Photochemistry and Photobiology

Cover image for Vol. 88 Issue 2

March/April 2012

Volume 88, Issue 2

Pages 233–493

  1. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Research Articles
    3. Research Note
    1. Photocatalytic Synthesis of Urea from in situ Generated Ammonia and Carbon Dioxide (pages 233–241)

      Basavaraju Srinivas, Valluri Durga Kumari, Gullapelli Sadanandam, Chilumula Hymavathi, Machiraju Subrahmanyam and Bhudev Ranjan De

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.01037.x

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      TiO2 and Fe-titanate (different wt%) supported on zeolite were prepared by sol-gel and solid-state dispersion methods. Photocatalytic reduction of nitrate in water and isopropanol/oxalic acid as hole scavengers were investigated in a batch reactor under ultraviolet illumination. The yield of urea increased notably when the catalysts were supported on zeolite. The product formation is because of the high adsorption of in situ generated CO2 and NH3 over shape-selective property of the zeolite in the composite photocatalyst.

    2. Two Series of Multicomponent Rare Earth (Eu3+, Tb3+, Sm3+) Polymeric Hybrids: Chemically Bonded Assembly and Photophysical Properties (pages 242–249)

      Bing Yan, Min Guo and Qiuping Li

      Article first published online: 20 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.01040.x

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      Two new chemical linkages (BPDA-PAM, BPDA-DG) are synthesized through the reaction between 4,4′-biphthalic anhydride (BPDA) and acrylamide (AM), diethylene glycol (DG), respectively. Then two novel series of multicomponent rare earth (Eu3+, Tb3+, Sm3+) polymeric hybrids have been assembled through the coordination bonding: one is from the linkage BPDA-PAM to form the hybrids BPDA-PAM-RE-phen(bipy) (2,2′-bipyridine (bipy) and 1,10-penanthroline (phen)), the other is from the linkage BPDA-DG to compose the hybrids BPDA-DG-RE-PVP and PVP (PVP = poly vinylpyridine).

    3. Pyrophthalones as Blue Wavelength Absorbers in Thermoplastic Media (pages 250–256)

      Arunkumar Natarajan, Andrew Burns, Michael Takemori, Sumeet Jain, Eugene Boden, Vinodkumar Vasudevan, Kiran Puthamane, Shantaram N. Naik and George Kuriakose

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.01036.x

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      We have shown the utility of pyrophthalones as violet-blue light filtering dyes in polymer matrices for wavelengths below 450 nm. Further, we have investigated the photodegradation of these molecules in thermoplastic media, mechanisms behind their degradation and use of additives to arrest the photodegradation.

    4. Extending Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 Nanoparticles to Visible Region of Illumination by Doping of Cerium (pages 257–264)

      Biswajit Choudhury, Bikash Borah and Amarjyoti Choudhury

      Article first published online: 13 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.01064.x

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      Photoluminescence intensity of TiO2 nanoparticles is quenched at 0.035 mol of Ce3+ concentration. At higher doping level, the number of nonradiative recombination centers increases. This ultimately results in the reduction of emission intensity and increase in the number of free electrons and holes for taking part in photocatalytic activity. Cerium concentration of 0.035 is the optimum dopant concentration for use in photocatalysis, because the photocatalysis decreases at 0.045 mol of Ce3+. Although a similar trend is shown by all samples under UV light, the degradation efficiency decreases at maximum irradiation time due to negative charging of semiconductor surface.

    5. In3+-doped TiO2 and TiO2/In2S3 Nanocomposite for Photocatalytic and Stoichiometric Degradations (pages 265–276)

      Václav Štengl, František Opluštil and Tomáš Němec

      Article first published online: 10 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.01052.x

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      A new In3+-doped TiO2 and TiO2/In2S3 nanocomposites for photocatalytic degradation of environmental pollutants and stoichiometric degradation of warfare agents were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis with urea and thioacetamide, respectively. The photocatalytic activity (PCA) was tested by degradation of Orange dye, whereas stoichiometric activity was studied by degradation of sulfur mustard. PCA of TiO2/In2S3 composite depends on the optimal ratio of TiO2:In2S3 in composite, while the activity for stoichiometric decomposition of sulphur mustards depends on the content of In2S3 in nanocomposite.

