Photochemistry and Photobiology

Cover image for Vol. 89 Issue 1

January/February 2013

Volume 89, Issue 1

Pages 1–258

  1. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Highlight Articles
    4. Research Articles
    5. Research Articles
    6. Research Articles
    7. Research Articles
    8. Research Articles
    9. Research Articles
    10. Research Articles
    11. Research Articles
    12. Research Articles
    13. Research Articles
    14. Research Notes
    1. Editorial (page 1)

      Jean Cadet

      Article first published online: 3 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12026

  2. Highlight Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Highlight Articles
    4. Research Articles
    5. Research Articles
    6. Research Articles
    7. Research Articles
    8. Research Articles
    9. Research Articles
    10. Research Articles
    11. Research Articles
    12. Research Articles
    13. Research Articles
    14. Research Notes
    1. Killing Bacterial Spores with Blue Light: When Innate Resistance Meets the Power of Light (pages 2–4)

      Tyler G. St. Denis, Tianhong Dai and Michael R. Hamblin

      Article first published online: 12 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2012.01233.x

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Blue (405-nm) light can kill Bacillus endospores such as those responsible for anthrax by exciting endogenous chromophores such as coproporphyrin.

  3. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Highlight Articles
    4. Research Articles
    5. Research Articles
    6. Research Articles
    7. Research Articles
    8. Research Articles
    9. Research Articles
    10. Research Articles
    11. Research Articles
    12. Research Articles
    13. Research Articles
    14. Research Notes
    1. Photophysical Properties of Sol–gel derived Luminescent Silicone Hybrids Synthesized via Facile Amino-Ene Reaction (pages 5–13)

      Yuanzhi Yue, Yan Liang, Hua Wang, Linglong Feng, Shengyu Feng and Haifeng Lu

      Article first published online: 8 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2012.01199.x

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      In the present work, dimethyl ester-functionalized silane (DMAPMMS) was synthesized via a facile amino-ene reaction. Then the coordinated assembly of the ester ligands and lanthanide ions (Eu3+, Tb3+, Dy3+) occurred. The ester ligands were immobilized onto the Si-O network backbone via sol–gel processes. The particle size can be controlled to ca 50 nm by adjusting the solvent ratio. The terbium and europium-containing materials show sharp green and red emissions, respectively, which indicate that efficient intramolecular energy transfer took place in these luminescent silicone hybrids.

    2. Photoinduced CC-coupling Reactions of Rigid Diastereomeric Benzophenone-Methionine Dyads (pages 14–23)

      Anna Lewandowska-Andralojc, Franciszek Kazmierczak, Gordon L. Hug, Gerald Hörner and Bronislaw Marciniak

      Article first published online: 30 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2012.01210.x

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      Irreversible photochemical pathways in a pair of diastereomeric benzophenone-methionine dyads in acetonitrile solutions have been addressed with respect to mechanistic questions and their synthetic scope. Combined results from steady-state and time-resolved photolysis refer substrate consumption to a cascade of hydrogen-atom transfer and interside-chain CC-coupling with remarkable quantum yields, which could be driven on a preparative scale with high-product selectivity. Effects of stereochemistry are substantial on the stage of the triplet quenching, which manifests as an electron transfer followed by rapid proton transfer. Discrimination is reduced in the subsequent product formation via biradical recombination.

    3. Preparation of New Magnetic Nanocatalysts Based on TiO2 and ZnO and Their Application in Improved Photocatalytic Degradation of Dye Pollutant Under Visible Light (pages 24–32)

      Mohammad Reza Nabid, Roya Sedghi, Saeede Gholami, Hossein Abdi Oskooie and Majid M. Heravi

      Article first published online: 30 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2012.01209.x

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      The three and four component nanocomposites (TiO2/ZnO/Fe3O4/PANI and ZnO/Fe3O4/PANI), for the degradation of MO as an azo dye at the presence of visible light were used. The results demonstrate that the synthesized nanocomposites are useful for the degradation of water pollutions and may be used for several times without appreciable loss of activity.

