes, fluorescence and levels of osmoprotectants in maize plants were tested under normal and drought stress conditions. Seeds of two maize cultivars were treated with different (T0 [0 mT], T1 [100 mT for 5 min], T2 [100 mT for 10 min], T3 [150 mT for 5 min] and T4 [150 mT for 10 min]) electromagnetic treatments. Different electromagnetic treatments particularly 100 and 150 mT for 10 min significantly alleviated the drought-induced adverse effects on growth by improving chlorophyll a contents, A, E, gs, Ci, qP and NPQ.

    9. Ultraviolet Light-Induced Cyclobutane Pyrimidine Dimers in Rabbit Eyes (pages 1363–1368)

      Justin D. Mallet and Patrick J. Rochette

      Article first published online: 30 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.00977.x

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      Sunlight exposure of the eye leads to different ocular pathologies. However, the link between sunlight and those pathologies is not well understood. The phototoxic effect of sunlight is mainly attributed to UV-induced DNA damage. We have quantified those DNA damage onto DNA of rabbit ocular cells following UVB exposure. UV-induced DNA damage were found in the cornea, in the anterior part of the iris and in the central portion of the lens (pupil). Damage was undetectable in the posterior part of the rabbit eye showing that the anterior ocular structures are a reliable physical barrier against UVB light.

    10. Photochemical Inactivation of Alpha- and Poxviruses (pages 1369–1378)

      Jose-Luis Sagripanti, Hans-Jürgen Marschall, Lucy Voss and Birgit Hülseweh

      Article first published online: 3 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.00998.x

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      The objective of this study was to determine whether photochemical inactivation of viruses could be accomplished with high efficiency while preserving the molecular integrity of viral targets, allowing subsequent diagnostic tests to be performed at a lower level of containment and cost. Photoinactivation with either 5-iodonaphthyl 1-azide or amotosalen at conditions that abolished viral infectivity resulted in only minimal impairment of subsequent ELISA and PCR testing. The results presented in this study should assist in developing methods to inactivate in the field environmental and forensic samples suspected of viral contamination, thus limiting the need for costly security and safety operations after an accidental or intentional viral release.

    11. Light-activated Antibacterial Surfaces Comprise Photosensitizers (pages 1379–1386)

      Rivka Cahan, Ronen Schwartz, Yakov Langzam and Yeshayahu Nitzan

      Article first published online: 3 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.00989.x

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      Antibacterial surfaces were prepared using a base polyethylene sheet topped with a layer composed of a mixed powder of polyvilydene fluoride and photosensitizers. Photodynamic inactivation assays using the surface, including rose bengal (RBPVDF), toluidine blue O (TBOPVDF) and methylene blue (MBPVDF), demonstrated about 4 log reduction of the attached Escherichia coli after illumination (1.46 mW cm−2) for 24 h, while for Staphylococcus aureus it occurred after only 6 h. Bacterial cells attached to the PS surfaces, E. coli (A) and S. aureus (B), with illumination for 3, 6 and 24 h (white bars) and without illumination (black bars).

    12. Effects of Photoactivated Titanium Dioxide Nanopowders and Coating on Planktonic and Biofilm Growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (pages 1387–1394)

      Andrea Polo, Maria Vittoria Diamanti, Thomas Bjarnsholt, Niels Høiby, Federica Villa, Maria Pia Pedeferri and Francesca Cappitelli

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.00972.x

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      We tested the activity of photoactivated TiO2 both as powder and as coating on planktonic and biofilm growth of opportunistic pathogen organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Photoactivated TiO2 inhibited planktonic bacterial cells; however, photoactivated coating and powder do not produce any effect on bacterial biofilm. We concluded that sessile cells have increased resistance to photocatalytic TiO2 than planktonic cells.

    13. A Nonionic Porphyrin as a Noninterfering DNA Antibacterial Agent (pages 1395–1404)

      Sónia Mendes, Fábio Camacho, Tito Silva, Cecília R. C. Calado, Arménio Coimbra Serra, António M. d’A. Rocha Gonsalves and Mónica Roxo-Rosa

      Article first published online: 14 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.00984.x

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      A new nonionic porphyrin was synthesized and its properties as antibacterial agent by photodynamic effect were tested against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. More relevant, this porphyrin proved to be harmless to two lines of mammalian cells (HEK and BHK cells), causing no reduction in their viability or negative impact on their cytoskeleton, despite its accumulation in cellular structures. On the contrary, a cationic porphyrin with a high efficiency as an antibacterial agent, under the same conditions, was shown to accumulate in the nucleus of mammalian cells, in association to DNA, causing chromatin condensation after exposure to light.

