Photochemistry and Photobiology

Cover image for Vol. 89 Issue 2

March/April 2013

Volume 89, Issue 2

Pages 259–512

  1. Invited Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Invited Review
    3. Research Articles
    1. You have free access to this content
      Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy to Probe Photoactivation in Canonical Phytochromes (pages 259–273)

      Chen Song, Thierry Rohmer, Markus Tiersch, Jan Zaanen, Jon Hughes and Jörg Matysik

      Article first published online: 25 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12029

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      Photoreceptor phytochromes switch photochromically between two states; a red- (Pr) and a far-red (Pfr) absorbing form. Here, we summarize recent solid-state MAS NMR work on this conversion. As demonstrated, the process is initiated by a double-bond photoisomerization of the chromophore at the methine bridge of rings CD (left panel). Our NMR studies also revealed a soft chromophore and a less well-defined protein-binding pocket in the cyanobacterial Cph1 phytochrome in Pr relative to Pfr (overlay of 13C–13C dipolar-assisted rotational resonance spectra of the chromophore in both states, right panel). NMR measurement of the intermediates during the Pfr-to-Pr back-reaction achieved insight into a clockwork-like mechanics. The physical aspects of the photoactivation in phytochromes are discussed.

  2. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Invited Review
    3. Research Articles
    1. Photocatalysis of Chloroform Decomposition by the Hexachlororuthenate(IV) Ion (pages 274–279)

      Alissa M. Chan, Laura A. Peña, Rosa E. Segura, Ramya Auroprem, Brent M. Harvey, Caroline M. Brooke and Patrick E. Hoggard

      Article first published online: 8 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12005

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      In the presence of RuCl62−, chloroform decomposes under near-UV irradiation to phosgene and hydrogen chloride. The photoactive species is suggested to be RuCl5(CHCl3) .

    2. Photophysical Properties of 7-(diethylamino)Coumarin-3-carboxylic Acid in the Nanocage of Cyclodextrins and in Different Solvents and Solvent Mixtures (pages 280–293)

      Aninda Chatterjee and Debabrata Seth

      Article first published online: 2 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12000

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      The photophysical properties of 7-(diethylamino)coumarin-3-carboxylic acid (7-DCCA) were studied in three cyclodextrins (α, β, γ-CDs) using steady state absorption, emission and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. We have proposed that 7-DDCA form 1:1 capped complex with β-CD. In presence of urea, 7-DCCA form 1:1 inclusion complex with β-CD. With γ-CD it forms 1:1 and 1:2 (guest:host) inclusion complex. The photophysics of 7-DCCA was studied in neat solvents and solvent mixtures. It was found that the photophysics of 7-DCCA depended on the structural feature of the solvents and solvent mixtures.

    3. Solvent-Dependent Fluorescence Lifetimes of Estrone, 17β-Estradiol and 17α-Ethinylestradiol (pages 294–299)

      Kara Y. Chan, Benoît Courtois, Krista Loose and Patrick M. Hare

      Article first published online: 28 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12011

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      The fluorescence lifetimes of estrone, 17β-estradiol, and 17α-ethinylestradiol are strongly solvent dependent. The ability of the solvent to accept hydrogen bonds has a significant effect on the excited state dynamics of these molecules.

    4. A Theoretical Investigation of Two Typical Two-Photon pH Fluorescent Probes (pages 300–309)

      Zhong Xu, Ai-Min Ren, Jing-Fu Guo, Xiao-Ting Liu, Shuang Huang and Ji-Kang Feng

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12015

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      Intracellular pH plays an important role in cellular events such as cell growth, endocytosis and cell adhesion and abnormal pH values will result in cellular dysfunction. A good pH Probe is an essential tool. The mechanisms of fluorescent pH probes can mainly be divided into two types; the Photoinduced Charge Transfer (PCT) mechanism and the Photoinduced Electron Transfer (PET) mechanism. The principles of these two typical two-photon pH fluorescent probes are specifically validated by theoretical methods and some improved probes on the basis of these molecules are designed. Molecules with larger Two-photon Absorption (TPA) cross sections will be designed and investigated.

