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Photochemistry and Photobiology

Cover image for Vol. 88 Issue 1

January/February 2012

Volume 88, Issue 1

Pages 1–232

  1. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Highlight Article
    4. Invited Review
    5. Research Articles
    6. Research Note
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      Editorial (page 1)

      Jean Cadet

      Article first published online: 3 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.01061.x

  2. Highlight Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Highlight Article
    4. Invited Review
    5. Research Articles
    6. Research Note
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      Direct 1270 nm Irradiation as an Alternative to Photosensitized Generation of Singlet Oxygen to Induce Cell Death (pages 2–4)

      Michael R. Detty

      Article first published online: 3 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.01047.x

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      Direct excitation of O2 provides an alternative to the generation of singlet oxygen (1O2) using a photosensitizer (PS) in the biological environment. Direct excitation of O2 can potentially overcome problems associated with systemic administration of the PS, including skin photosensitivity and clearance of PS from the body. However, concerns associated with the technique include indiscriminate generation of extracellular and intracellular 1O2, the difficulty of controlling necrotic vs apoptotic cell death and the possible consequences of thermal effects. This Highlight Article contrasts direct excitation of O2 as described by Anquez et al. in this issue with traditional photosensitized generation of 1O2.

  3. Invited Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Highlight Article
    4. Invited Review
    5. Research Articles
    6. Research Note
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      Multiple forms of DNA Damage Caused by UVA Photoactivation of DNA 6-Thioguanine (pages 5–13)

      Reto Brem and Peter Karran

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.01043.x

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      Patients undergoing thiopurine immunosuppression or cancer treatment have 6-thioguanine in their DNA. This thio analog of guanine is a chromophore for ultraviolet A and when present in DNA it generates reactive oxygen species that damage DNA and protein. This photochemical damage includes the formation of inter- and intrastrand DNA crosslinks (1 & 2), DNA breakage (3), oxidation of DNA guanine (4) and 6-thioguanine (5) and the covalent attachment of protein to DNA (6). Some of the possible biological consequences of this damage, including a possible increased risk of skin cancer, are discussed.

  4. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Highlight Article
    4. Invited Review
    5. Research Articles
    6. Research Note
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      The Different Behavior of Rutile and Anatase Nanoparticles in Forming Oxy Radicals Upon Illumination with Visible Light: An EPR Study (pages 14–20)

      Anat Lipovsky, Luba levitski, Zeev Tzitrinovich, Aharon Gedanken and Rachel Lubart

      Article first published online: 3 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.01015.x

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      In view of the wide use of TiO2 for biologic applications, it is important to study the reactivity of TiO2 nanoparticles in water suspensions and under visible light illumination. The rutile and anatase TiO2 nanoparticles phases were found to generate reactive oxygen species in aqueous suspensions. Both superoxide anions and hydroxyl radicals were detected in NP suspensions. TiO2-rutile also responded to visible light irradiation, and elevated levels of superoxide and singlet oxygen were observed.

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      Photoluminescent Properties of Novel Rare Earth Organic–Inorganic Nanocomposite with TiO2 Modified Silica via Double Crosslinking Units (pages 21–31)

      Yan Zhao and Bing Yan

      Article first published online: 29 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.01033.x

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      Mercapto-functionalized MBA-Si is used to modify the titanium dioxide through its carboxylate group and 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS) is also used to modify the CdS quantum dot and obtain MPS functionalized MPS-CdS nanocomposite. These multicomponent rare earth hybrids with double cross-linking siloxane (MBA-Si) covalently bonding MPS-CdS are studied by physical characterization, especially the photophysical properties.

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      Atmospheric Aqueous-Phase Photoreactivity: Correlation Between the Hydroxyl Radical Photoformation and Pesticide Degradation Rate in Atmospherically Relevant Waters (pages 32–37)

      Tiffany Charbouillot, Marcello Brigante, Laurent Deguillaume and Gilles Mailhot

      Article first published online: 3 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.01014.x

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      Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitrates (NO3-), naturally present in the atmospheric aqueous phase, are able to produce hydroxyl radicals (?OH) via light absorption. In the present work we correlated the photochemical production of hydroxyl radical in synthetic and real cloud waters with the degradation rate of a pesticide (mesotrione). Moreover we founded that hydrogen peroxide and nitrates are the most important photochemical sources of ?OH in atmospheric aqueous phases.