    4. UV/TiO2 Photocatalytic Degradation of Xanthene Dyes (pages 33–39)

      Luciana Pereira, Raquel Pereira, Catarina S. Oliveira, Laura Apostol, Mariana Gavrilescu, Marie-Noëlle Pons, Orfan Zahraa and Maria Madalena Alves

      Article first published online: 5 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2012.01208.x

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      The xanthene dyes erythrosine B and eosin were degraded in a photoreactor combining UV/TiO2. High color and COD removal was obtained. The process was found to be pH dependent with better results under acidic conditions. Batch activity tests under methanogenic conditions showed the high toxicity exerted by the dyes. Detoxification levels of 64 ± 7% and 85 ± 5% were achieved for erythrosine B and eosin, respectively.

    5. A Spectroscopic Survey of Substituted Indoles Reveals Consequences of a Stabilized 1Lb Transition (pages 40–50)

      Xianwei Meng, Trisheena Harricharran and Laura J. Juszczak

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2012.01219.x

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      This spectroscopic study of 14 indole derivatives reveals a trend of increased energetic separation for substitution at the benzyl ring. In particular, the 1La and 1Lb transitions are resolved in the absorption spectrum for 5- and 6-hydroxyindoles in cyclohexane. These experimental results reveal the validity of earlier calculated and deconvoluted transitions. The energetic position of the 1La origin appears at 280 nm for 5-hydroxyindole as shown. This information will aid in determination of relative 1La and 1Lb energetic contributions to fluorescence emission of tryptophan in proteins.

    6. Density Functional Theory Calculations on Rhodamine B and Pinacyanol Chloride. Optimized Ground State, Dipole Moment, Vertical Ionization Potential, Adiabatic Electron Affinity and Lowest Excited Triplet State (pages 51–60)

      Juan C. Delgado and Ronald G. Selsby

      Article first published online: 26 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2012.01222.x

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      A theoretical gas phase picture of isolated cationic dyes salts of Pinacyanol Chloride and Rhodamine B yields the optimized ground state configuration, the Mulliken atom charges, total molecular energy and dipole moment. Open shell calculations are used to obtain the IP, adiabatic EA, lowest excited triplet state. The MOs indicate that the three HOMOs are not associated with the cation p system, but involve AOs on the Chloride anion interacting with the cation framework. The LUMOs of both dyes are π MO's on the cation.

    7. Photoionization of Oxidized Coenzyme Q in Microemulsion: Laser Flash Photolysis Study in Biomembrane-like System (pages 61–67)

      Kun Li, Mei Wang, Jin Wang, Rongrong Zhu, Dongmei Sun, Xiaoyu Sun and Shi-Long Wang

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2012.01180.x

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In microemulsion, CoQ10 undergoes photoionization via a monophotonic process to generate neutral radical of CoQ10 (CoQ10) and hydrated electrons (eaq). However, duroquinone (DQ) experiences photoexcitation to generate excited triplet state (3DQ*), which is followed by hydrogen-abstraction reaction of 3DQ* from 1-butonal. Photoexcitation of CoQ0 in microemulsion not only leads to excited state-involved hydrogen-abstraction reaction but also the formation of hydrated electrons. In term of the difference of molecular structure, related mechanism is discussed to explain the different photochemistry of the three benzoquinone derivatives.

    8. Structure-Dependent Demetalation Kinetics of Chlorophyll a Analogs under Acidic Conditions (pages 68–73)

      Yoshitaka Saga, Yuki Hirai, Kana Sadaoka, Megumi Isaji and Hitoshi Tamiaki

      Article first published online: 30 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2012.01213.x

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      Demetalation of chlorophyll (Chl) a and its analogs is an important reaction in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, which produces the primary electron acceptors in the photosystem II and is crucial in the Chl degradation. We report demetalation kinetics of natural Chl a and four Chl a analogs, namely, DV-Chl a, 3-devinyl-3-ethyl-Chl a, 132-demethoxycarbonyl-Chl a and protochlorophyll a. The structure-dependent demetalation properties of Chl a analogs will be useful for understanding in vivo Chl demetalation reactions.