    5. Dietary Chlorophyll Metabolites Catalyze the Photoreduction of Plasma Ubiquinone (pages 310–313)

      Jinfeng Qu, Li Ma, Junhua Zhang, Steffen Jockusch and Ilyas Washington

      Article first published online: 26 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2012.01230.x

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      Blood vessels growing toward the light: can light protect blood plasma from oxidative damage?

    6. Intermolecular π-Electron Perturbations Generate Extrinsic Visible Contributions to Eumelanin Black Chromophore in Model Polymers with Interrupted Interring Conjugation (pages 314–318)

      Laura Ascione, Alessandro Pezzella, Veronica Ambrogi, Cosimo Carfagna and Marco d'Ischia

      Article first published online: 2 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12003

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      DHICA units enhance aggregation-dependent contributions to Eumelanin black color.

    7. Are the Bio- and Chemiluminescence States of the Firefly Oxyluciferin the Same as the Fluorescence State? (pages 319–325)

      Isabelle Navizet, Daniel Roca-Sanjuán, Ling Yue, Ya-Jun Liu, Nicolas Ferré and Roland Lindh

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12007

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      It is commonly believed that the emissive excited state in the bio-, chemiluminescence, and fluorescence phenomena is the same, although from a mechanistic viewpoint, these processes might differ. To solve this dilemma in the Firefly oxyluciferin, we study by means of ab initio quantum chemistry and hybrid quantum chemistry/molecular mechanics methods the emission process in the three luminescent phenomena.

    8. Pyrazole-substituted Near-infrared Cyanine Dyes Exhibit pH-dependent Fluorescence Lifetime Properties (pages 326–331)

      Hyeran Lee, Mikhail Y. Berezin, Rui Tang, Natalia Zhegalova and Samuel Achilefu

      Article first published online: 10 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12009

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      Pyrazole meso-substituted heptamethine cyanine dye showed pH-dependent fluorescence lifetime change within physiological useful range. This novel fluorescent probe is a good candidate for in vivo diagnostics using fluorescence lifetime imaging method.

    9. Fluorescence Quenching by Intercalation of a Pyrene Group Tethered to an N4-modified Cytosine in Duplex DNA (pages 332–335)

      Rekha R. Avirah and Gary B. Schuster

      Article first published online: 30 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2012.01243.x

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      The self-organizing and scaffolding properties of DNA are often used to assemble complex structures. We describe duplex DNA oligomers that contain a pyrene chromophore linked by a trimethylene chain to N4 of cytosine. Intercalation of the pyrene group stabilizes the duplex and causes efficient quenching of pyrene's fluorescence.

    10. Resistance of Human Butyrylcholinesterase to Methylene Blue-Catalyzed Photoinactivation; Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Oxidation Products (pages 336–348)

      Ozden Tacal, Bin Li, Oksana Lockridge and Lawrence M. Schopfer

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12016

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      Irradiation of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) in the presence of methylene blue results in a variety of oxidations typical of phenothiazine photochemistry of proteins (hydroxylated methionine, hydroxylated tryptophan, kynurenine, N-formyl-kynurenine, hydroxylated and peroxidized-cysteine), but in addition there are novel oxidations (oxidation of serine, oxidation of histidine, 3-OH-kynurenine) and there is extensive protein degradation such that when the enzymatic activity is finally eliminated there is little to no intact protein remaining.

    11. Photokinetic, Biochemical and Structural Features of Chimeric Photoactive Yellow Protein Constructs (pages 349–360)

      John A. Kyndt, Terry E. Meyer, Kenneth T. Olson, Jozef Van Beeumen and Michael A. Cusanovich

      Article first published online: 9 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2012.01235.x

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      Three chimeras of PYP were constructed that have Rhodobacter capsulatus PYP regions exchanged in a Halorhodospira halophila PYP backbone. With more regions exchanged, we observed decreased overall protein stability and increased solvent exposure in the ground state, while the spectra showed increasing amounts of the intermediate spectral form (λmax = 380 nm). Chimeras that have the β4–β5 loop exchange show at least 20 000 times slower recovery kinetics as compared to the prototypical H. halophila PYP.

