Photochemistry and Photobiology

Cover image for Vol. 89 Issue 3

May/June 2013

Volume 89, Issue 3

Pages 513–761

  1. Invited Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Invited Review
    3. Research Articles
    4. Research Notes
    1. You have free access to this content
      Reversible Conformational Switching of i-Motif DNA Studied by Fluorescence Spectroscopy (pages 513–522)

      Jungkweon Choi and Tetsuro Majima

      Version of Record online: 19 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12042

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      The i-motif DNA, which is formed from cytosine (C)-rich sequences at slightly acidic pH or even neutral pH, has been extensively investigated as a signpost and controller for the oncogene expression at the transcription level and as a promising material in nanotechnology. Using the fluorescence techniques such as FRET and the fluorescence quenching, thus, the visualization of the unique and reversible conformational switching of i-motif DNA triggered by the proton has been widely preformed for applying in the nanotechnology.

  2. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Invited Review
    3. Research Articles
    4. Research Notes
    1. Photoexcited Singlet and Triplet States of a UV Absorber Ethylhexyl Methoxycrylene (pages 523–528)

      Azusa Kikuchi, Yuki Hata, Ryo Kumasaka, Yuichi Nanbu and Mikio Yagi

      Version of Record online: 17 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12017

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      The excited states of UV absorber, ethylhexyl methoxycrylene (EHMCR) have been studied through measurements of UV absorption, fluorescence, phosphorescence and electron paramagnetic resonance spectra in ethanol. The energy levels of the lowest excited singlet (S1) and triplet (T1) states of EHMCR were determined. The energy levels of the S1 and T1 states of EHMCR are much lower than those of photolabile 4-tert-butyl-4′-methoxydibenzoylmethane. The energy levels of the S1 and T1 states of EHMCR are lower than those of octyl methoxycinnamate.

    2. Preparation and Characterization of Ag-Loaded SmVO4 for Photocatalysis Application (pages 529–535)

      Tingting Li, Yiming He, Jun Cai, Hongjun Lin, Mengfei Luo and Leihong Zhao

      Version of Record online: 17 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12019

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      The loaded Ag nanoparticles greatly promote the photocatalytic activity of SmVO4 in the photodegradation of RhB solution. The Ag nanoparticles behave as the electron sink to enhance the separation of electron-hole pairs, which is the origin of the high activity and has been proven by the photocurrent and ֹOH-trapping experiments.

    3. Substituent Effects in the Absorption Spectra of Phenol Radical Species: Origin of the Redshift Caused by 3,5-Dimethoxyl Substitution (pages 536–544)

      Lei Zhang, Heidi M. Muchall and Gilles H. Peslherbe

      Version of Record online: 19 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12028

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      The main electronic transitions implicated in the observed ultraviolet–visible absorption spectra of phenol radical cations and phenoxyl radicals have been characterized by quantum-chemical calculations. The positions of the absorption bands predicted by time-dependent density-functional theory (TD-B3LYP) are found to be in good agreement with experimental data, and observed substituent effects are reproduced. Furthermore, a molecular orbital perturbation analysis unveils the relationship between the shift in excitation energy and the atomic contribution to the molecular orbitals implicated in the electronic transition at the substituent position, providing insight into the origin of the observed “anomalous” large redshifts observed for 3,5-dimethoxyl substitution.

    4. Posttreatment of Olive Mill Wastewater by Immobilized TiO2 Photocatalysis (pages 545–551)

      José C. Costa and M. Madalena Alves

      Version of Record online: 7 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12023

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      A photo-reactor with immobilized UV/TiO2 was used for the post treatment of Olive Mill Wastewater, after anaerobic digestion. A factorial experimental design was used to assess possible interaction effects on chemical oxygen demand (COD), total phenols and colour removals, using four independent variables: initial COD concentration, pH, treatment time and contact time. The total phenols and colour were almost completely removed after 24 h of treatment (>90%), while COD was more difficult to remove (<50%). The reactor efficiency is highly dependent of the initial COD (negative effect) and treatment time (positive effect). The interaction effect between initial COD and treatment time must be considered.