    9. The Radical Cationic Repair Pathway of Cyclobutane Pyrimidine Dimer: The Effect of Sugar-Phosphate Backbone (pages 74–82)

      Ali Ebrahimi, Mostafa Habibi-Khorassani and Asiyeh Shahraki

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2012.01206.x

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Why does the repair of dimer trigger by the C6-C6′ cleavage in the radical cationic pathway when sugar-phosphate backbones are substituted by hydrogen atoms?

    10. Protein Phosphatase Activity and Acidic/Alkaline Balance as Factors Regulating the State of Phytochrome A and its Two Native Pools in the Plant Cell (pages 83–96)

      Vitaly Sineshchekov, Larissa Koppel, Ekaterina Shor, Galina Kochetova, Paul Galland and Mathias Zeidler

      Article first published online: 26 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2012.01226.x

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      Phytochrome A (phyA) exists in two forms, phyA′ and phyA′′, what may explain the diverse modes of its action. With the use of phyA fluorescence and photochemistry, it was shown that [phyA′]/[phyA′′] in etiolated maize tissues correlated with their pH. Inhibition of the PP1 and PP2A phosphatases with okadaic and cantharidic acids brought about phyA′ decline and/or concomitant increase of phyA′′ in coleoptiles and mesocotyls (see Figure), but had no effect in roots. Thus, pH and phosphorylation status may regulate [phyA′]/[phyA″] via alteration of the processes of phyA′ destruction and/or its transformation into the more stable phyA″.

    11. Photosynthesis Assessment in Microphytobenthos Using Conventional and Imaging Pulse Amplitude Modulation Fluorometry (pages 97–102)

      Sónia Vieira, Lourenço Ribeiro, Bruno Jesus, Paulo Cartaxana and Jorge Marques da Silva

      Article first published online: 13 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2012.01224.x

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      Image of minimum chlorophyll a fluorescence of a dark-adapted sample during a diurnal low tide for mud (A) and sand (B) microphytobenthos. Imaging pulse amplitude modulated (Imaging-PAM chlorophyll fluorometry is a breakthrough in the study of spatial heterogeneity of different photosynthetic assemblages. However, Imaging-PAM uses different technology than conventional PAM, making comparisons between these techniques doubtful. Thereby, photosynthetic processes were comparatively assessed using conventional (Junior PAM and PAM 101) and Imaging-PAM on intertidal MPB (mud and sand) and on cork oak leaves. Our findings emphasize the caution needed when interpreting chlorophyll fluorescence data of MPB communities.

    12. UVB Radiation Affects Growth, Reproduction and Tissue Structure of Daphnia magna Across Several Temperatures (pages 103–110)

      Judith D. Huebner, Nancy L. Loadman, Murray D. Wiegand, Erwin Huebner, Daniel J. Palitsky and William H. Husarewycz

      Article first published online: 2 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2012.01197.x

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      UVB radiation (UVBR) inhibited growth, reduced reproductive output and caused production of smaller offspring in Daphnia magna. These consequences were more severe at 30°C than at 20–25°C. UVBR caused damage to the gut including disruption of the brush border and vacuolation of epithelial cells (Figure). Disruption of the gut will reduce absorptive capacity and thus the energy supply for growth, maintenance and reproduction. With higher metabolic rates at higher temperatures, further reduction in reproductive capacity is expected. Combined effects of higher temperature and UVBR penetration associated with climate change may compromise populations of pelagic zooplankton such as Daphnia.