    12. Photocycle of the LOV-STAS Protein from the Pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. (pages 361–369)

      Ruby H. Chan, James W. Lewis and Roberto A. Bogomolni

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12004

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      Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne bacterial pathogen responsible for listeriosis, an infectious disease in the human host. The pathogen has been identified to contain the Listeria Lmo0799 protein, a virulence factor activated by blue light. Genomic search has identified a LOV-domain protein coupled to a STAS domain, homologues to Bacillus subtilis YtvA, to be the only light sensor so far. We have cloned, expressed in E. coli and purified the full-length LM-LOV-STAS. Here, we report the photocycle and other spectroscopic features of the protein. Although it is a homolog of YtvA, LM-LOV-STAS has unique structural and spectroscopic features that are not reported for YtvA.

    13. Photosynthetic Electron Transport in an Anoxygenic Photosynthetic Bacterium Afifella (Rhodopseudomonas) marina Measured Using PAM Fluorometry (pages 370–383)

      Raymond J. Ritchie and John W. Runcie

      Article first published online: 19 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2012.01241.x

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      Readily available blue-diode based pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) fluorimeters can be used to measure photosynthetic electron transport (ETR) in nonsulfur purple photosynthetic bacteria. PAM machines can measure photosynthesis not only in oxygenic photorganisms and in those with a RC-2 photosystem. Figure shows a comparison of the electron transport rate (ETR) vs irradiance of acetate-grown Afifella cells with and without added acetate (5 mol m−3). ETR in both cases show a waiting-in-line saturation curve with inhibition at high irradiances (r > 0.9731). Added acetate increases ETR but increases optimum irradiance as well.

    14. The Ability of Cyanobacterial Cells to Restore UV-B Radiation Induced Damage to Photosystem II is Influenced by Photolyase Dependent DNA Repair (pages 384–390)

      István-Zoltán Vass, Péter B. Kós, László Sass, Csaba I. Nagy and Imre Vass

      Article first published online: 28 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12012

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      Damage of DNA and Photosystem-II are among the most significant primary effects of UV-B irradiation in photosynthetic organisms. Both damaged DNA and PSII can be repaired representing important defense mechanisms against detrimental UV-B effects. Correlation of Photosystem-II damage and repair with the concurrent DNA damage and repair was investigated in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC6803 using its wild type and a photolyase deficient mutant. This contribution shows that repair capacity of Photosystem-II depends on the ability of cells to repair UV-B damaged DNA through maintaining the transcription of genes, which are essential for protein synthesis dependent repair of the Photosystem-II reaction center.

    15. Increased Antioxidant Activity and Changes in Phenolic Profile of Kalanchoe pinnata (Lamarck) Persoon (Crassulaceae) Specimens Grown Under Supplemental Blue Light (pages 391–399)

      Luana B. S. Nascimento, Marcos V. Leal-Costa, Marcela A. S. Coutinho, Nattacha dos S. Moreira, Celso L. S. Lage, Nancy dos S. Barbi, Sônia S. Costa and Eliana S. Tavares

      Article first published online: 8 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12006

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      This study reports a potential use of blue light as a supplemental light source in cultivation of Kalanchoe pinnata, an important medicinal species. We investigated the effects of blue and UV-A light supplementation on the total phenol content, antioxidant activity and chromatographic profile of K. pinnata extracts. Supplemental blue light improved the antioxidant activity and changed the phenolic profile. Analysis by HPLC of supplemental blue-light plant extracts (A) revealed a higher proportion of the major flavonoid in K. pinnata, as well as the presence of quercitrin and a wide variety of other phenolic substances, when compared with control (B).

    16. Effects of Salinity and Ultraviolet Radiation on the Bioaccumulation of Mycosporine-like Amino Acids in Artemia from Lake Urmia (Iran) (pages 400–405)

      Sanaz Khosravi, Saber Khodabandeh, Naser Agh and Mahdieh Bakhtiarian

      Article first published online: 6 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2012.01245.x

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      This study examined the effects of salinity and artificial UV radiation on accumulation of mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) in sexual and parthenogenetic Artemia from Lake Urmia. The results showed a significant increase in MAA concentrations in both Artemia populations by increment of water salinity. Also, the acquisition efficiency of MAAs in both Artemia populations increased under exposure to UVR-supplemented photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) compared to those raised under PAR. The presence of these compounds in these populations of Artemia may increase their adaptability for living in high-UV and high-salinity conditions prevailing in Lake Urmia.

