Photochemistry and Photobiology

Cover image for Vol. 89 Issue 4

Special Issue: Symposium in Print on Upper-Room Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation for Air Disinfection

July/August 2013

Volume 89, Issue 4

Pages 763–1007

  1. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Symposium in Print on Upper-Room Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation for Air Disinfection
    4. Symposium in Print: Invited Reviews
    5. Symposium in Print: Research Articles
    6. Symposium in Print: Research Note
    7. Symposium in Print: Technical Notes
    8. Highlight Article
    9. Research Articles
    10. Research Notes
    1. Editorial (page 763)

      Jean Cadet

      Version of Record online: 2 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12105

  2. Symposium in Print on Upper-Room Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation for Air Disinfection

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Symposium in Print on Upper-Room Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation for Air Disinfection
    4. Symposium in Print: Invited Reviews
    5. Symposium in Print: Research Articles
    6. Symposium in Print: Research Note
    7. Symposium in Print: Technical Notes
    8. Highlight Article
    9. Research Articles
    10. Research Notes
    1. Upper-Room Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation (UVGI) for Air Disinfection: A Symposium in Print (pages 764–769)

      Edward Nardell, Richard Vincent and David H. Sliney

      Version of Record online: 2 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12098

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      Upper-room ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) has several applications, its most important use is to reduce tuberculosis transmission in high-burden, resource-limited settings, especially those dealing with epidemics of drug-resistant disease. The efficacy of upper-room (UVGI) to reduce the transmission of airborne infection in real-world settings is no longer in question. International application (dosing) guidelines are needed, as are safety standards and commissioning procedures. A recent symposium to build consensus on guidelines discussed specifications for affordable UVGI fixture designs, safety, performance, computer-aided design (CAD) for UVGI, maintenance, dosimetry, gonioradiometric measurement and innovation using germicidal LEDs.

  3. Symposium in Print: Invited Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Symposium in Print on Upper-Room Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation for Air Disinfection
    4. Symposium in Print: Invited Reviews
    5. Symposium in Print: Research Articles
    6. Symposium in Print: Research Note
    7. Symposium in Print: Technical Notes
    8. Highlight Article
    9. Research Articles
    10. Research Notes
    1. You have free access to this content
      Balancing the Risk of Eye Irritation from UV-C with Infection from Bioaerosols (pages 770–776)

      David Sliney

      Version of Record online: 15 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12093

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      The phototoxicity of UV-C radiation that is responsible for germicidal efficacy also is responsible for the annoying side effects, erythema and photokeratitis. Fortunately, these effects are acute, if they occur. The human exposure limits (ELs) (ACGIH) at the principal germicidal wavelength, 254 nm are based upon the most sensitive structure—the cornea. Large safety factors exist for erythema—and most importantly, for nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Guidelines for human exposure to UV-C must be applied intelligently in risk assessments so as not to limit germicidal efficacy in upper-room ultraviolet germicidal irradiation.

    2. You have free access to this content
      Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation: Future Directions for Air Disinfection and Building Applications (pages 777–781)

      Shelly L. Miller, Jacqueline Linnes and Julia Luongo

      Version of Record online: 20 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12080

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      Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) for air disinfection applications has relied on low-pressure mercury vapor lamps for decades. New design requirements have generated the need for alternatives in some uses. This study describes the current state of UVGI technology and describes future directions for technology development, including the use of lamps produced from nontoxic materials and light-emitting diode lamps. Important applications are discussed such as the use of ultraviolet germicidal lamps in developing countries, in heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems to improve energy efficiency and indoor air quality, and for whole room disinfection.

  4. Symposium in Print: Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Symposium in Print on Upper-Room Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation for Air Disinfection
    4. Symposium in Print: Invited Reviews
    5. Symposium in Print: Research Articles
    6. Symposium in Print: Research Note
    7. Symposium in Print: Technical Notes
    8. Highlight Article
    9. Research Articles
    10. Research Notes
    1. Numerical Investigation of Upper-Room UVGI Disinfection Efficacy in an Environmental Chamber with a Ceiling Fan (pages 782–791)

      Shengwei Zhu, Jelena Srebric, Stephen N. Rudnick, Richard L. Vincent and Edward A. Nardell

      Version of Record online: 30 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12039

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      Ceiling fans are considered an essential adjunct in the application of upper-room ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UR-UVGI), especially in the resource-limited countries and areas. Numerical evaluation of UR-UVGI disinfection efficacy using TB infection probability by Wells–Riley equation indicated that air exchange rate was the decisive factor for determining UR-UVGI performance in disinfecting indoor air, and using a ceiling fan could improve the performance in general. The results also indicated the possibility of increasing the TB infection risk by using ceiling fan without effective air disinfection by ventilation or UR-UVGI.