    5. Photoresponsive Cross-linked Polymeric Particles for Phototriggered Burst Release (pages 552–559)

      Zhen Wang, Lili Yu, Cong Lv, Peng Wang, Yedong Chen and Xinjing Tang

      Version of Record online: 29 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12038

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      Crosslinked photoresponsive polymeric nanoparticles encapsulated with target substances were synthesized with cross-linkers and photolabile monomers through miniemulsion polymerization. These nanoparticles are quite stable in dark, while light irradiation triggered the burst release of trapped targets in both aqueous solutions and cells.

    6. Photochemical Degradation of the Plant Growth Regulator 2-(1-Naphthyl) acetamide in Aqueous Solution Upon UV Irradiation (pages 560–570)

      Eliana Sousa Da Silva, Pascal Wong-Wah-Chung, Hugh D. Burrows and Mohamed Sarakha

      Version of Record online: 4 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12050

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      The degradation of the plant growth regulator 2-(1-Naphthyl) acetamide (NAD) in aqueous solution using simulated sunlight excitation as well as UV light within the 254–300 nm range is reported. The kinetics of NAD degradation is highly influenced by oxygen concentration and independent on excitation wavelength. The involvement of NAD singlet and triplet excited states on the NAD photochemical degradation was demonstrated. The primary photoproducts were identified by HPLC/MS/MS and these are clearly responsible for a significant increase in the toxicity. A degradation mechanism involving mainly hydroxylation and oxidation reactions is proposed.

    7. Theoretical Study of Firefly Luciferin pKa Values—Relative Absorption Intensity in Aqueous Solutions (pages 571–578)

      Miyabi Hiyama, Hidefumi Akiyama, Kenta Yamada and Nobuaki Koga

      Version of Record online: 6 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12052

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      With the help of theoretical pKa values in the ground state the experimental absorption spectra of firefly luciferin and its conjugate acids and bases in solution with various pH values were successfully assigned.

    8. Mapping Grape Berry Photosynthesis by Chlorophyll Fluorescence Imaging: The Effect of Saturating Pulse Intensity in Different Tissues (pages 579–585)

      Richard Breia, Sónia Vieira, Jorge Marques da Silva, Hernâni Gerós and Ana Cunha

      Version of Record online: 15 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12046

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      Imaging-PAM proved to be a sensitive technique for the study of in vivo photosynthesis in grape berry, allowing detecting tissue-specific differences. It was also found that in photosynthetic heterogeneous systems like grape berry sections, with tissues adapted to different light intensities, the optimization of the saturation pulse intensity is crucial for the accurate determination of photochemical parameters, as photoinhibition may occur at moderate light intensities and in a tissue-dependent manner. Being a fleshy fruit, with a large watery pericarp limiting light and gas diffusion, it was interesting to find a photosynthetically active seed outer integument, suggesting a key role for seed photosynthesis.

    9. Photophysical Properties and Electronic Structure of Bacteriochlorin–Chalcones with Extended Near-Infrared Absorption (pages 586–604)

      Eunkyung Yang, Christian Ruzié, Michael Krayer, James R. Diers, Dariusz M. Niedzwiedzki, Christine Kirmaier, Jonathan S. Lindsey, David F. Bocian and Dewey Holten

      Version of Record online: 19 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12053

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      The photophysical properties (Φs, Φf, Φic, Φisc, τT, kf, kic, kisc) of nine free-base bacteriochlorins bearing chalcone, extended chalcone or reverse chalcone substituents have been characterized and interpreted with the aid of molecular-orbital calculations. The bacteriochlorins absorb strongly in the 780–800 nm region and provide models for photosynthetic bacteriochlorophylls.

    10. Molecular Electronic Tuning of Photosensitizers to Enhance Photodynamic Therapy: Synthetic Dicyanobacteriochlorins as a Case Study (pages 605–618)

      Eunkyung Yang, James R. Diers, Ying-Ying Huang, Michael R. Hamblin, Jonathan S. Lindsey, David F. Bocian and Dewey Holten

      Version of Record online: 30 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12021

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      Photophysical, electrochemical, redox and photostability characteristics are presented for a set of stable dicyanobacteriochlorins. Analysis of the collective results together with those for other bacteriochlorins and several porphyrins provides fundamental insights into the molecular tuning of photosensitizers for enhanced photostability and photodynamic therapy potency.