    17. Effects of PAR and UV-B Radiation on Herbal Yield, Bioactive Compounds and Their Antioxidant Capacity of Some Medicinal Plants Under Controlled Environmental Conditions (pages 406–414)

      Artur Manukyan

      Article first published online: 16 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2012.01242.x

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      Effects of PAR and UV-B radiation on herbal yield, secondary metabolites (essential oils, polyphenols) and their antioxidant capacity of lemon catmint, lemon balm and sage were tested under soilless greenhouse conditions. Intensive UV-B radiation (2.5 kJ m−2 d−1) influenced the herbal productivity and essential oil composition of all three species, while only essential oil content of lemon catmint and lemon balm was affected. Intensive UV-B radiation was favorable for strong antioxidant capacity of essential oils. Low-dose UV-B radiation (1 kJ m−2 d−1) resulted in high polyphenolic content with strong antioxidant capacity. Polyphenolic composition of herbs was also impacted by PAR and UV-B.

    18. The Global Response of Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133 to UVA Stress, Assessed in a Temporal DNA Microarray Study (pages 415–423)

      Tanya Soule, Qunjie Gao, Valerie Stout and Ferran Garcia-Pichel

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12014

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      Cyanobacteria respond to ultraviolet radiation using several strategies. These can include an increase in the production of antioxidant and DNA damage repair enzymes, UV-absorbing pigments, a decrease in the production of photosynthesis and light-harvesting complexes, as well as physical motility away from the UV source. The sensing of UV in cyanobacteria is not well understood and could involve an unidentified photoreceptor or occur as a secondary response to other effects of UV, such as oxidative stress.

    19. Tolerance to Solar Ultraviolet-B Radiation in the Citrus Red Mite, An Upper Surface User of Host Plant Leaves (pages 424–431)

      Midori Fukaya, Ryuji Uesugi, Hirokazu Ohashi, Yuta Sakai, Masaaki Sudo, Atsushi Kasai, Hidenari Kishimoto and Masahiro Osakabe

      Article first published online: 2 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12001

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      Deleterious effects of solar ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation lead most plant-dwelling mites to inhabit the lower leaf surfaces. In contrast, Panonychus spider mites frequently occur also on upper leaf surfaces. P. citri is tolerant to UVB damage, and inhabiting the upper surfaces of shaded leaves is advantageous to this mite.

    20. Identification of Ros Produced by Photodynamic Activity of Chlorophyll/Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complexes (pages 432–441)

      Barbara M. Cellamare, Paola Fini, Angela Agostiano, Salvatore Sortino and Pinalysa Cosma

      Article first published online: 16 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2012.01238.x

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      For the first time, photodynamic activity in vitro of natural Chlorophyll a (Chl a) has been investigated evidencing which types of ROS are formed. Chl a has been solubilized in aqueous solution by means of various cyclodextrins forming inclusion complexes. The ROS production has been carried out in the system using specific molecules, called primary acceptors, which react selectively with the reactive species.

    21. Protective Properties of Novel S-Acyl-Glutathione Thioesters Against Ultraviolet-induced Oxidative Stress (pages 442–452)

      Daniel Wright, Mariagioia Zampagni, Elisa Evangelisti, Simona Conti, Giampiero D'Adamio, Andrea Goti, Matteo Becatti, Claudia Fiorillo, Niccolò Taddei, Cristina Cecchi and Gianfranco Liguri

      Article first published online: 1 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2012.01231.x

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      Acyl-SG derivatives are capable of crossing plasma membrane thanks to their lipophilic acyl chain, which is attached via a thioester bond to the free sulfhydryl group of the GSH cysteine residue. Once internalized, acyl-SG derivatives are cleaved by cellular esterases, which release free reduced GSH, which acts as a scavenger and the parent fatty acid, which acts as a carrier and itself has inherent antioxidant properties. The protective effect of thioesters was dependent on the degree of acyl chain saturation, with more unsaturated linolenoyl-SG derivatives affording greater protection than palmitoyl-SG derivatives against UV-induced cell death, ROS production and lipid peroxidation.