    13. Photodynamic Inactivation of Planktonic Cultures and Biofilms of Candida albicans Mediated by Aluminum-Chloride-Phthalocyanine Entrapped in Nanoemulsions (pages 111–119)

      Ana Paula Dias Ribeiro, Mariana Carvalho Andrade, Julhiany de Fátima da Silva, Janaina Habib Jorge, Fernando Lucas Primo, Antonio Cláudio Tedesco and Ana Cláudia Pavarina

      Article first published online: 8 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2012.01198.x

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      Candida albicans biofilm overview after 30 min of contact with free ClAlPc. This study presents the photodynamic potential of aluminum-chloride-phthalocyanine (ClAlPc) entrapped in cationic and anionic nanoemulsions (NE) to inactivate C. albicans planktonic cultures and biofilm comparing with free ClAlPc. The photodynamic effect was dependent on the delivery system, superficial charge and light dose. Cationic NE-ClAlPc and free ClAlPc caused significant reduction in colony counts, cell metabolism and damage to the cell membrane (< 0.05). However, only the free ClAlPc was able to cause photokilling of the yeast. The anionic NE-ClAlPc did not present antifungal activity. Although NE system showed a lower activity for planktonic culture, cationic NE-ClAlPc showed better results for Candida biofilms.

    14. Sporicidal Effects of High-Intensity 405 nm Visible Light on Endospore-Forming Bacteria (pages 120–126)

      Michelle Maclean, Lynne E. Murdoch, Scott J. MacGregor and John G. Anderson

      Article first published online: 30 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2012.01202.x

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      This article investigates the susceptibility of Bacillus and Clostridium endospores to 405 nm light. Suspensions of B. cereus endospores were exposed to high-intensity 405 nm light and results demonstrated a sporicidal effect. Approximately a 4-log10 CFU mL−1 reduction in spore population was achieved after exposure to a dose of 1.73 kJ cm−2. Similar inactivation kinetics were demonstrated with B. subtilis, B. megaterium and C. difficile endospores. The doses required for endospore inactivation were significantly higher than those required for inactivation of vegetative cells. The demonstration that 405 nm visible light can inactivate endospores is significant, and could have potential for incorporation into decontamination methods. Associated figure: Figure 4 in the manuscript.

    15. Pulsed UV-C Disinfection of Escherichia coli With Light-Emitting Diodes, Emitted at Various Repetition Rates and Duty Cycles (pages 127–131)

      Stephen Wengraitis, Patrick McCubbin, Mary Margaret Wade, Tracey D. Biggs, Shane Hall, Leslie I. Williams and Alan W. Zulich

      Article first published online: 1 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2012.01203.x

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      It has been suggested that cells exposed to pulsed UV radiation can be damaged by the photophysical disturbance of incoming pulses. We investigated this effect by exposing Escherichia coli samples to pulsed 272 nm radiation emitted by light emitting diodes (LEDs), at various pulse repetition frequencies and duty cycles. Then, we investigated the parameters for the most time-effective and energy-efficient disinfection, and compared our results with those from other studies.

    16. Inactivation of Vaccinia Virus by Natural Sunlight and by Artificial UVB Radiation (pages 132–138)

      Jose-Luis Sagripanti, Luzie Voss, Hans-Juergen Marschall and Carl David Lytle

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2012.01207.x

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      Vaccinia virus, commonly used as a surrogate for variola virus, was exposed to UVB radiation emitted by a solar simulator, or to direct natural sunlight. The data indicate that: (1) the virucidal effect of natural sunlight can be mimicked by an artificial light source with similar spectral characteristics in the UVB, (2) viral sensitivity to UVB or to solar radiation can be correlated with data previously obtained with UVC, and (3) the sensitivity of viruses either dry or in liquid suspension is similar when in the presence of similar amounts of cellular debris and growth media.