    14. Cell-type Selective Phototoxicity Achieved with Chlorophyll-a Derived Photosensitizers in a Co-culture System of Primary Human Tumor and Normal Lung Cells (pages 1405–1418)

      Erin C. Tracy, Mary J. Bowman, Ravindra K. Pandey, Barbara W. Henderson and Heinz Baumann

      Article first published online: 3 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.00992.x

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      Preferential retention of a pyropheophorbide-a derivative by primary human lung tumor epithelial cells grown in small clusters within a monolayer of fibroblasts on a collagen-1 matrix support (phase contrast [left] and fluorescent micrographs [right] at 100× magnification).

    15. An In Vitro Comparison of the Effects of the Iron-Chelating Agents, CP94 and Dexrazoxane, on Protoporphyrin IX Accumulation for Photodynamic Therapy and/or Fluorescence Guided Resection (pages 1419–1426)

      Emma Blake, James Allen and Alison Curnow

      Article first published online: 16 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.00985.x

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      Fluorescence levels of the photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) achieved when squamous carcinoma skin cells and glioma cells were incubated for 6 h with the PpIX prodrugs 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA), methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) or hexyl aminolevulinate (HAL) with or without the addition of the iron chelating agents, 1,2-diethyl-3-hydroxypyridin-4-one hydrochloride (CP94) and dexrazoxane. The general trend observed when combining the results for each prodrug was that for both cell types iron chelation increased PpIX accumulation and coincubation of ALA/MAL/HAL with CP94 resulted in a greater accumulation of PpIX compared to that produced by coincubation with dexrazoxane.

    16. Clastogenic Plasma Factors in Psoriasis—Comparison of Phototherapy and Anti–TNF-α Treatments (pages 1427–1432)

      Ingrid Emerit, Joana Antunes, João Maia Silva, João Freitas, Teresa Pinheiro and Paulo Filipe

      Article first published online: 14 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.00982.x

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      Psoriasis is accompanied by clastogenic factor (CF)-induced chromosomal breakage that increases during Psoralen plus UVA (PUVA) and narrowband UVB (nUVB) treatments. CF+ patients were more likely to occur in patients with severe disease (Psoriasis Area and Severity Index > 20). Plasma clastogenic activity persisted in the follow-up after PUVA, while after nUVB clastogenic activity returned to values even lower than baseline. During the induction phase with anti–TNF-α treatments clastogenic activity remained unchanged.

    17. Effect of Laser Dose and Treatment Schedule on Excision Wound Healing in Diabetic Mice (pages 1433–1441)

      Vishal N. Hegde, Vijendra Prabhu, Satish B.S. Rao, Subhash Chandra, Pramod Kumar, Kapaettu Satyamoorthy and Krishna K. Mahato

      Article first published online: 3 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.00991.x

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      The present study was undertaken to evaluate a He-Ne laser dose and the treatment schedule on diabetic wound healing in Swiss albino mice. Circular wounds of 15 mm diameter were uniformly illuminated with the single exposure of various laser doses of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 J cm−2 respectively. An attempt was also made to optimize the treatment schedule by exposing the wounds with 3 J cm−2 at 0, 24 h and 48 h postwounding. Biophysical and biochemical measurements of the wound tissues exposed to 3 J cm−2 immediately after the wounding demonstrated significant photobiomodulatory effect on diabetic wound healing.

    18. Thermal Effectiveness of Different IR Radiators Employed in Rheumatoid Hand Therapy as Assessed by Thermovisual Examination (pages 1442–1446)

      Radosław Rutkowski, Anna Straburzyńska-Lupa, Paweł Korman, Wojciech Romanowski and Małgorzata Gizińska

      Article first published online: 30 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.00975.x

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      We conducted a thermovisual comparison of mean hand surface temperature changes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis upon local heating with two different IR sources (standard IR radiator-A,B,C; water filter IRA). Figure demonstrates skin surface temperature of the treated (A) and the contralateral (B) hand during the experimental procedure for 120 min in the IR-A,B,C group (solid line) and IRA group (broken line).

    19. Infrared (810 nm) Low-level Laser Therapy in Rat Achilles Tendinitis: A Consistent Alternative to Drugs (pages 1447–1452)

      Rodrigo Labat Marcos, Ernesto Cesar Pinto Leal Junior, Felipe de Moura Messias, Maria Helena Catelli de Carvalho, Rodney Capp Pallotta, Lúcio Frigo, Rosângela Aparecida dos Santos, Luciano Ramos, Simone Teixeira, Jan Magnus Bjordal and Rodrigo Álvaro Brandão Lopes-Martins

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.00999.x

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      We investigated if low-level laser therapy (LLLT) could reduce tendinitis inflammation, and whether a possible pathway could be through inhibition of either of the two-cyclooxygenase (COX) isoforms in inflammation. LLLT-dose of 3 J significantly reduced inflammation through less COX-2-derived gene expression and PGE2 production, and less edema compared to controls. Diclofenac exhibited significantly lower PGE2 cytokine levels than collagenase group, but COX isoform 1-derived gene expression and cytokine PGE2 levels were not affected by treatments. LLLT seems to act on inflammation through a selective inhibition of the COX-2. LLLT may have potential to become a new and safer nondrug alternative to coxibs.