    2. Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling to Evaluate the Design of Hospital Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation Systems for Inactivating Airborne Mycobacteria (pages 792–798)

      Peng Xu, Noah Fisher and Shelly L. Miller

      Version of Record online: 22 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12062

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      As part of their infection control strategy, hospitals use upper-room ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) systems to inactivate airborne infectious agents. A computational fluid dynamics model was developed and applied to evaluate the design of the three hospital rooms, a patient and exam room with upper-room systems and a patient room with an exhaust duct system. One of the UVGI systems was not very effective, due to efficient ventilation design. The other two configurations were effective at inactivating airborne mycobacteria. The most effective application was the one for which the room air-exchange rate was very low.

    3. Application of CFD Simulation to Predicting Upper-Room UVGI Effectiveness (pages 799–810)

      Carl A Gilkeson and Catherine Noakes

      Version of Record online: 28 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12013

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      Our work explores the potential of computer airflow simulation in predicting the performance of upper-room ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) effectiveness. Experimentally measured irradiance fields are combined with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methodology to predict the dose distribution (J m−2) within a small mechanically ventilated room for a range of test conditions. A series of detailed sensitivity studies illustrate the importance of the numerical grid size, the turbulence model employed and the fidelity of the irradiance field. We demonstrate that a two-dimensional UV field is sufficient for modeling purposes and the resulting dose distribution offers valuable insight into predicted disinfection performance.

  5. Symposium in Print: Research Note

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Symposium in Print on Upper-Room Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation for Air Disinfection
    4. Symposium in Print: Invited Reviews
    5. Symposium in Print: Research Articles
    6. Symposium in Print: Research Note
    7. Symposium in Print: Technical Notes
    8. Highlight Article
    9. Research Articles
    10. Research Notes
    1. Characterizing Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiance Luminaires (pages 811–815)

      Wilhelm Leuschner and Faatiema Salie

      Version of Record online: 1 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12064

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      Upper-room Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation (UVGI) is commonly used as an environmental control measure to minimize the risk of transmission of airborne pathogens. Characterizing UVGI luminaires, in a laboratory and in situ, is essential in understanding the radiant intensity distributions delivered by the same designed luminaire, operating under different conditions. This understanding may be used in future design applications, such as computer-aided design (CAD), to calibrate the difference in behavior of luminaires between laboratory and in situ scenarios.

  6. Symposium in Print: Technical Notes

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Symposium in Print on Upper-Room Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation for Air Disinfection
    4. Symposium in Print: Invited Reviews
    5. Symposium in Print: Research Articles
    6. Symposium in Print: Research Note
    7. Symposium in Print: Technical Notes
    8. Highlight Article
    9. Research Articles
    10. Research Notes
    1. Fluence Measurements Employing Iodide/Iodate Chemical Actinometry as Applied to Upper-Room Germicidal Radiation (pages 816–818)

      Ronald O. Rahn

      Version of Record online: 28 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12094

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      The fluence distribution of a facility equipped with germicidal UV lamps has been determined using spherical quartz cells containing an iodide/iodate actinometer. Exposure to UV radiation results in the formation of triiodide whose absorbance is proportional to the amount of radiation absorbed. Using spherical vessels allows radiation from all directions to be measured, i.e. the fluence. When spheres located at various points in a room are simultaneously irradiated, a measure of the fluence distribution can be obtained. The purpose of this report is to show how this system can be used to measure fluence rates using a hand-held colorimeter.

    2. Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation Safety Concerns: A Lesson from the Tuberculosis Ultraviolet Shelter Study Murphy's Law Affirmed (pages 819–821)

      Philip W. Brickner and Richard L. Vincent

      Version of Record online: 29 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12034

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      The resurgence of tuberculosis (TB) in the United States in the mid-1980s led to a revival of interest in upper-room UVGI air cleansing technology, a focus that had almost disappeared because alternate means of controlling TB had inaccurately been deemed successful. For all those working in the field of UVGI, safety issues must be a concern because when UVGI fixtures are placed improperly, or precautions ignored, room occupants are placed at risk of photokeratoconjunctivitis and photodermatitis. If safety is so prominent a concern, why do incidents of UV side effects continue to occur? See Murphy's Law.