    17. Fully Protected Glycosylated Zinc (II) Phthalocyanine Shows High Uptake and Photodynamic Cytotoxicity in MCF-7 Cancer Cells (pages 139–149)

      Stanley G. Kimani, Tatiana A. Shmigol, Samantha Hammond, James B. Phillips, James I. Bruce, Alexander J. MacRobert, Mikhail V. Malakhov and Jon P. Golding

      Article first published online: 30 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2012.01204.x

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      Structure of zinc phthalocyanine compound {4}. MCF-7 cells were incubated for 2 h with the specified concentrations of ZnPc {4} (red), ZnPc {5} (green) or AlPcS2 (blue), before 15 min light exposure. Twenty-four hours later PI exclusion assay was carried out to determine the cell viability. The symbols denote statistically significant differences compared with control (< 0.05**, < 0.001***) or ZnPc {4} (< 0.001###).

    18. Photodynamic Mechanisms induced by a Combination of Hypericin and a Chlorin Based-Photosensitizer in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells (pages 150–162)

      Emina Besic Gyenge, Daniel Lüscher, Patrick Forny, Martina Antoniol, Georg Geisberger, Heinrich Walt, Greta Patzke and Caroline Maake

      Article first published online: 13 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2012.01217.x

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      Hypericin, liposomal mTHPC derivate and their 1:1 mixture mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) effects were examined on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. Our results showed that the application of photosensitizer mixtures with the features of reduced dark toxicity resulted in combined apoptotic and necrotic cell death.

    19. The p53-Dependent Expression of Frataxin Controls 5-Aminolevulinic Acid-Induced Accumulation of Protoporphyrin IX and Photo-Damage in Cancerous Cells (pages 163–172)

      Mari Sawamoto, Takafumi Imai, Mana Umeda, Koji Fukuda, Takao Kataoka and Shigeru Taketani

      Article first published online: 13 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2012.01215.x

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      The expression of frataxin is dependent on the function of the tumor suppressor protein p53 at the transcriptional level. The knockdown of p53 by siRNA in HEK293T cells caused the decrease of the expression of frataxin, leading to enhancement of the ALA-induced accumulation of protoporphyrin. In contrast, overexpression of frataxin in human cancerous cells lowered the accumulation of protoporphyrin by up-regulation of mitochondrial functions and induced resistance to ALA-induced photo-damage, suggesting that dysfunction of p53 in tumor cells leads to the increase in the ALA-induced accumulation of protoporphyrin through the decrease of the expression of frataxin.

    20. Low-level Laser Therapy Ameliorates CCl4-induced Liver Cirrhosis in Rats (pages 173–178)

      Manoel Carneiro Oliveira-Junior, Aldaíza Salomão Monteiro, Ernesto César Pinto Leal-Junior, Egberto Munin, Rodrigo Aléxis Lazo Osório, Wellington Ribeiro and Rodolfo Paula Vieira

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2012.01211.x

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      This study investigated the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in an experimental model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver cirrhosis. A 830 nm LLLT applied for 2 weeks resulted in a significant reduction of CCl4-increased aspartate aminotransferase (P < 0.001), alkaline phosphatase (< 0.001), gamma-glutamyl transferase (P < 0.001), lactate dehydrogenase (P < 0.01), total proteins (P < 0.05) and globulins (P < 0.01). LLLT also reduced the number of cirrhotic areas, the collagen accumulation and the hepatic inflammatory infiltrate. LLLT also reduced CCl4-increased number of Kupffer cells (P < 0.05) and hepatic stellate cells (P < 0.05). LLLT presents beneficial effects on liver function and structure in an experimental model of CCl4-induced cirrhosis.

    21. Low-Level Laser Therapy Restores the Oxidative Stress Balance in Acute Lung Injury Induced by Gut Ischemia and Reperfusion (pages 179–188)

      Flávia Mafra de Lima, Regiane Albertini, Yvana Dantas, Antonio Luis Maia-Filho, Cristiano de Loura Santana, Hugo Caire Castro-Faria-Neto, Cristiane França, Antonio Balbin Villaverde and Flávio Aimbire

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2012.01214.x

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      This diagram shows the mechanism of action by which low-level laser therapy controls the acute lung inflammation and restores the oxidative-stress balance in experimental model of trauma induced by intestinal ischemia and reperfusion.