    6. A Photophysical Study of the α-Carboline (1-Azacarbazole) Aggregation Process (pages 277–284)

      Emilio García-Fernández, Carmen Carmona, María A. Muñoz, José Hidalgo and Manuel Balón

      Article first published online: 10 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.01056.x

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      In low polar aprotic solvents α-Carboline (1-Azacarbazole), AC, forms hydrogen bonded open dimers, AC–AC, and higher open aggregates (–AC–)n, that quench the fluorescence.

    7. Photophysical Characterization of 1,8 Naphthalimide in Micelle-diblock Copolymer Nano-composite: A Case of Morphological Transformation and Vesicle Formation (pages 285–294)

      Anamika Manna and Sankar Chakravorti

      Article first published online: 28 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.01049.x

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      1,8 naphthalimide (NAPMD) undergoes intermolecular charge transfer in aqueous medium to form anionic NAPMD. This anionic NAPMD interacts with spherical aggregates of anionic micelle and micelle-diblock-copolymer complex and results in a morphological transition to rod-shaped structures and also forms unilamellar (ULV) and multilamellar vesicular (MLV) structures respectively. The ULVs get ruptured in response to low pH medium indicating its potential use in drug delivery systems whereas MLVs are found to be stable at low pH.

    8. Solvent Effects on the Steady State Photophysics of Estrone and 17β-Estradiol (pages 295–303)

      Kara Y. Chan, Bridget M. Gavaghan, Andrew W. Stoeckel, Karla Irizarry and Patrick M. Hare

      Article first published online: 13 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.01066.x

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      Pronounced solvent and excitation wavelength dependences on the emission yields and spectra of the endocrine disruptors estrogen and 17β-estradiol have been found.

    9. Bacteriophage φ6—Structure Investigated by Fluorescence Stokes Shift Spectroscopy (pages 304–310)

      Alvin Katz, Alexandra Alimova, Elina Futerman, Garrett Katz, Hui Wei and Paul Gottlieb

      Article first published online: 30 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.01051.x

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      Tryptophan emission from the different layers of the bacteriophage ϕ6. Differences in Stokes shift correspond to differences in hydrophobicity of the layers. The hydrophobicity of the procapsid (PC) is similar to that of the pseudomonad host cell. Genome packaging of the PC increases accommodate A-form dsRNA and hydrophobicity. Assembly of the envelope greatly increases the hydrophobicity of the PC proteins, indicating a strong interaction between the envelope and the inner proteins.

    10. Quantification of Glucose Diffusion in Human Lung Tissues by Using Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (pages 311–316)

      Xiao Guo, Guoyong Wu, Huajiang Wei, Xiaoyuan Deng, Hongqin Yang, Yanhong Ji, Yonghong He, Zhouyi Guo, Shusen Xie, Huiqing Zhong, Qingliang Zhao and Zhenguo Zhu

      Article first published online: 17 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.01065.x

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      This figure represents the comparison of permeability coefficients (PCs) of 30% glucose diffusion in normal, benign granulomatosis, adenocarcinoma tumor and squamous cell carcinoma of human lung tissue in vitro. A fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FD OCT) system was used for experimentation. PCs were computed by analyzing the OCT signal slope changes induced by the agent diffusion in a specific depth region. Our results show that PCs of the same hyperosmotic agent in normal, benign and malignant lung tissues are apparently different. Therefore, FD OCT might provide a truly noninvasive way to evaluate of normal and abnormal tissues.