  7. Highlight Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Symposium in Print on Upper-Room Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation for Air Disinfection
    4. Symposium in Print: Invited Reviews
    5. Symposium in Print: Research Articles
    6. Symposium in Print: Research Note
    7. Symposium in Print: Technical Notes
    8. Highlight Article
    9. Research Articles
    10. Research Notes
    1. Species-Specific Responses to Combined Thermal-irradiance Stress in Microalgae – “Each is to its Own” (pages 822–823)

      Patrick Neale

      Version of Record online: 26 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12081

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      Phytoplankton grow throughout the surface waters of the world's oceans and lakes, from warmest tropical seas to frigid melt ponds on polar sea ice. Survival in all these environments requires strategies to reduce high light stress on the photosynthetic apparatus. However, species use different strategies depending on the ambient water temperature. The thermal conditions in their native habitat govern which strategies are used by morphologically similar strains within one microalgal genus, even for cultures maintained for decades in moderate conditions. (image: global distribution of average sea surface temperature from NASA)

  8. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Symposium in Print on Upper-Room Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation for Air Disinfection
    4. Symposium in Print: Invited Reviews
    5. Symposium in Print: Research Articles
    6. Symposium in Print: Research Note
    7. Symposium in Print: Technical Notes
    8. Highlight Article
    9. Research Articles
    10. Research Notes
    1. Synthesis, Characterization and Photocatalytic Activity of KAl0.33W1.67O6 and Sn0.5Al0.33W1.67O6xH2O (pages 824–831)

      Gundeboina Ravi, Naveen K. Veldurthi, Suresh Palla, Radha Velchuri, Someshwar Pola, Jitta Raju Reddy and Muga Vithal

      Version of Record online: 26 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12079

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      Using ion-exchange reaction of aqueous SnCl2·2H2O solution with KAl0.33W1.67O6 (KAW) under ambient conditions Sn0.5Al0.33W1.67O6 (SnAW) was prepared. The band gap energies are found to be 2.82 and 2.21 eV for KAW and SnAW respectively. The observed reduction in the band gap with the introduction of Sn2+ in defect pyrochlore lattice is due to mixing of 5s state of Sn2+ with O2p states leading to an upward shift in the valence band.

    2. Degradation of Rhodamine B/Phenol Mixtures in Water by Sun-Like Excitation of a Bi2WO6–TiO2 Photocatalyst (pages 832–840)

      Sebastián Murcia-López, María C. Hidalgo and José A. Navío

      Version of Record online: 4 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12054

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      Bi2WO6 and Bi2WO6–TiO2 were synthesized by hydrothermal method and evaluated in the photodegradation of Rhodamine B/Phenol mixtures with two illumination conditions. Previous studies revealed that these materials were very effective in Rhodamine B degradation by the influence of a mixed photocatalytic and photosensitized mechanism. In this work, it is demonstrated that when a molecule with no influence of photosensitization as Phenol is used as substrate, the photoactivity considerably decreases and that the photoinduced mechanism via Rhodamine B photosensitization is a key factor in the increased activity of this kind of materials.

    3. Enhanced Singlet Oxygen Generation from a Porphyrin–Rhodamine B Dyad by Two-Photon Excitation through Resonance Energy Transfer (pages 841–848)

      Ethel J. Ngen, Lixin Xiao, Pallavi Rajaputra, Xingzhong Yan and Youngjae You

      Version of Record online: 5 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12071

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      The two-photon photophysical properties of a porphyrin–rhodamine B conjugate (TPP-Rh), previously demonstrated to target the mitochondria, were evaluated such as TPA cross sections (σ2), RET kinetics, dynamics and singlet oxygen generation. Approximately doubled σ2 of TPP-Rh (40 ± 4 GM) compared with its parent porphyrin (16 ± 4 GM) was measured. Furthermore, TPP-Rh produced singlet oxygen at a significantly faster rate than its parent porphyrin. This study indicates that conjugating photosensitizers to Rh B could provide greater TPA at near-infrared range.