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      Slow Solvent Relaxation Dynamics of Nanometer Sized Reverse Micellar Systems Through Tryptophan Metabolite, Kynurenine (pages 38–45)

      Surajit Rakshit, Nirmal Goswami and Samir Kumar Pal

      Article first published online: 3 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.01007.x

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      Our work explores the efficacy of kynurenine (KN), one of the tryptophan metabolites as a potential probe for the slow solvent relaxation dynamics in a restricted medium of neutral reverse micelles (RM). While picosecond-resolved Förster resonance energy transfer study confirms the inclusion of the probe in the RM, details of the optical spectroscopic investigations reveal that ultrafast internal conversion associated with the hydrogen-bonding dynamics masks KN to become a dynamical reporter of the immediate environments of the probe.

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      Phlorotannin Production and Lipid Oxidation as a Potential Protective Function Against High Photosynthetically Active and UV Radiation in Gametophytes of Alaria esculenta (Alariales, Phaeophyceae) (pages 46–57)

      Franciska S. Steinhoff, Martin Graeve, Krzysztof Bartoszek, Kai Bischof and Christian Wiencke

      Article first published online: 3 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.01004.x

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      Radiation damage can inter alia result in lipid peroxidation of macroalgal cell membranes. To prevent photo-oxidation within the cells, substances such as phlorotannins are synthesized. In the present study, changes in total fatty acids (FA), FA composition and intra/extracellular phlorotannin contents were determined in Alaria esculenta juveniles (Phaeophyceae) to investigate the photoprotective potential of phlorotannins to prevent lipid peroxidation. Our results suggest that phlorotannins might play a role in intra/extracellular protection by absorption and oxidation processes. Changes in FA content/composition upon exposure might be considered as an adaptive mechanism of the A. esculenta juveniles subjected to variations in solar irradiance.

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      Phlorotannin and Antioxidant Responses Upon Short-term Exposure to UV Radiation and Elevated Temperature in Three South Pacific Kelps (pages 58–66)

      Edgardo Cruces, Pirjo Huovinen and Iván Gómez

      Article first published online: 10 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.01013.x

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      Intertidal seaweeds from cold-temperate regions can be exposed to high solar radiation and temperature in their habitats, which can induce the formation of harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS). In brown algae, intracellular phenolic compounds known as phlorotannins (polymers of phloroglucinol) are rapidly synthesized to scavenge ROS (e.g. peroxides from photosynthetic membranes). The antioxidant activity mediated by phlorotannins in brown algae apparently permits them to tolerate the combined action of different stressors during low tide, especially the acute exposure to UV radiation and high temperature.

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      Afterglow Thermoluminescence Measured in Isolated Chloroplasts (pages 67–75)

      Ahmed Belatik, Jemaa Essemine, Surat Hotchandani and Robert Carpentier

      Article first published online: 3 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.01016.x

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      Afterglow (AG) thermoluminescence is related to the cyclic electron transport from PSI to PSII. The AG band depends upon chloroplast intactness, the greater the intactness the stronger is the AG band. It is essential that chloroplast be intact as it contains stromal components indispensable for cyclic electron transport.

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      Comparison of Photosynthetic Components of Wheat Genotypes Under Rain-fed and Irrigated Conditions (pages 76–80)

      Nahid Niari Khamssi and Abdollah Najaphy

      Article first published online: 31 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.01008.x

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      Fourteen wheat genotypes were grown under two environments (irrigated and rain fed). The environment was a significant source of variation for leaf chlorophyll content (LCC), stomatal conductance (gs) and grain yield (GY). Wheat genotypes differed significantly for LCC, gs and GY. All the measured traits under water-stress conditions except maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) were lower than those under nonstress conditions. Mean GY in rain-fed conditions was 11.26% lower than that in irrigated conditions. It was concluded that the higher LCC and gs under drought-stress conditions could possibly be the proper criteria for screening the drought-tolerant wheat genotypes under field conditions.