    11. The Effect of Lipid Composition on the Permeability of Fluorescent Markers from Photosensitized Membranes (pages 619–624)

      Shany Ytzhak, Hana Weitman and Benjamin Ehrenberg

      Version of Record online: 12 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12035

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      We examined the permeation of large fluorescent molecules through the liposomal membrane as a result of photodynamic damage. Liposomes containing high concentration of self-quenched dye have almost no fluorescence. When the lipid bilayer is damaged, the dye is released to the outer phase, it is diluted and it becomes highly fluorescent. We found that as the degree of fatty acid unsaturation increased the photosensitized passage of these molecules through the bilayer increased.

    12. Synergy Between Cell-Penetrating Peptides and Singlet Oxygen Generators Leads to Efficient Photolysis of Membranes (pages 625–630)

      Nandhini Muthukrishnan, Gregory A. Johnson, Alfredo Erazo-Oliveras and Jean-Philippe Pellois

      Version of Record online: 29 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12036

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      Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) such as TAT or R9 labeled with small organic fluorophores can lyse endosomes upon light irradiation, thereby providing a means to deliver macromolecules to the cytosol of live cells with spatial and temporal control. We show that TAT and R9 labeled with tetramethylrhodamine can photolyze red blood cells by formation of singlet oxygen in the vicinity of the cells' membrane. Unlabeled TAT and R9 accelerate the photodamage caused by the membrane-bound photosensitizer Rose bengal in trans, suggesting that CPPs participate in the destabilization of photo-oxidized membranes. Peptides and singlet oxygen generators therefore act in synergy to destroy membranes upon irradiation.

    13. The Photochemistry of Thymine in Frozen Aqueous Solution: Trimeric and Minor Dimeric Products (pages 631–639)

      Martin D. Shetlar and Vladimir J. Basus

      Version of Record online: 29 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12033

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      The photochemistry occurring when thymine is irradiated in ice has been restudied. Besides previously observed products (the c,s cyclobutane dimer, the so-called (6-4) adduct (5-hydroxy-6-4′-(5-methylpyrimidin-2′-one)-5,6-dihydrothymine), trimer hydrate and an α-4 product (α-4′-(5′-methylpyrimidine-2′-one)-thymine (IX)), a number of other products have been characterized. Two non-cyclobutane type dimeric minor products that have been identified are displayed in the graphic, namely (5-thymin-3-yl)-5,6-dihydrothymine (VIII) and the “spore product” (5,6-dihydro-5-(α-thyminyl)thymine) (X). Also identified were the other three cyclobutane dimers (the c,a, t,s and t,a isomers), a thymine trimer (along with its trimeric thermal decomposition product) and a compound tentatively identified as a (5-4) adduct.

    14. Role of Transition Metals in UV-B-Induced Damage to Bacteria (pages 640–648)

      Ana L. Santos, Newton C.M. Gomes, Isabel Henriques, Adelaide Almeida, António Correia and Angela Cunha

      Version of Record online: 4 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12049

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      Metals, most notably iron, play a crucial role in UV-B-induced oxidative stress. UV-B enhances the production of ROS in the cell. ROS, particularly the superoxide radical, can oxidize the Fe–S clusters of proteins. The process releases free iron ions [Fe2+] and hydrogen peroxide that can participate in Fenton and Haber–Weiss reactions that generate the highly toxic hydroxyl (OH) radical, which can cause oxidative damage to lipids, DNA and other proteins.