    4. The Dynamics Simulation and Quantum Calculation Investigation About Luminescence Mechanism of Coelenteramide (pages 849–855)

      Zuo-Sheng Li, Xi Zhao, Lu-Yi Zou and Ai-Min Ren

      Version of Record online: 17 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12073

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      The fluorescence wavelength is determined by emitter state, which depends on whether or not the protein motion provides the condition for the deprotonation of substrate in protein molecules. If the His22 is protonated, the emitter is phenolate anion as proton donor. If the hydrogen abstraction reaction occurs, the substrate as emitter is neutral state. The dynamics simulation and quantum chemical calculation are employed to investigate spectrum properties of deprotonation process of coelenteramide and two final states neutral state and phenolate anion.

    5. The Molecular Background of the Differential UV Absorbance of the Human Lens in the 240–400 nm Range (pages 856–863)

      Viktor Pajer, Ákos Tiboldi, Narkhyun Bae, Kongzhao Li, Sung Ung Kang, Béla Hopp, Lajos Kolozsvári, Gert Lubec and Antal Nógrádi

      Version of Record online: 18 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12063

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      Although the cornea absorbs most of the ultraviolet (UV) radiation, still considerable radiation may reach the lens. By measuring the UV absorption of human lens sections we found that the UV-C and UV-B absorption of the human lens increased toward the posterior parts of the lens. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectroscopy analysis identified significantly different protein spots in the anterior and posterior section pools. Beta-crystallin B2 and A3 along with glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase were enriched in the anterior part of the lens while elevated levels of Alpha-crystallin A chain and Beta-crystallin B1 proteins were found in the posterior portion.

    6. Fluorescence Spectroscopy of the Retina from Scrapie-Infected Mice (pages 864–868)

      Sayantan Bose, Holger Schönenbrücher, Jürgen A. Richt, Thomas A. Casey, Mark A. Rasmussen, Marcus E. Kehrli Jr and Jacob W. Petrich

      Version of Record online: 4 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12056

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      Scrapie is the most widespread transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) affecting sheep and goats worldwide. The current work aims at developing mice retina as a convenient model system to diagnose scrapie and other fatal TSE diseases in animals such as sheep and cows. Steady-state fluorescence and hyperspectral imaging has been used as tools to investigate the fluorescence from the retinas of scrapie-infected mice and compared with those of healthy (uninfected) control mice. The fluorescence from the retinas of scrapie-infected mice was significantly more intense and showed more heterogeneity than that from the retinas of uninfected mice.

    7. Photohydrate-Mediated Reactions of Uridine, 2′-Deoxyuridine and 2′-Deoxycytidine with Amines at Near Neutral pH (pages 869–877)

      Martin D. Shetlar, Kellie Hom and Vincent J. Venditto

      Version of Record online: 5 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12069

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      Photohydrates are produced when uridine (Urd), 2′-deoxyuridine and 2′-deoxycytidine are irradiated with UVC in aqueous solution. We have found that such photohydrates undergo thermal reactions with several amines (e.g. spermine, spermidine, glycylglycine, ethylenediamine and glycine amide) at near neutral pH values to yield nucleoside-amine adducts, as displayed in the figure for the Urd hydrate (shown in one epimeric form). In general, these products display a strong absorption peak with λmax in the range between 288 and 310 nm. The Urd-amine adducts are reasonably stable in frozen aqueous solution, but revert to Urd hydrates upon standing in liquid water.

    8. Ring-Opening Photoreactions of 5-Methylcytosine with 3-Mercaptopropionic Acid and Other Thiols (pages 878–883)

      Martin D. Shetlar and Janet Chung

      Version of Record online: 25 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12058

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      The photoreactions of 5-methylcytosine (5MeCyt), a minor base contained in eukaryotic DNA, with several cysteine analogs have been studied. The reaction of 5MeCyt with 3-mercaptopropionic acid (3MP) is shown schematically in the accompanying Figure. Irradiation with UVB light produces the opened-ring adduct Ia. Upon standing at ambient temperature in the presence of 3MP, the product IIa appears in solution. The latter reaction proceeds via a closed-ring intermediate that has been characterized using UV spectroscopy, proton NMR spectrometry and mass spectrometry. Either heating or irradiation of purified Ia with UVB light in aqueous solution converts it into 3-amino-2-methylacrylamidine.