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      Daily Light–Dark Cycles Influence Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 and Heat Shock Protein Levels in the Pacemakers of Crayfish (pages 81–89)

      Rosa María Velázque-Amado, Elsa G. Escamilla-Chimal and María Luisa Fanjul-Moles

      Article first published online: 10 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.01012.x

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      In crayfish Procambarus clarkii using retina and brain–optic lobe complex, we investigated whether reactive oxygen species resulting from light–dark cycles (20:4 LD) with a long photoperiod activated hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) these the putative circadian pacemakers of crayfish. Our results indicate that both the light resulting from equatorial and extreme daily light cycles and the constant darkness-induced HIF-1α and heat shock protein 70, which appeared to regulate each other. The interaction between these proteins and the ability of crayfish to shift from the oxidative to glycolytic pathways, thereby synchronizing to extreme illumination conditions and maintaining a rhythmic predictive relationship with the environment, suggest HIF-1α as a key factor in these rhythmic metabolic interactions.

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      Ultrasensitive Measurements of Microbial Rhodopsin Photocycles Using Photochromic FRET (pages 90–97)

      Halil Bayraktar, Alexander P. Fields, Joel M. Kralj, John L. Spudich, Kenneth J. Rothschild and Adam E. Cohen

      Article first published online: 17 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.01011.x

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      Blue proteorhodopsin and Sensory Rhodopsin II are transmembrane proteins with a light-induced photocycle. The retinal chromophore undergoes dramatic shifts in absorption spectrum during the photocycle, but absorption measurements lack sensitivity to detect these shifts in microscopic samples. We generated a fluorescence-based readout of the photocycle by appending a small organic fluorophore to the protein. The fluorescence was quenched during phases of the photocycle in which the absorption spectrum of the retinal overlapped with the emission spectrum of the dye, an effect called photochromic fluorescence resonance energy transfer. We observed the photocycle in samples as small three molecules.

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      Chemical Bonding of Chlorophylls and Plant Aminic Axial Ligands Impact Harvesting of Visible Light and Quenching of Fluorescence (pages 98–106)

      Nikolaos E. Ioannidis, Theodoros Tsiavos and Kiriakos Kotzabasis

      Article first published online: 10 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.01003.x

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      We demonstrate that natural polyamines can bind to chlorophylls via Mg. Interestingly, equilibrium between a high-fluorescence yield conformation and a low yield is feasible via the interaction of Chl b and aminic axial ligands of Mg. These interactions may have important in vivo implications that are discussed within the framework of a new working model. Furthermore, we show a specific chlorophyll binding domain of LHCII from pea with a conserved histidine that seems structurally similar with the heme-binding domains from human myoglobin responsible for metal shifts.

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      Metagenome-based Screening Reveals Worldwide Distribution of LOV-Domain Proteins (pages 107–118)

      Gopal P. Pathak, Aba Losi and Wolfgang Gärtner

      Article first published online: 22 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.01024.x

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      Light, oxygen, voltage (LOV) domains are the most wide-spread blue–light-sensing photoreceptors. Light absorption promotes covalent bonding of the flavin chromophore to a cysteine group (signaling state, top right). Pathak et al. screened deposited metagenomes for signatures indicative for LOV domains. They demonstrate the world-wide occurrence of this light-sensing motif in DNA from a broad number of sampling sites. They present the phylogeny of this protein fold and the wide variation of fused signaling domains. More than three quarters of all identified LOV sequences are considered as novel, when compared to the “orthodox” sequence motif.