    15. Hydrochlorothiazide Enhances UVA-Induced DNA Damage (pages 649–654)

      Makoto Kunisada, Taro Masaki, Ryusuke Ono, Hironobu Morinaga, Eiji Nakano, Flandiana Yogianti, Kunihiro Okunishi, Hiroshi Sugiyama and Chikako Nishigori

      Version of Record online: 25 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12048

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      Various drugs have been reported to cause photosensitive drug eruptions as an adverse effect. We tested whether photosensitive drugs could enhance CPD formation after UVA exposure by using isolated DNA in the presence of several photosensitive drugs using high-performance liquid chromatography. The diuretic agent hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) significantly enhanced the production of thymine dimers over a wide range of UVA. We also investigated whether UVA plus HCT could enhance CPD production in mice skin. Immunofluorescence studies showed that CPD formation in the dermal skin significantly increased after 365 nm narrow-band UVA irradiation in the presence of HCT.

    16. Ambient UVA-Induced Expression of p53 and Apoptosis in Human Skin Melanoma A375 Cell Line by Quinine (pages 655–664)

      Neera Yadav, Ashish Dwivedi, Syed Faiz Mujtaba, Hari Narayan Kushwaha, Shio Kumar Singh and Ratan Singh Ray

      Version of Record online: 15 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12047

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      UVA-photosensitized quinine produced photoproduct, generated ROS and caused DNA damage either directly or indirectly, which in turn arrest cell cycle and induce apoptosis and finally cell death in A375 cells.

    17. UVB-Induced Inflammatory Cytokine Release, DNA Damage and Apoptosis of Human Oral Compared with Skin Tissue Equivalents (pages 665–670)

      Joyce Breger, Larissa Baeva, Anant Agrawal, Eli Shindell and Dianne E. Godar

      Version of Record online: 29 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12030

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      Because people can get oral cancers from UV radiation, we compared the carcinogenic risks of skin with oral tissue cells after UVB (290–320 nm) exposures using commercially available 3D-engineered models for human skin, gingival and oral tissues. We compared the relative carcinogenic risks by measuring cytokine release, repair rates of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD red; all DNA blue) and apoptotic cell numbers (green). We find that IL-8 is significantly higher whereas CPD repair rates and apoptotic cell numbers are significantly lower for oral compared with skin tissue cells. Thus, oral cells can accumulate more mutations per UVB dose than skin cells.

    18. Eradication of Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria by Photosensitizers Immobilized in Polystyrene (pages 671–678)

      Faina Nakonechny, Anna Pinkus, Smadar Hai, Ortal Yehosha, Yeshayahu Nitzan and Marina Nisnevitch

      Version of Record online: 27 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12022

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      Immobilization of photosensitizers in polymers opens prospects for their continuous and reusable application. Methylene blue (MB) and Rose Bengal were immobilized in polystyrene by mixing solutions of the photosensitizers in chloroform with a polymer solution, followed by air evaporation of the solvent. This procedure yielded 15–140 μm polymer films with a porous surface structure. The method chosen for immobilization ensured 99% enclosure of the photosensitizer in the polymer. The antimicrobial activity of the immobilized photosensitizers was proven against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (Figure). Photosensitizers immobilized on a solid phase can be applied for continuous disinfection of bacteria in wastewater.

    19. Linezolid and Vancomycin Decrease the Therapeutic Effect of Methylene Blue-Photodynamic therapy in a Mouse Model of MRSA Bacterial Arthritis (pages 679–682)

      Masamitsu Tanaka, Pawel Mroz, Tianhong Dai, Liyi Huang, Yuji Morimoto, Manabu Kinoshita, Yasuo Yoshihara, Nariyoshi Shinomiya, Shuhji Seki, Koichi Nemoto and Michael R. Hamblin

      Version of Record online: 19 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12040

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      Mouse bacterial arthritis caused by bioluminescent MRSA can be treated by injection of methylene blue into the knee joint and illumination with red light. When the PDT was combined with anti-MRSA antibiotics the effectiveness was less, rather than more as expected. This may be due to the action of antibiotics in reducing the inflammatory response stimulated by PDT that causes an influx of neutrophils that actually kill the bacteria.

    20. Effects of the Oxygenation Level on Formation of Different Reactive Oxygen Species During Photodynamic Therapy (pages 683–686)

      Michael Price, Lance Heilbrun and David Kessel

      Version of Record online: 25 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12027

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      Irradiation of photosensitizing agents creates reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to phototoxic effects and photobleaching phenomena. In this report, we examine the efficacy of different ROS as a function of the oxygenation level.