    9. Multiplexed, UVC-Induced, Sequence-Dependent DNA Damage Detection (pages 884–890)

      Sindhu G. Nair and Glen R. Loppnow

      Version of Record online: 22 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12066

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      A 96-well microplate is developed here as a platform for the detection of DNA damage in a number of DNA sequences simultaneously. This convenient mix-and-read assay uses smart probes, a hybridization assay composed of fluorescently labeled ssDNA hairpins complementary to the damaged target sequences, as general probes of DNA damage. The results show that the 96-well microplate platform is a simple, fast and inexpensive mix-and-read technique for multiplexed, sequence-specific DNA damage detection.

    10. A Theoretical Rationale why Furan-side Monoadduct is More Favorable Toward Diadduct Formation in 8-Methoxypsoralen and Thymine Complexes (pages 891–899)

      Xuebin Huang and Rubo Zhang

      Version of Record online: 4 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12067

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      The photoreaction of 8-MOP and thymine bases was studied by DFT. The monoadduct on the pyrone side is favored over the furan side when comparing reaction energies. The distinguishing feature is that the furan-side monoadduct displays a better photostability, which is a relatively high-barrier exothermic reaction, and thus the energy balance of the monoadduct on the furan side toward final diadduct formation is favored.

    11. Protection Strategies of Cosmarium strains (Zygnematophyceae, Streptophyta) Isolated from Various Geographic Regions Against Excessive Photosynthetically Active Radiation (pages 900–910)

      Marija Stamenković and Dieter Hanelt

      Version of Record online: 26 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12083

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      Addition of inhibitors of chloroplast-encoded protein synthesis (chloramphenicol, CAP and streptomycin, SM) indicated that the Cosmarium strains developed “sun- or shade-plant” protection strategies, in accordance with the climate at their sampling sites. The polar Cosmarium strains (such as C. crenatum) exhibited a “shade-plant strategy”—to acquire increasing protection from photoinhibited PSII centers (i.e. they have distinctly low rates of D1-protein turnover), whereas the tropical strains (such as C. beatum) displayed a “sun-plant strategy”—to counteract photoinhibition of PSII by a high rate of repair of photoinhibited PSII reaction centers.

    12. Fucosterol Inhibits Matrix Metalloproteinase Expression and Promotes Type-1 Procollagen Production in UVB-induced HaCaT Cells (pages 911–918)

      Myung-Suk Kim, Ga-Hui Oh, Min-Ji Kim and Jae-Kwan Hwang

      Version of Record online: 18 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12061

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      Activated MMP-1, which is a member of the collagenase subfamily of MMPs, initiates collagen breakdown by cleaving type I and type III collagen, which are further degraded by MMP-2 and -9. Fucosterol reduced UV-irradiated MMP-1 production by 7% at 0.5 µm, 23% at 1 µm, and 38% at 5 µm compared with the UV-induced control. The results suggest that fucosterol could be a potential anti-photoaging agent via downregulation of MMP expression.

    13. α-Santalol, A Skin Cancer Chemopreventive Agent with Potential to Target Various Pathways Involved in Photocarcinogenesis (pages 919–926)

      Sreevidya Santha and Chandradhar Dwivedi

      Version of Record online: 1 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12070

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      Topical treatment of SKH-1 hairless mice with α-santalol, a terpenoid isolated from santalum tree, caused reduction in tumor incidence, multiplicity and volume in UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis. In this study, the anticarcinogenic action of α-santalol against UVB-induced photocarcinogenesis was found to be associated with inhibition of inflammation and epidermal hyperplasia, cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis. Our results suggest that α-santalol is a safer and promising skin cancer chemopreventive agent with potential to target various pathways involved in photocarcinogenesis.

    14. Photoinactivation of Bacteria Attached to Glass and Acrylic Surfaces by 405 nm Light: Potential Application for Biofilm Decontamination (pages 927–935)

      Karen McKenzie, Michelle Maclean, Igor V. Timoshkin, Endarko Endarko, Scott J. MacGregor and John G. Anderson

      Version of Record online: 17 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12077

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      Microbial biofilms remain a major source of cross-contamination in both food and clinical environments. This study investigates the efficacy of 405 nm light (ca 140 m Wcm−2) for biofilm decontamination. Successful inactivation of Escherichia coli biofilms (103–107 CFU mL−1) was demonstrated. Inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Listeria monocytogenes monolayer biofilms, and mixed-species biofilms (S. aureus and E. coli) was also shown. Results highlight that indirect exposure to 405 nm light can successfully inactivate biofilms: antimicrobial activity is retained when transmitted through transparent materials [glass(left)/acrylic(right)]. With further development, this technology may have potential use for practical biofilm decontamination applications.