    22. Ethanol Extract of Peanut Sprout Induces Nrf2 Activation and Expression of Antioxidant and Detoxifying Enzymes in Human Dermal Fibroblasts: Implication for its Protection Against UVB-irradiated Oxidative Stress (pages 453–460)

      Jee-Young Choi, Da-In Choi, Jee-Bum Lee, Suk-Jung Yun, Dong-Ho Lee, Jong-Bang Eun and Seung-Chul Lee

      Article first published online: 6 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2012.01244.x

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      The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cytoprotective activity of ethanol extract of peanut sprout (EPS) from ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced oxidative stress in human dermal fibroblasts (HDF). EPS suppressed UVB-induced ROS production in HDF, as it also inhibited UVB-induced apoptotic cell death. EPS induced up-regulation and nuclear translocation of Nrf2 in HDF. UVB irradiation up-regulated Nrf2-dependent enzymes of HO-1, NQO-1, and GSTpi, and they were further stimulated by EPS treatment. Taken together, EPS is an efficient cytoprotective agent against UVB-induced oxidative stress by activation of Nrf2 and up-regulation of Nrf2-relating antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes in HDF.

    23. Nonylphenol Polyethoxylates Degraded by Three Different Wavelengths of UV and Their Genotoxic Change—Detected by Generation of γ-H2AX (pages 461–467)

      Toru Kubota, Tatsushi Toyooka and Yuko Ibuki

      Article first published online: 30 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12002

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      The long ethylene oxide (EO) chain of a nonylphenolpolyethoxylate(NPEO[70]) was broken near the benzene ring by UV, producing NPEOs with a short EO chain (around 10 units). NPEO(10) was further degraded and disappeared. The effect was dependent on the energy of UV. A genotoxic marker, phosphorylation of histone H2AX (γ-H2AX), was generated according to the degradation patterns; shortening of the EO chain changed NPEO(70) into an inducer for γ-H2AX, and degradation of NPEO(10) attenuated the genotoxicity. UV rays can make NPEOs harmless orgenotoxic according to the degradation of EO side-chains.

    24. Effects of Light-emitting Diode Radiations on Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells In Vitro (pages 468–473)

      Eva Chamorro, Cristina Bonnin-Arias, María Jesús Pérez-Carrasco, Javier Muñoz de Luna, Daniel Vázquez and Celia Sánchez-Ramos

      Article first published online: 9 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2012.01237.x

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      Effects of monochromatic and white LED lighting on human retinal pigment epithelial cells in vitro. HRPEpiC cells were exposed to LED lighting (irradiated cells) or maintained in darkness (control) for three light–darkness cycles (12 h/12 h). Apoptosis determined by the activation of caspases-3, -7 is observed as a pink coloration around DAPI-stained cells: (1) Representative images of effects of LED lighting on HRPEpiC cells and (2) Graphs displays mean fluorescence intensity radios of irradiated cells versus non irradiated controls. Bars represent mean ± SD from = 3–5 experiments. The asterisk (*) indicates significant differences as compared to controls (< 0.05, Student's t-test).

    25. The Reversibility of UV-B Induced Alterations in Optical Properties of the Rabbit Cornea Depends on Dose of UV Irradiation (pages 474–482)

      Cestmir Cejka, Josef Rosina, Jakub Sirc, Jiri Michalek, Blanka Brunova and Jitka Cejkova

      Article first published online: 28 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12010

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      UVB irradiation of the cornea leads to the increase in corneal hydration and changes in corneal transparency, resulting in the increase in corneal light absorption and the decrease in the visual acuity. The reversibility of these changes is dependent on the UVB dose. The corneal disturbances evoked by the irradiation of the rabbit cornea with the daily UVB dose of 0.5 J cm−2 during 4 days (equivalent approximately to 5 h exposure of solar UVB radiation to the human cornea for 4 consecutive days), restored within 2 months. Higher UVB doses are dangerous from residual corneal disorders, including changes in optics.