    21. Photodynamic Tumor Eradication With a Novel Targetable Photosensitizer: Strong Vascular Effects and Dependence on Treatment Repetition Versus Potentiation (pages 687–697)

      Mark D. Savellano, Nicci Owusu-Brackett, Ji Son, Tanay Ganga, Nadia L. Leung and Dagmar H. Savellano

      Version of Record online: 27 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12018

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      To potentiate and improve the targeting of photodynamic therapy (PDT), an amphiphilic polyethylene glycolated pyropheophorbide-a (PPa) derivative, Ac-sPPp, was investigated as a novel water-soluble photosensitizer that could be easily coupled to cancer-targeting molecules or combined with other therapeutics. In a recurrent A-431 tumor xenograft model, passively and actively targeted Ac-sPPp formulations exerted strong vascular effects and provided superior fluorescence contrast and tumor control compared to PPa, but efforts to improve targeting and potency by formulating Ac-sPPp as an anti-erbB immunoconjugate or combining it with Doxil chemotherapy were less important to achieving tumor cures than simply repeating PDT.

    22. Localized In Vivo Activation of a Photoactivatable Doxorubicin Prodrug in Deep Tumor Tissue (pages 698–708)

      Stuart Ibsen, Eran Zahavy, Wolf Wrasidlo, Tomoko Hayashi, John Norton, Yongxuan Su, Stephen Adams and Sadik Esener

      Version of Record online: 6 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12045

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      Reducing the side effects of chemotherapy treatment involves reducing the amount of active agent that reaches the healthy tissue while simultaneously increasing the amount within the tumor. This study looks to achieve these goals by using a systemically distributed photocleavable prodrug of doxorubicin and activating it specifically in tumor tissue with the use of a fiber-optic/LED system that delivers the activating wavelength of light to the center of the tumor. The doxorubicin prodrug was 200 times less toxic than the pure doxorubicin that was released from it. Here, we show that a six-fold increase in pure doxorubicin was found in the light-exposed tumor versus the neighboring unexposed control tumor.

    23. Transient Repetitive Exposure to Low Level Light Therapy Enhances Collateral Blood Vessel Growth in The Ischemic Hindlimb of The Tight Skin Mouse (pages 709–713)

      Maria Zaidi, John G. Krolikowki, Deron W. Jones, Kirkwood A. Pritchard Jr, Janine Struve, Sandhya D. Nandedkar, Nicole L. Lohr, Paul S. Pagel and Dorothée Weihrauch

      Version of Record online: 7 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12024

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      Collateral growth is impaired in the ischemic hindlimb in a murine model of scleroderma. Impaired collateral growth is characterized by increased levels of the angiogenesis inhibitor angiostatin and decreased levels of the pro-angiogenic protein angiomotin. Low-level light therapy (LLLT) induced topical nitric oxide release which restored collateral growth by reducing the expression levels of the angiostatin by increasing topical nitric oxide levels and the expression of angiomotin. Low-level light therapy stimulates angiogenesis by increasing angiomotin and decreasing angiostatin expression in the ischemic hindlimb in the murine scleroderma.

    24. Constitutive and Relative Facultative Skin Pigmentation among Victorian Children Including Comparison of Two Visual Skin Charts for Determining Constitutive Melanin Density (pages 714–723)

      Angela Pezic, Anne-Louise Ponsonby, Fergus J Cameron, Christine Rodda, Justine A Ellis, Jane Halliday, William Siero, Robyn M Lucas and Terence Dwyer

      Version of Record online: 19 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12043

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      Constitutive skin pigmentation is the natural skin color, and facultative skin pigmentation (tanning) is associated with exposure to the sun and is often defined relative to constitutive skin pigmentation at an unexposed skin site. The figure shows that there was no variation for constitutive skin pigmentation by month of interview. For relative facultative skin pigmentation, there was greater variation, with less tanning midyear (winter) and most tanning during the summer months.