    15. A Fiberoptic (Photodynamic Therapy Type) Device with a Photosensitizer and Singlet Oxygen Delivery Probe Tip for Ovarian Cancer Cell Killing (pages 936–941)

      Dorota Bartusik, David Aebisher, Ashwini Ghogare, Goutam Ghosh, Inna Abramova, Tayyaba Hasan and Alexander Greer

      Version of Record online: 22 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12072

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      A portable “FOSD” device was developed and examined for the localized delivery of sensitizer molecules in ovarian cancer cells and production of singlet oxygen for their eradication in vitro. The device tip releases stored pheophorebide by attack of singlet oxygen from sensitized oxygen gas delivered through the hollow fiber using 669 nm laser light. Development of a sensitizer and singlet oxygen delivery device would be useful not only for cancer cell treatment, but also for bacteria, in cases where local delivery might be advantageous.

    16. PDT Dose Parameters Impact Tumoricidal Durability and Cell Death Pathways in a 3D Ovarian Cancer Model (pages 942–952)

      Imran Rizvi, Sriram Anbil, Nermina Alagic, Jonathan P. Celli, Lei Zak Zheng, Akilan Palanisami, Michael D. Glidden, Brian W. Pogue and Tayyaba Hasan

      Version of Record online: 4 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12065

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      The photosensitizer-light parameters used to construct a photodynamic therapy (PDT) dose significantly impact tumor destruction and regrowth kinetics. A 3D ovarian cancer model (a) is used to evaluate a matrix of benzoporphyin derivative (BPD) and light combinations for three fixed PDT doses (b). PDT with 0.25 μM BPD (blue) provides maximum cytotoxic durability for all doses (c). Representative LIVE/DEAD (green/red) images (d) that were used to generate normalized viabilities in (c), depict increased killing in nodules treated with 0.25 μM BPD-PDT (2) compared to PDT with 1 μM (3) or 10 μM (4) BPD. These findings suggest that customization of PDT parameters could improve treatment outcomes.

    17. Laser Therapy in Metabolic Syndrome-Related Kidney Injury (pages 953–960)

      Alvaro C. Ucero, Bettina Sabban, Alberto Benito-Martin, Susana Carrasco, Stephan Joeken and Alberto Ortiz

      Version of Record online: 4 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12055

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      Low-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) reduces loss of renal function in rat model of progressive chronic kidney injury induced by spontaneous metabolic syndrome. The laser treatment improved the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and decreased the interstitial fibrosis.

    18. Photobiological Safety Evaluation of UV Nail Lamps (pages 961–967)

      John C. Dowdy and Robert M. Sayre

      Version of Record online: 9 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12075

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      We subjected six US-manufactured UV nail lamps to ANSI/IESNA RP-27 Photobiological Safety evaluation. Spectra were measured at three positions, 1 cm above the inner surface to approximate hand exposure and 20 cm normal and 45° to the opening. Interior UV levels classified these lamps into Risk Group 1-Low or 2-Moderate with permissible daily exposure limits ranging 29–276 min. At 20 cm, photobiological risks to skin and eyes of normal individuals were within Exempt classification. Total programmed exposure steps accumulate to only a small fraction of permissible daily exposure. Realistic risks are further mitigated because expected use is less frequent.

    19. Shade Provision for Toddlers at Swimming Pools in Melbourne (pages 968–973)

      Peter Gies, Jennifer Makin, Suzanne Dobbinson, John Javorniczky, Stuart Henderson, Robert Guilfoyle and Jordan Lock

      Version of Record online: 20 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12078

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      This study assessed the UVR protection provided by shade structures over toddler pools at swimming pool centers in Melbourne, Australia using both UV sensitive film and handheld UV meters. The UV meter measurements showed the UV protection varied with position under the shade structure as well as with time of day. The UVR protection provided by the shade structures depended on factors such as location, size, and materials used and ranged from a protection factor (PF) of 2 to ca 16 for larger structures. Improvements to provide adequate protection and further reduce UV exposures are required and recommended.