    22. Guinea Pig Skin, a Model for Epidermal Cellular and Molecular Changes Induced by UVR in vivo and in vitro: Effects on Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette–Guérin Vaccination (pages 189–198)

      Amminikutty Jeevan, Cathryn R. Formichella, Karen E. Russell and Vijaya R. Dirisala

      Article first published online: 26 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2012.01218.x

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      Guinea pigs were exposed to a single dose of UV radiation (UVB, 5.6 kJ m−2) and epidermal cells were isolated 24 h after irradiation. Cytospins of epidermal cells after Diff–Quik staining indicated cells at different stages of development consisting of round cells to angular-nucleated to anucleated cells. Differential counts showed a significant increase in the angular nucleated cells but a reduction in the number of cells with high nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio and binucleated cells when compared to the un-irradiated skin. UVR caused a significant increase in the levels of IL-10, IL-4, IL-12p40, TGF-β, IL-1β and iNOS mRNAs.

    23. Modulation of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced NF-κB Signaling Pathway by 635 nm Irradiation via Heat Shock Protein 27 in Human Gingival Fibroblast Cells (pages 199–207)

      WonBong Lim, JiSun Kim, SangWoo Kim, Sandeep Karna, JaeWoong Won, Sang Mi Jeon, Seo Yeon Kim, YooDuk Choi, HongRan Choi and OkJoon Kim

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2012.01225.x

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      Heat shock protein-27 (HSP27) is a member of the small HSP family, which has been linked to the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway regulating inflammatory responses. A lot of clinical reports have suggested that low-level light therapy/laser irradiation (LLLT) could be an effective alternative treatment to relieve inflammation during bacterial infection associated with periodontal disease. We examined whether 635 nm irradiation could lead to a modulation of the NF-B signaling pathway in HSP27-silenced cells and analyzed the functional cross-talk between these factors in NF-κB activation.

    24. Personal Sun Exposure and Serum 25-hydroxy Vitamin D Concentrations (pages 208–214)

      Visalini Nair-Shalliker, Mark Clements, Michael Fenech and Bruce K Armstrong

      Article first published online: 30 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2012.01201.x

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      Sun exposure is the major source of vitamin D in most population. However, the amount of incidental sun exposure conducive to the production of serum vitamin D remains unclear. This study shows a quantitative link between recalled personal solar UV exposure and serum 25(OH)D. The relationship was curvilinear and reached a plateau at about 89 nmol L−1. The plateau level appeared to be higher in men than in women. Further understanding of the significance of these plateaus, which suggest physiological maxima, could contribute to future recommendations for fortification or supplementation with vitamin D.

    25. Characterization of a Smartphone Camera's Response to Ultraviolet A Radiation (pages 215–218)

      Damien Igoe, Alfio Parisi and Brad Carter

      Article first published online: 13 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2012.01216.x

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      A smartphone camera image of an ultraviolet-A (UV-A) beam from an irradiation monochromator. The smartphone camera CMOS sensor can detect the UV-A irradiance, providing measurable responses from the red, green and blue pixels. The addition of neutral density and narrow bandpass filters ensure that the UV irradiance do not cause saturation within the smartphone image sensor.