    11. Effect of Curcumin on Liposome: Curcumin as a Molecular Probe for Monitoring Interaction of Ionic Liquids with 1,2-Dipalmitoyl-sn-Glycero-3-Phosphocholine Liposome (pages 317–327)

      Digambara Patra, Elsy El Khoury, Diana Ahmadieh, Shaza Darwish and Rana M. Tafech

      Article first published online: 19 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.01067.x

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      Curcumin, a medicinal molecule, is a novel rotor sensitive to viscosity and membrane fluidity. At low molar ratio curcumin does not alter remarkably but at high molar ratio appreciably depresses the phase transition temperature of liposome. Ionic liquids decrease membrane fluidity and long chain ionic liquid lowers the phase transition temperature of liposomes. Short chains ionic liquid does not modify phase transition temperature perceptibly; rather it broadens the phase transition temperature of liposomes.

    12. Interaction of an Antituberculosis Drug with Nano-sized Cationic Micelle: Förster Resonance Energy Transfer from Dansyl to Rifampicin in the Microenvironment (pages 328–335)

      Tanumoy Mondol, Subrata Batabyal and Samir Kumar Pal

      Article first published online: 31 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2012.01075.x

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      Interaction of an antituberculosis drug rifampicin (RF) in a nanoscopic macromolecular assembly of CTAB with an extrinsic fluorescent probe, dansyl chloride (DC) has been studied using picosecond resolved Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). The well-known Tachiya model has been employed to understand the kinetics of energy transfer and the distribution of acceptor (RF) molecules around the donor (DC) molecules at the micellar surface with increasing RF concentration. The diffusion controlled FRET between DC and RF at the nanoscopic micellar surface has been studied using indigenously developed microfluidics setup.

    13. The (α-4) Photoconjugates of 5-Methylcytosine, 1,5-Dimethylcytosine, 1-Methylthymine and Thymidine (pages 336–343)

      Martin D. Shetlar and Janet Chung

      Article first published online: 23 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.01070.x

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      Irradiation of 5-methylcytosine, 1,5-dimethylcytosine, 1-methylthymine and thymidine in frozen aqueous solution induces photoreactions that form novel products termed as (α-4) conjugates. In this reaction, the 5-methyl group of nucleobase component of one reactant becomes attached to the 4-position of the nucleobase in the second reactant. The (α-4) photoconjugates display characteristic “double humped” UV absorption spectra. An example of this type of reaction is displayed schematically for thymidine in the accompanying scheme. There is evidence that thymine and 5-methyl-2′-deoxycytidine undergo similar photoconjugation reactions.

    14. Photosensitizing Mechanism and Identification of Levofloxacin Photoproducts at Ambient UV Radiation (pages 344–355)

      Ashish Dwivedi, Syed F. Mujtaba, Hari N. Kushwaha, Daoud Ali, Neera Yadav, S. K. Singh and Ratan S. Ray

      Article first published online: 25 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.01068.x

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      Levofloxacin (LVFX) generates three photoproducts (identified by LC-MS/MS) after irradiation at ambient environmental intensities of UV-A, UV-B and sunlight that generate 1O2, O2˙ and ˙OH radical. Photocytotoxicity of LVFX showed significant reduction in cell viability by MTT and NRU. Photosensitized LVFX caused lipid peroxidation at different concentrations. Quenching with superoxide dismutase confirms LVFX-induced lipid photoperoxidation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated damage in cells, upregulation of p21 and Bax/Bcl-2 genes ratio. LVFX caused cell arrest in G2/M phases as well as induces apoptosis through ROS-dependent pathway.

    15. Establishment of a Microplate-Formatted Cell-Based Immunoassay for Rapid Analysis of Nucleotide Excision Repair Ability in Human Primary Cells (pages 356–362)

      Mari Nishinaga, Ryuichiro Kurata, Kazuyoshi Onishi, Kenichi Kuriyama, Mitsuo Wakasugi and Tsukasa Matsunaga

      Article first published online: 25 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2012.01073.x

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      DNA photolesions induced by UV, cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) and (6-4) photoproduct (6-4PP), are repaired by nucleotide excision repair (NER) in human cells. In this study, we have developed a microplate-formatted cell-based immunoassay for NER of UV photoproducts (M-CINUP), based on indirect immunofluorescence staining with lesion-specific monoclonal antibodies combined with an infrared imaging system. Our results suggest that the new assay is highly useful for the rapid and quantitative analysis of NER activity in various primary cells with limited growth activity and is applicable to a screening system for drugs affecting NER efficiency.