    20. A Novel Method to Calculate Solar UV Exposure Relevant to Vitamin D Production in Humans (pages 974–983)

      Gunther Seckmeyer, Michael Schrempf, Anna Wieczorek, Stefan Riechelmann, Kathrin Graw, Stefan Seckmeyer and Maria Zankl

      Version of Record online: 26 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12074

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      We present a novel method to calculate vitamin D3 weighted exposure by integrating the incident solar spectral radiance over all relevant parts of the human body. Earlier investigations are based on the irradiance on surfaces, whereas our calculated exposure of a human model takes into account the complex geometry of the radiation field. We calculate the exposure times needed to gain enough vitamin D3 for different situations and seasons. For December 21st (noon, cloudy) at least in central Europe sufficient vitamin D3 cannot be obtained with realistic clothing, even if the exposure were extended to all daylight hours.

    21. Low Ozone Over Southern Australia in August 2011 and its Impact on Solar Ultraviolet Radiation Levels (pages 984–994)

      Peter Gies, Andrew Klekociuk, Matthew Tully, Stuart Henderson, John Javorniczky, Kerryn King, Lilia Lemus-Deschamps and Jennifer Makin

      Version of Record online: 20 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12076

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      During August 2011, anomalous southward movement of stratospheric ozone-poor air from tropical latitudes resulted in very low ozone levels (approximately 265 Dobson Units) over much of Southern Australia. Consequently, measured solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) levels increased by up to 40% higher than normal. Given the populations involved in the major cities there (approximately 10 million people), it is likely that many people could have resultant higher solar UVR exposures and sunburns. Reporting procedures have been modified to warn the public of unusually low ozone and high UVR levels in the future.

  9. Research Notes

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Symposium in Print on Upper-Room Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation for Air Disinfection
    4. Symposium in Print: Invited Reviews
    5. Symposium in Print: Research Articles
    6. Symposium in Print: Research Note
    7. Symposium in Print: Technical Notes
    8. Highlight Article
    9. Research Articles
    10. Research Notes
    1. Regression Model for Estimating Inactivation of Microbial Aerosols by Solar Radiation (pages 995–999)

      Avishai Ben-David and Jose-Luis Sagripanti

      Version of Record online: 1 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12060

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      This study describes a relatively simple method to calculate solar diffuse and total irradiances for using in environmental photobiology estimations instead of complex atmospheric radiative transfer computer programs. The model reproduced calculations for equinoxes and solstices at 35° latitude made by a computer-intensive and rather complex atmospheric radiative transfer program (MODTRAN) with a mean error <6%. The overall accuracy obtained by the regression model presented is usable in most radiative transfer scenarios found in the atmosphere. The approach and equations presented in this study should assist in estimating the maximum time during which microbial pathogens remain infectious after accidental or intentional aerosolization in open environments.

    2. Inactivation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by Direct Sunlight (pages 1000–1003)

      Jose-Luis Sagripanti, Gudrun Grote, Bärbel Niederwöhrmeier and Hans-Jürgen Marschall

      Version of Record online: 22 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12059

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      Detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by PCR or ELISA is unaffected by complete sunlight inactivation

      This study suggest that related bacteria have a characteristic sensitivity to sunlight with their survival depending mainly on the fluence (photons) received in a dose-dependent manner that is otherwise relatively independent from latitude, atmospheric ozone and other local conditions. Conditions that inactivated P. aeruginosa did not result in measurable impairment of specific PCR or ELISA tests suggesting that this germ could still be amenable to detection after inactivation by sunlight. The results presented in this study should assist in predicting the survival of P. aeruginosa outdoors and in monitoring the risk posed by this widespread organism in a variety of environmental settings.

    3. Measurements of Personal UV Exposure on Different Parts of the Body During Various Activities (pages 1004–1007)

      Philipp Weihs, Alois Schmalwieser, Corinna Reinisch, Elisabeth Meraner, Silvia Walisch and Maier Harald

      Version of Record online: 26 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12085

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      In this study, the erythemal ultraviolet exposure received by different parts of the body during four different activities is determined. The measurements were performed during the following activities: walking, sitting, lying and sitting up. The strong dependence of the UV exposure on the activity and on the orientation of the test person is shown. Most of the body parts receive the highest exposure, when the test subject is sitting up or lying. The shoulders are most at risk when the test person is walking, whereas during the activities sitting up and lying the legs are most at risk.

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