    26. Validation of Brief Questionnaire Measures of Sun Exposure and Skin Pigmentation Against Detailed and Objective Measures Including Vitamin D Status (pages 219–226)

      Jessica Cargill, Robyn M. Lucas, Peter Gies, Kerryn King, Ashwin Swaminathan, Martin W. Allen and Emily Banks

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2012.01221.x

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      We examined the validity of a brief questionnaire measure of usual “time outdoors” on weekdays and weekends. This measure was compared to both time outdoors recorded in a 7-day sun exposure diary, and objectively measured (electronic dosimeter) UVR exposure. This figure shows the association between questionnaire and diary measures of average weekly time outdoors; the two were significantly and moderately correlated. We further report a significant correlation between questionnaire “time outdoors” and objectively measured UVR exposure. Therefore, our results indicate that the brief questionnaire measure of usual time outdoors can be used to rank respondents according to current sun exposure.

    27. Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy as a Tool to Measure the Absorption Coefficient in Skin: South African Skin Phototypes (pages 227–233)

      Aletta E. Karsten, Ann Singh, Petrus A. Karsten and Max W. H. Braun

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2012.01220.x

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      A diffuse reflectance probe consisting of a ring of six light delivery fibers and a central collecting fiber was used to measure the diffused reflected light from the arms of 30 volunteers with skin phototypes I–V. The absorption coefficient was calculated from these measurements. This real-time in vivo technique was used to determine the absorption coefficient of sun-exposed and -protected areas on the arm. The range of typical absorption coefficients for the South African skin phototypes is reported. The values for the darker South African skin types were much higher than was previously reported for darker skin phototypes.

    28. Skin Cancer Risks Avoided by the Montreal Protocol—Worldwide Modeling Integrating Coupled Climate-Chemistry Models with a Risk Model for UV (pages 234–246)

      Arjan van Dijk, Harry Slaper, Peter N. den Outer, Olaf Morgenstern, Peter Braesicke, John A. Pyle, Hella Garny, Andrea Stenke, Martin Dameris, Andreas Kazantzidis, Kleareti Tourpali and Alkiviadis F. Bais

      Article first published online: 26 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2012.01223.x

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      We used output from two chemistry-climate models to quantify the worldwide skin cancer risk avoided by the Montreal Protocol and its amendments: by the year 2030, two million cases of skin cancer have been prevented yearly. The figure shows the associated geographic distribution. In the “World Avoided,” excess skin cancer incidence will continue to grow dramatically after 2030. A certain skin cancer risk had already been inevitably committed once the problem of ozone depletion was recognized: excess incidence will peak mid 21st century and then recover or even super-recover at the end of the century.

  4. Research Notes

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Highlight Articles
    4. Research Articles
    5. Research Articles
    6. Research Articles
    7. Research Articles
    8. Research Articles
    9. Research Articles
    10. Research Articles
    11. Research Articles
    12. Research Articles
    13. Research Articles
    14. Research Notes
    1. Photoisomerization of trans-2-[4′-(Dimethylamino)styryl]benzothiazole (pages 247–252)

      Anasuya Mishra, Arumugam Thangamani, Soumya Chatterjee, Francis A. S. Chipem and Govindarajan Krishnamoorthy

      Article first published online: 26 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2012.01227.x

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      Contrary to an earlier report, the photoisomerization of trans-2-[4′-(dimethylamino)styryl]benzothiazole occurs in all the solvents including viscous glycerol and it follows not the adiabatic, but the non-adiabatic path. Relative higher fluorescence quantum yield obtained in glycerol is due to restriction on photoisomerization.

    2. Azide Quenching of Singlet Oxygen in Suspensions of Microenvironments of Neutral and Surface Charged Liposomes and Micelles (pages 253–258)

      Lihi Musbat, Hana Weitman and Benjamin Ehrenberg

      Article first published online: 30 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2012.01212.x

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      The azide anion is a very efficient physical quencher of singlet oxygen. We show the difference in azide's quenching action when the photosensitization occurs in liposomes vs micelles, when the target molecule is water soluble or is enclosed in the apolar nanoenvironment, and when the liposome is electrically neutral or charged. We explain the observed differences on the basis of the population of sensitizer and target in the nanoenvironments, on diffusion lengths and on the effect of surface potential, by the Gouy–Chapman electrostatic theory.

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