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      Diversity of Chlamydomonas Channelrhodopsins (pages 119–128)

      Sing-Yi Hou, Elena G. Govorunova, Maria Ntefidou, C. Elizabeth Lane, Elena N. Spudich, Oleg A. Sineshchekov and John L. Spudich

      Article first published online: 29 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.01027.x

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      We report cloning of three new channelrhodopsin homologs from three Chlamydomonas species and their characterization upon heterologous expression in HEK293 cells and Pichia pastoris. Channelrhodopsins from Chlamydomonas augustae and C. yellowstonensis belong to the same class as the earlier identified ChR1 from C. reinhardtii, but their channel activity differs from that of ChR1 in kinetics, inactivation, light intensity dependence, spectral sensitivity and pH dependence, which reveals extensive channelrhodopsin diversity within the same genus. The redshifted spectra and the lack of fast inactivation in currents generated by the new channelrhodopsins are features desirable for optogenetics applications.

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      Manipulation of Förster Energy Transfer of Coupled Fluorophores Through Biotransformation by Pseudomonas resinovorans CA10 (pages 129–134)

      Michael A. Daniele, Yuriy P. Bandera and Stephen H. Foulger

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.01023.x

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      An alkyne-terminated anthracene and azide-terminated carbazole were joined through a copper-catalyzed cycloaddition to form a joined donor/acceptor pair. The photonic pair exhibited energy transfer when excited at the peak absorbance of carbazole and fluoresced with an anthracene spectral response. The fluorescent behavior was confirmed as Förster energy transfer (FRET). The lysate of Pseudomonas resinovorans CA10, a member of a predominant group of soil microorganisms that can metabolize a host of substrates, was employed to degrade the pair and alter the luminance spectral characteristics. The FRET was diminished and the corresponding, individual fluorescence of carbazole and anthracene returned. This general approach may find applications in single cell metabolic studies and bioactivity assays.

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      Near-Infrared Exposure Changes Cellular Responses to Ionizing Radiation (pages 135–146)

      Anja Heselich, Florian Frohns, Antonia Frohns, Steffen C. Naumann and Paul G. Layer

      Article first published online: 22 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.01031.x

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      This article deals with the influence of near infrared (NIR) on the cellular reaction to X-radiation. Our results show that a pretreatment with NIR enhances X-radiation-induced genetic instability within several mammalian cell lines from different origins, as indicated by an increase in the number of mitotic catastrophes and a delayed DNA-damage repair. As a possible reason for these effects, we observed changes of mitochondrial masses in NIR-pretreated cells, probably leading to the higher levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that could be observed after X-radiation.

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      Enhanced Nucleotide Excision Repair in Human Fibroblasts Pre-exposed to Ionizing Radiation (pages 147–153)

      Patricia Cramers, Alfred Ronald Filon, Alex Pines, Jos C. Kleinjans, Leon H. F. Mullenders and Albert A. van Zeeland

      Article first published online: 17 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.01019.x

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      Ionizing radiation mediated activation of the DNA damage response induces a transcriptional upregulation of genes that are also involved in nucleotide excision repair (NER). Here, we demonstrate in nondividing normal human fibroblasts that UV-induced NER is augmented by pre-exposure to IR. The increase of NER by IR lasts up to 48 h after X-ray treatment. Furthermore, we show by various approaches that both DDB2 and XPC play key roles in this adaptation process.

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      Infrared (810 nm) Low-Level Laser Therapy in Experimental Model of Strain-Induced Skeletal Muscle Injury in Rats: Effects on Functional Outcomes (pages 154–160)

      Luciano Ramos, Ernesto Cesar Pinto Leal Junior, Rodney Capp Pallotta, Lucio Frigo, Rodrigo Labat Marcos, Maria Helena Catelli de Carvalho, Jan Magnus Bjordal and Rodrigo Álvaro Brandão Lopes-Martins

      Article first published online: 22 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.01030.x

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      In this work we investigated effects of LLLT and diclofenac on functional outcomes in the acute stage after muscle strain injury in rats. The injured groups received either no treatment, or a single treatment with diclofenac 30 min prior to injury, or LLLT (810 nm, 100 mW) with doses of 1, 3, 6 or 9 J, at 1 h after injury. All treatments (except 9 J LLLT) significantly improved the walking index 12 h postinjury compared with the untreated group. The 3 J group also showed a significantly better walking index than the drug group. All treatments significantly improved muscle performance at 6 and 12 h. LLLT dose of 3 J was as effective as the pharmacological agent.