    16. UV-B Exposure Causes DNA Damage and Changes in Protein Expression in Northern Pike (Esox lucius) Posthatched Embryos (pages 363–370)

      Eeva-Riikka Vehniäinen, Kirsi Vähäkangas and Aimo Oikari

      Article first published online: 10 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.01058.x

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      Posthatched embryos of northern pike were exposed in the laboratory to current and enhanced doses of UV-B radiation. UV-B exposure caused the formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) in a fluence rate-dependent manner, and the CPDs were found deeper in the tissues with increasing fluence rates. UV-B radiation induced HSP70 in the epidermis, and caused plausible p53 activation in the brain and epidermis of some individuals. The DNA damage in the brain and eyes of pike and changes in protein expression were followed by severe behavioral disorders, suggesting that neural molecular changes were associated with functional consequences.

    17. An Experimental Setup for the Measurement of Nonthermal Effects During Water-Filtered Infrared A-Irradiation of Mammalian Cell Cultures (pages 371–380)

      Tobias Jung, Annika Höhn, Anne-Marie Lau, Helmut Piazena and Tilman Grune

      Article first published online: 23 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.01072.x

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      The investigation of athermal wIRA effects on single cells requires strict temperature homeostasis during wIRA exposure. This paper compares the often used air-cooling (left) with a suggested very effective water-cooling (right) setup. The graph indicates the major factors influencing sample temperature.

    18. Phloroglucinol Attenuates Ultraviolet B Radiation-Induced Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 Production in Human Keratinocytes via Inhibitory Actions against Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases and Activator Protein-1 (pages 381–388)

      Mei Jing Piao, Rui Zhang, Nam Ho Lee and Jin Won Hyun

      Article first published online: 25 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2012.01074.x

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      UVB significantly induced the upregulation of MMP-1 mRNA, protein and activity in human HaCaT keratinocytes via induction of reactive oxygen species generation and augmentation of intracellular Ca2+ levels which are responsible for MAPKs activation. The activation of MAPKs stimulated c-Fos forming a heterodimer with phospho c-Jun, thus increasing the stability of the AP-1 complex, and further amplifying the capacity of AP-1 binding to the MMP-1 promoter, thereby inducing MMP-1 expression. Phloroglucinol dramatically suppressed UVB-inducing MMP-1 production via inhibition of this signaling pathway.

    19. The Bystander Effect is a Novel Mechanism of UVA-Induced Melanogenesis (pages 389–397)

      Hideki Nishiura, Jun Kumagai, Genro Kashino, Takuya Okada, Keizo Tano and Masami Watanabe

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.01046.x

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      The melanogenesis in UVA-irradiated cell is promoted by bystander effect acting between melanocytes without contribution of the keratinocyte. The bystander factor such as Ca2+ decreases mitochondria membrane potential in a nonradiation cell and desorbs a large quantity of oxidation radicals to cytoplasm. As a result, intracellular level of oxidation increases, and the activation of melanogenesis genes occurs in nuclei. Melanogenesis by bystander effects is efficiently inhibited by treatment of EGTA.

    20. Dynamic Regulation of Photoprotection Determines Thermal Tolerance of Two Phylotypes of Symbiodinium Clade A at Two Photon Fluence Rates (pages 398–413)

      Wiebke E. Krämer, Isabel Caamaño-Ricken, Claudio Richter and Kai Bischof

      Article first published online: 30 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.01048.x

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      Coral bleaching is the manifestation of the dysfunction of the symbiosis between scleractinian corals and dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium and increasingly induced by elevated temperatures and high irradiance. In this study, we compared the capacity of two different Symbiodinium clade A phylotypes to employ photoprotective pathways under bleaching conditions (thermal and light stress). Both phylotypes clearly differed in thermal tolerance and cellular xanthophyll concentrations as well as xanthophyll cycling activity. For the first time measurements of glutathione pool size were applied to test for the stress tolerance of Symbiodinium phylotypes.