    26. Characterization and Diagnosis of Cancer by Native Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Human Urine (pages 483–491)

      Ramu Rajasekaran, Prakash Rao Aruna, Dornadula Koteeswaran, Loganathan Padmanabhan, Kulandaivel Muthuvelu, Ram Rathan Rai, Palraj Thamilkumar, Chilakapati Murali Krishna and Singaravelu Ganesan

      Article first published online: 16 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2012.01239.x

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      Characterisation of urine of normal subjects and cancer patients and discriminating them were carried out by native fluorescence spectroscopic techniques viz., Excitation emission matrix and Fluorescence emission spectroscopy (FES) at 405 nm excitation. The EEM and FES reveals that there is a considerable variation in the emission indicating that the emission characteristics of urine metabolites, flavin and its derivatives have altered photophysical characteristics.

    27. Photodynamic Effects of Zinc(II) Phthalocyanine-Loaded Polymeric Micelles in Human Nasopharynx KB Carcinoma Cells (pages 492–500)

      María C. García Vior, Julieta Marino, Leonor P. Roguin, Alejandro Sosnik and Josefina Awruch

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2012.01229.x

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      Zinc(II) phthalocyanine-loaded polymeric micelles generated singlet molecular oxygen in high yields. Photocytotoxicity assays using human nasopharynx KB carcinoma cells confirmed that the encapsulation of zinc(II) phthalocyanine in the polymeric micelles T1107 and T1307, increases its photocytotoxicity by 10 times in comparison with the free form in water–DMSO. A lysosomal localization was observed.

    28. Low-Level Laser Therapy and Sodium Diclofenac in Acute Inflammatory Response Induced by Skeletal Muscle Trauma: Effects in Muscle Morphology and mRNA Gene Expression of Inflammatory Markers (pages 501–507)

      Patrícia de Almeida, Rodrigo Álvaro Brandão Lopes-Martins, Shaiane Silva Tomazoni, Gianna Móes Albuquerque-Pontes, Larissa Aline Santos, Adriane Aver Vanin, Lucio Frigo, Rodolfo P Vieira, Regiane Albertini, Paulo de Tarso Camillo de Carvalho and Ernesto Cesar Pinto Leal-Junior

      Article first published online: 9 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2012.01232.x

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      We performed a single trauma in tibialis anterior muscle of rats. Animals were treated with sodium diclofenac (11.6 mg g−1 of solution) or LLLT (810 nm; continuous mode; 100 mW; 3.57 W cm−2; 1, 3 or 9 J). Histological analysis and quantification of gene expression of COX-1, COX-2 and TNF-α were performed at 6, 12 and 24 h after trauma. LLLT improved morphological aspects of muscle tissue showing better results than injury and diclofenac groups. LLLT decreased COX-2 compared to injury group at all time points, and to diclofenac group at 24 h after trauma. In addition, LLLT decreased TNF-α compared to injury and diclofenac groups at all time points.

    29. Effects of Low-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) and Diclofenac (Topical and Intramuscular) as Single and Combined Therapy in Experimental Model of Controlled Muscle Strain in Rats (pages 508–512)

      Rodrigo Leal de Paiva Carvalho, Ernesto Cesar Pinto Leal-Junior, Maria Carla Petrellis, Rodrigo Labat Marcos, Maria Helena Catelli de Carvalho, Gilberto De Nucci and Rodrigo Alvaro Brandão Lopes-Martins

      Article first published online: 8 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2012.01236.x

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      The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of single and combined therapies (LLLT, topical application of diclofenac and intramuscular diclofenac) on functional and biochemical aspects in an experimental model of controlled muscle strain in rats. Injured groups received either no treatment, or a single treatment with topical or intramuscular diclofenac (TD and ID), or LLLT (3 J, 810 nm, 100 mW) 1 h after injury. All treatments significantly decreased COX-1 and COX-2 gene expression compared with injury group (P < 0.05). However, LLLT showed better effects than TD and ID regarding PGE2 levels and walking track analysis (P < 0.05).

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