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      Effects of Low-level Laser Therapy at Wavelengths of 660 and 808 nm in Experimental Model of Osteoarthritis (pages 161–166)

      Alessandra Schleder da Rosa, Aline Ferreira dos Santos, Márcia Maria da Silva, Gilberto Gonsalves Facco, Daniel Martins Perreira, Ana Carolina Araruna Alves, Ernesto Cesar Pinto Leal Junior and Paulo de Tarso Camillo de Carvalho

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.01032.x

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      The aim of the present study was to analyze the influence of low-level laser radiation at wavelengths of 660 and 808 nm in an experimental model of osteoarthritis. For the induction of cartilage injury, three injections of 4% papain and 10 μL of a cysteine solution were performed, treated with InGaAlP (output power of 100 mW and wavelength [λ] of 660 nm) and also AsGaAl (output power of 100 mW and λ of 808 nm) with energy of 4 J. In conclusion, laser therapy, especially at a wavelength of 808 nm, stimulated angiogenesis and reduced the formation of fibrosis in an experimental model of osteoarthritis.

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      Cancerous Cell Death from Sensitizer Free Photoactivation of Singlet Oxygen (pages 167–174)

      François Anquez, Ikram El Yazidi-Belkoura, Stéphane Randoux, Pierre Suret and Emmanuel Courtade

      Article first published online: 22 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.01028.x

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      Singlet oxygen is produced in living cells without any photosensitizing molecule from the only irradiation of a 1270 nm laser. The amount of singlet oxygen produced in this way is sufficient enough to induce cell death. This simplified scheme of singlet oxygen production represents an alternative approach to conventional methods of photodynamic therapy.

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      Antioxidant Inhibitors Potentiate the Cytotoxicity of Photodynamic Therapy (pages 175–187)

      Stanley G. Kimani, James B. Phillips, James I. Bruce, Alexander J. MacRobert and Jon P. Golding

      Article first published online: 17 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.01022.x

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      Photodynamic therapy (PDT) generates cytotoxic reactive oxygen species, which are partially neutralized by the major cellular antioxidant pathways (glutathione, superoxide dismutases and catalase). We find that pharmacological inhibition of selected antioxidant pathways, using combinations of four different inhibitors, strongly potentiates PDT cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cancer cells. The following antioxidant inhibitor combinations showed the greatest potentiation of PDT cell kill: BSO + 3AT > BSO + 2ME > 2ME + DDC > BSO + 3AT + 2ME + DDC > BSO > 2ME > 3AT > DDC.

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      Antitumor Efficacy of Photodynamic Therapy Using Novel Nanoformulations of Hypocrellin Photosensitizer SL052 (pages 188–193)

      Mladen Korbelik, Ragupathy Madiyalakan, Thomas Woo and Azita Haddadi

      Article first published online: 20 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.01035.x

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      Photodynamic therapy (PDT) agent, SL052, was formulated into two nanoformulations using either a biodegradable polymer poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) or a polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) polymer. The formulations were applied for PDT treatment of squamous cell carcinomas SCCVII growing subcutaneously in syngeneic mice by intravenous injections. The PDT efficacy of the two nanoformulations and the standard liposomal SL052 preparation were evaluated and compared at two drug-light intervals. The results demonstrated that PDT based on SL052 in PLGA formulation produced superior therapeutic benefit compared with the other two SL052 formulations.