    21. Elucidation of Cell Killing Mechanism by Comparative Analysis of Photoreactions on Different Types of Bacteria (pages 414–422)

      S. Swetha, Maheshwari Kumari Singh, K. U. Minchitha and R. Geetha Balakrishna

      Article first published online: 17 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.01057.x

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      Various analytical, bio and physical techniques of evaluation, experimented to study the disinfection capacity of pulverized nano-TiO2, aids in better elucidation of the cell killing mechanism.

    22. Xanthene Dyes Induce Membrane Permeabilization of Bacteria and Erythrocytes by Photoinactivation (pages 423–431)

      Hisato Kato, Keiko Komagoe, Yuka Nakanishi, Tsuyoshi Inoue and Takashi Katsu

      Article first published online: 25 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2012.01080.x

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      Singlet oxygen generated by the photoirradiation of xanthene dyes, such as rose bengal, phloxine B and erythrosine B, induced the leakage of K+ from Staphylococcus aureus cells and bovine erythrocytes, while the inhibition of respiration was weak except for rose bengal. The leakage of K+ was closely associated with the dissipation of bacterial membrane potential and the dye-induced morphological changes in erythrocytes.

    23. mTHPC-mediated Photodynamic Treatment Up-regulates the Cytokines VEGF and IL-1alpha (pages 432–439)

      Daiva Dabkeviciene, Ausra Sasnauskiene, Eva Leman, Raimonda Kvietkauskaite, Neringa Daugelaviciene, Vaidotas Stankevicius, Vaclovas Jurgelevicius, Benediktas Juodka and Vida Kirveliene

      Article first published online: 10 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.01062.x

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      In A-431 cells, mTHPC-mediated photodynamic treatment stimulated the production of VEGF and IL-1alpha, and IL-1alpha contributed to the VEGF overexpression.

    24. In Vitro Photodynamic Inactivation of Cryptococcus neoformans Melanized Cells with Chloroaluminum Phthalocyanine Nanoemulsion (pages 440–447)

      Gabriela B. Rodrigues, Fernando L. Primo, Antonio C. Tedesco and Gilberto U. L. Braga

      Article first published online: 19 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.01055.x

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      The in vitro susceptibility of Cryptococcus neoformans melanized and nonmelanized cells to the photodynamic effects of the photosensitizer (PS) agent ClAlPc in nanoemulsion was examined. Cells were killed in a PS concentration- and light dose-dependent manner. Treatments with ClAlPc/NE, using PS concentrations and light doses compatible with photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy, resulted in a reduction of up to 6 logs in survival. Washing the cells to remove unbound PS before light exposure did not inhibit fungal photodynamic inactivation. Internalization of ClAlPc by C. neoformans was confirmed by confocal fluorescence microscopy, and the degree of uptake was dependent on PS concentration.

    25. Photochemically Generated Elemental Selenium Forms Conjugates with Serum Proteins That Are Preferentially Cytotoxic to Leukemia and Selected Solid Tumor Cells (pages 448–460)

      Jean-Pierre Daziano, Wolfgang H.H. Günther, Marianne Krieg, Ichiro Tsujino, Kiyoko Miyagi, Gregory S. Anderson, Reynée W. Sampson, Martin D. Ostrowski, Sarah A. Muir, Raymond J. Bula and Fritz Sieber

      Article first published online: 31 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2012.01078.x

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      One-hour incubations with micromolar concentrations of selenomerocyanine-derived photoproducts reduce in vitro clonogenic wild-type leukemia cells (L1210) and melphalan-resistant leukemia cells (L1210/L-PAM1 and L1210/L-PAM2) by several orders of magnitude, but preserve virtually all normal CD34-positive normal bone marrow cells.