    20. He-Ne Laser-Induced Improvement in Biochemical, Physiological, Growth and Yield Characteristics in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) (pages 1453–1463)

      Rashida Perveen, Yasir Jamil, Muhammad Ashraf, Qasim Ali, Munawar Iqbal and Muhammad Raza Ahmad

      Article first published online: 31 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.00974.x

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      The changes in biochemical, physiological, growth and yield are reported for sunflower cultivar using a continuous wave He-Ne laser irradiation of 100, 300 and 500 mJ energies. The results showed that the laser seed irradiation imparts positive changes, though the response is energy dependent. Thus, this technique could potentially be used as a complementary technique for the enhancement of physiological, biochemical, growth and yield attributes in sunflower. The energy of 300 mJ is more effective as compared with other ones and may be applied practically regarding better production of sunflower.

  4. Research Notes

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Invited Reviews
    4. Research Articles
    5. Research Notes
    6. Letters to the Editor
    7. Erratum
    8. Book Review
    9. List of Reviewers
    1. Temperature Correction of UV Spectral Solar Measurements for ICEPURE Project (pages 1464–1467)

      Katarzyna Baczynska, John B. O’Hagan, Andy J. Pearson and Paul Eriksen

      Article first published online: 31 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.00981.x

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      UV solar spectra have been measured, using a double-grating spectroradiometer, during population studies carried out across Europe for the EC Framework 7 funded ICEPURE project on the impact of climatic and environmental factors on personal UV radiation exposure and human health. Spectral field measurements have been conducted at ambient temperatures which varied between 11.5 and 33.5°C. This temperature variation might affect instrument performance. The effect of ambient temperature was quantified and verified, and a model for temperature correction of spectral data is presented.

    2. In Vitro and In Vivo Photodynamic Activity of Core-modified Porphyrin IY69 Using 690 nm Diode Laser (pages 1468–1473)

      Bibbin Paul, Pallavi Rajaputra and Youngjae You

      Article first published online: 19 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.00988.x

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      The present study demonstrates in vitro and in vivo photodynamic therapy (PDT) efficacy of IY69 using a murine tumor model (colon 26 cells on BALB/c mice) and 690 nm diode laser. Concentration and light dose-dependent phototoxicity was observed (IC50 = 0.1 μm, 10 J cm−2). Even though a significant light attenuation of 95% and 99% was observed by skin and 3 mm muscle with skin, IY69 PDT showed significant damage on tumor and delay in tumor growth in a dose-dependent manner.

  5. Letters to the Editor

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Invited Reviews
    4. Research Articles
    5. Research Notes
    6. Letters to the Editor
    7. Erratum
    8. Book Review
    9. List of Reviewers
    1. The Value of the Ratio of UVA to UVB in Sunlight (pages 1474–1475)

      Nikiforos Kollias, Eduardo Ruvolo Jr and Robert M. Sayre

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.00980.x

    2. Comments to the Article by Kollias, Ruvolo and Sayre Entitled “The Value of the Ratio of UVA to UVB in Sunlight” (pages 1476–1477)

      François Christiaens, Dominique Moyal, Sophie Seité and John Frederick

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.00976.x

  6. Erratum

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Invited Reviews
    4. Research Articles
    5. Research Notes
    6. Letters to the Editor
    7. Erratum
    8. Book Review
    9. List of Reviewers
    1. You have free access to this content
      Artificial Photosynthesis: From Molecular Catalysts for Light-driven Water Splitting to Photoelectrochemical Cells (page 1478)

      Eugen S. Andreiadis, Murielle Chavarot-Kerlidou, Marc Fontecave and Vincent Artero

      Article first published online: 13 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.01000.x

      This article corrects:
  7. Book Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Invited Reviews
    4. Research Articles
    5. Research Notes
    6. Letters to the Editor
    7. Erratum
    8. Book Review
    9. List of Reviewers
  8. List of Reviewers

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Invited Reviews
    4. Research Articles
    5. Research Notes
    6. Letters to the Editor
    7. Erratum
    8. Book Review
    9. List of Reviewers

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