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      New Application for Expanded Porphyrins: Sapphyrin and Heterosapphyrins as Inhibitors of Leishmania Parasites (pages 194–200)

      Jaqueline D. Hooker, Victoria H. Nguyen, Viviana M. Taylor, David L. Cedeño, Timothy D. Lash, Marjorie A. Jones, Sara M. Robledo and Iván D. Vélez

      Article first published online: 20 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.01034.x

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      Sapphyrin and related pentapyrrolic analogues are potential leishmanicides. Photodynamic enhancement of their activity makes them suitable for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

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      Photochemical Inactivation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (pages 201–206)

      Jose-Luis Sagripanti, Gudrun Grote, Bärbel Niederwöhrmeier, Birgit Hülseweh and Hans-Jürgen Marschall

      Article first published online: 22 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.01029.x

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      Adaptability to a broad range of environments together with relatively high resistance to antibiotics and disinfectants makes Pseudomonas aeruginosa a concern in hospitals and in public health. Photoinactivation with either INA or AMO at conditions that abolished bacterial infectivity did not impair PCR and ELISA testing. For comparison, similar titers of Bacillus atrophaeus spores (a surrogate for B. anthracis) remained unaffected at conditions that reduced the survival of P. aeruginosa below detection levels. The results presented in this study should assist in improved inactivation methods of environmental, clinical and forensic samples without impairing subsequent nucleic acid- or immune-based analysis.

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      Applicability of the Polysulphone Horizontal Calibration to Differently Inclined Dosimeters (pages 207–214)

      Giuseppe R. Casale, Anna Maria Siani, Henri Diémoz, Michael G. Kimlin and Alfredo Colosimo

      Article first published online: 8 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.01006.x

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      Polysulphone (PS) dosimetry has been used for more than 30 years to quantitate the erythemally effective personal doses received by anatomic sites. The calibration of PS dosimeters is performed exposing a set of PS dosimeters on a horizontal plane and measuring meanwhile the UV doses received using calibrated instruments. In this study, data collected during field campaigns, using horizontal and tilted dosimeters, were analyzed to investigate the applicability of the horizontal calibration to differently inclined dosimeters, as anatomic sites usually are. Caution should be used when the calibration is performed under high incidence angle and/or high albedo.

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      A Critical Assessment of Two Types of Personal UV Dosimeters (pages 215–222)

      Gunther Seckmeyer, Marcus Klingebiel, Stefan Riechelmann, Insa Lohse, Richard L. McKenzie, J. Ben Liley, Martin W. Allen, Anna-Maria Siani and Giuseppe R. Casale

      Article first published online: 17 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.01018.x

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      Electronic ultraviolet dosimeters (shown in the photograph) and polysulphone are often chosen to estimate personal UV exposures. By comparison with a reference spectroradiometer it is shown that while UV dosimeters are useful for their design purpose, namely to estimate personal UV exposures, they should not be regarded as an inexpensive replacement for meteorological grade instruments.

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      Mean Exposure Fractions of Human Body Solar UV Exposure Patterns for Application in Different Ambient Climates (pages 223–226)

      Nathan Downs and Alfio Parisi

      Article first published online: 22 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.01025.x

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      A new photobiological term, the mean exposure fraction (MEF) is introduced in this research. The MEF is calculated for erythemally effective UV exposures to unprotected skin surfaces of an upright life-size body manikin. The MEF can be weighted with measured or modeled horizontal plane ambient erythemal UV exposures to determine total body weighted exposure where no or limited body site exposure information is available. The MEF is presented for the SZA ranges 0°–30°, 30°–50° and 50°–80°.

  5. Research Note

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Highlight Article
    4. Invited Review
    5. Research Articles
    6. Research Note
    1. You have free access to this content
      Optimal Photosensitizers for Photodynamic Therapy of Infections Should Kill Bacteria but Spare Neutrophils (pages 227–232)

      Masamitsu Tanaka, Manabu Kinoshita, Yasuo Yoshihara, Nariyoshi Shinomiya, Shuhji Seki, Koichi Nemoto, Takahiro Hirayama, Tianhong Dai, Liyi Huang, Michael R. Hamblin and Yuji Morimoto

      Article first published online: 31 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.01005.x

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      Neutrophils showed a swollen morphological change during photodynamic therapy (PDT) using Photofrin, but not during PDT using methylene blue. Therapeutic effects of PDT for localized microbial infections depend on neutrophils in the infectious site, therefore optimal photosensitizers for PDT of infections should kill bacteria but spare neutrophils.

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