    26. Lysosomal Signaling Enhances Mitochondria-Mediated Photodynamic Therapy in A431 Cancer Cells: Role of Iron (pages 461–468)

      Shalini Saggu, Hsin-I Hung, Geraldine Quiogue, John J. Lemasters and Anna-Liisa Nieminen

      Article first published online: 25 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2012.01081.x

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      Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an attractive treatment for cancer. In PDT, light activates a photosensitizer added to a tissue, resulting in singlet oxygen formation and cell death. The aim of this study was to determine how lysosomes contribute to PDT-induced cell killing by mitochondria-targeted photosensitizers such as Pc 4. Our results demonstrate that strategies to collapse the lysosomal pH gradient without lysosomal membrane breakdown is sufficient to induce iron-dependent mitochondrial depolarization and subsequent cell killing during Pc 4-PDT. Thus, agents that disturb lysosomal function could potentially be used clinically as an adjuvant treatment with mitochondria-targeted photosensitizers.

    27. Modeling and Verification of Melanin Concentration on Human Skin Type (pages 469–474)

      Aletta E. Karsten and Jacoba E. Smit

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.01044.x

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      In the past 50 years lasers have found numerous applications in medicine for minimalistic or noninvasive diagnosis and treatment. Often that means that the light must penetrate through the skin and the correct dose required relies on accurate information regarding the skin’s optical properties. Human skin consists of different layers, with the epidermal layer containing the melanin that is responsible for skin type. This study’s objective is to compare experimentally measured absorption features of melanin and lipid containing skin-like phantoms representing Skin Types I–VI with a realistic skin computational model component of ASAP®.

    28. Influence of Application Amount on Sunscreen Photodegradation in in vitro Sun Protection Factor Evaluation: Proposal of A Skin-Mimicking Substrate (pages 475–482)

      Yoshimasa Miura, Tetsuji Hirao and Masato Hatao

      Article first published online: 20 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.01042.x

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      We have developed a polymethylmethacrylate skin-mimicking substrate (SMS), which has furrows and ridges on its surface, like human skin. A comparison of the photodegradation profiles of sunscreens on commercially available substrates (including SMS) at the recommended application amounts, and on SMS at various application amounts showed that the photodegradation rate of photounstable sunscreen was dependent on the application amount, being higher at lower application amounts. The recommended application amount for SMS is as high as that for in vivo measurement (2.00 mg cm−2), and SMS provided in vitro sun protection factor (SPF) values that were comparable with in vivo SPF values.

    29. Geographical Variation in Residence and Risk of Multiple Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers in US Women and Men (pages 483–489)

      Erin X. Wei-Passanese, Jiali Han, Wen Lin, Tricia Li, Francine Laden and Abrar A. Qureshi

      Article first published online: 31 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2012.01077.x

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      Ultraviolet (UV) index was developed to quantify the amount of ultraviolet radiation reaching the earth’s surface. The algorithm accounts for latitude, altitude, cloud cover, haze, time of day and ozone concentration. On the basis of mean UV index for the month of August each state in the United States was categorized into low-, medium- and high-UV index states. Residence in high-UV locations is associated with increased risk for incident nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC). This study focused on the association between geographic location based on UV index of residence and risk of multiple NMSCs. (Map was generated using http://monarch.tamu.edu/~maps2/us.htm)

  2. Research Note

    1. Top of page
    2. Research Articles
    3. Research Note
    1. Platelet-activating Factor Does Not Mediate UVB-induced Local Immune Suppression (pages 490–493)

      Ravi P. Sahu, Yongxue Yao, Raymond L. Konger and Jeffrey B. Travers

      Article first published online: 31 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.01071.x

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      Several studies including from our group have characterized the importance of oxidized proinflammatory lipid mediators with platelet-activating factor (PAF) activity in UVB-induced systemic immunosuppression. However, the role of PAF in local immunosuppression is unknown. These studies indicate that UVB irradiation results in an inhibition of contact hypersensitivity (CHS) to the chemical DNFB in both wild-type and PAF receptor-deficient mice. Thus, PAF-receptor signaling is not involved in local immunosuppression, unlike its critical role in systemic immunosuppression.

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