    25. Analysis of Two Kinds of Tree as Physical Barriers Against Erythemal UVB Radiation Received (pages 724–729)

      Gonzalo G. Ysasi and Luis J. C. Ribera

      Version of Record online: 14 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12020

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      Differences between global radiation UVER (erythemal ultraviolet solar radiation) received under full sun and diffuse radiation received under the shadow of two types of tree are analyzed in order to check the importance of these components on human exposure to UV radiation. Measurements were obtained in relatively clear days from February to December 2009. Values of UVER in full sun and under the shadow of Pine and Sauce, were obtained. Finally, average daily irradiance received under the shadow of each tree in comparison with those received in full sun, was also analyzed.

    26. Ultraviolet Reflection Irradiances and Exposures in The Constructed Environment For Horizontal, Vertical and Inclined Surfaces (pages 730–736)

      Joanna Turner and Alfio V. Parisi

      Version of Record online: 7 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12025

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      Ultraviolet radiation reflective characteristics in the constructed environment for horizontal and non-horizontal surfaces are characterised for zinc aluminium coated trapezoidal shaped steel sheeting and pale green paint coated trapezoidal steel sheeting for solar zenith angle and season. The importance of this characterisation is due to the presence of specular reflection due to the metal surfaces as opposed to diffuse reflection. In addition the influence of these surface types is investigated for their influence on personal UV exposure, comparing non-horizontal surface influence to horizontal surface influence.

    27. Sun Exposure over a Lifetime in Australian Adults from Latitudinally Diverse Regions (pages 737–744)

      Robyn M. Lucas, Patricia Valery, Ingrid van der Mei, Terence Dwyer, Michael P. Pender, Bruce Taylor, Anne-Louise Ponsonby and The Ausimmune Investigator Group

      Version of Record online: 19 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12044

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      Daily time in the sun during leisure time (hours, average of summer and winter): variation over calendar time in different age cohorts (age is taken to be the beginning of the age cohort, for example, 1940s—start age considered to be 1940; time in the sun for the time period is taken as the median age, for example, aged 6–10 years, age taken as 8 years. Thus, for persons in the 1940s age cohort, the time in the sun for the period at which they were aged 6–10 years, is plotted as 1948).

    28. Variability in UVB Radiation in Beijing, China (pages 745–750)

      Hu Bo, Zhang Xinghua and Wang Yuesi

      Version of Record online: 4 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12051

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      There is an anticorrelation between UVB radiation and the concentration of fine aerosol (PM2.5) and this indicate that PM2.5 has great influence on the amount of UVB radiation that received at earth's surface. However, the highest value of UVB radiation appears at June other than the lowest concentration of PM2.5 at January. The variation in solar altitude has caused this difference.

  3. Research Notes

    1. Top of page
    2. Invited Review
    3. Research Articles
    4. Research Notes
    1. A Comparative Pilot Study of Symptom Improvement Before and After Phototherapy in Korean Patients with Perennial Allergic Rhinitis (pages 751–757)

      Heung-Man Lee, Man Sik Park, Il Ho Park, Seung Hoon Lee, Seong Keon Lee, Kyu-Sung Kim and Hyuk Choi

      Version of Record online: 25 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12032

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      This study is intended to evaluate the safety and efficacy of phototherapy with low-level energy of a 650 nm laser irradiation system in perennial allergic rhinitis patients. Following laser irradiation in the nasal cavity with a laser irradiation system, the efficacy at weeks 1 through 4 was determined. The symptoms were scored with four parameters (nasal obstruction, rhinorrhea, sneezing and itching) before and after illumination of the laser. The overall RQLQ scores significantly improved by 45% from the baseline with the treatment after 4 weeks. These results indicate that phototherapy is an effective modality for treating perennial allergic rhinitis.

    2. Role of Pigmentation in Protecting Aspergillus niger Conidiospores Against Pulsed Light Radiation (pages 758–761)

      Julia Esbelin, Sabine Mallea, Arthur F. J Ram and Frédéric Carlin

      Version of Record online: 29 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12037

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      Spores of Aspergillus niger N402 (wild type) are black. Mutant strains of this exhibit different pigmentation. Spores of wild-type strain are much less sensitive to pulsed light or continuous UV-C than fawn or white spores of the mutants. This is likely due to the differences in melanin content.