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Photochemistry and Photobiology

Cover image for Vol. 89 Issue 5

September/October 2013

Volume 89, Issue 5

Pages 1009–1268

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    3. Rapid Communication
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      Development of a Tumor-Specific Photoactivatable Doxorubicin Prodrug (pages 1009–1010)

      Albert W. Girotti and Giorgio Minotti

      Article first published online: 3 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12151

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      A recent paper by Ibsen et al. (Photochem. Photobiol. 2013, 89: 698–708) is highlighted in this article. These investigators describe a promising new doxorubicin (DOX) prodrug, DOX-PCB, which contains a photocleavable linker group. After administration to a tumor-bearing animal, the inactive prodrug releases active anti-tumor DOX site-specifically upon exposure of the tumor to 365 nm light. This unique approach may eliminate many of the negative side-effects of administering DOX per se, including its cardiotoxic effects.

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      Protoporphyrin IX–β-Cyclodextrin Bimodal Conjugate: Nanosized Drug Transporter and Potent Phototoxin (pages 1011–1019)

      Chrysie Aggelidou, Theodossis A. Theodossiou and Konstantina Yannakopoulou

      Article first published online: 29 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12127

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      The new, water soluble, covalent conjugate of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) with β-cyclodextrin (PpIX + βCD) was specifically prepared for multimodal application: PpIX + βCD displays phototoxiciy comparable to that of PpIX, preferentially localizes in mitochondria in MCF7 and DU145 cell lines, effectively solubilizes the breast cancer drug tamoxifen metabolite N-desmethyltamoxifen in water and transports it into cells, where it confers cell death through a synergy of photo- and chemo- toxicity while simultaneously its fluorescence serves for imaging purposes.

  3. Research Articles

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      Photolysis and Thermolysis of Pyridyl Carbonyl Azide Monolayers on Single-Crystal Platinum (pages 1020–1028)

      Dana K. Adkinson, David C. Magri, Jason L. Pitters, Keith Griffiths, Peter R. Norton and Mark S. Workentin

      Article first published online: 10 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12086

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      Saturated monolayers of a number of acyl azide-substituted pyridine compounds, namely nicotinyl azide, isonicotinyl azide, picolinyl azide and dinicotinyl azide, were formed on single-crystal Pt(111) surfaces in a UHV chamber. These monolayers were characterized by RAIR and thermal programmed desorption. Photolysis or thermolysis of these saturated monolayers leads to the corresponding isocyanate via a Curtius rearrangement.

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      BiVO4-Silica Composites Containing Cobalt Phthalocyanine Groups: Synthesis, Characterization and Application in Photodegradation of 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol (pages 1029–1037)

      Hosein Golmojdeh, Mohammad A. Zanjanchi and Majid Arvand

      Article first published online: 26 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12091

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      A facile process was developed to produce BiVO4-Silica composites with different silica contents. The composites were modified with sulfonated cobalt phthalocyanine. Both phthalocyanine and BiVO4 are visible-light driven photoactive catalysts. It was observed that presence of silica led to anchorage of phthalocyanine due to surface modification. The sample with nominal 15% silica content showed the best photocatalytic activity in degradation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol.

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      Doping of TiO2GO and TiO2–rGO with Noble Metals: Synthesis, Characterization and Photocatalytic Performance for Azo Dye Discoloration (pages 1038–1046)

      Václav Štengl, Jiří Henych, Petr Vomáčka and Michaela Slušná

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12139

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      Photoinduced electrons migrate from TiO2 nanoparticles to the surface of graphene oxide or partly reduced graphene oxide and with help of adsorbed metal nanoparticles (Au, Pd, Pt), which improve conductivity, are transferred to electron acceptors. Thus are excited electrons and holes effectively separated and consequently lead to higher photocatalytic performance.

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      Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Reactive Dyes over MnTiO3/TiO2 Heterojunction Composites Under UV-Visible Irradiation (pages 1047–1056)

      Santhanam Sivakumar, Ayyasamy Selvaraj and Anaipalayam Kandasamy Ramasamy

      Article first published online: 29 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12136

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      Pyrophanite phase MnTiO3 was synthesized in a sol–gel synthetic route. MnTiO3/TiO2 heterojunction composites were prepared from MnTiO3 and TiO2 using oxalic acid as a linker. MnTiO3/TiO2 heterojunction composites has extended light absorption in the visible region. MnTiO3 in the heterojunction acts as the electron receiver in the UV-visible light region. The MnTiO3/TiO2 heterojunction composite induces faster degradation of reactive dyes under UV-visible light than pure TiO2 due to electron-hole charge separation mechanism.

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      In Situ Synthesis and Characterization of Nano ZnO on Wool: Influence of Nano Photo Reactor on Wool Properties (pages 1057–1063)

      Majid Montazer, Morteza Maali Amiri and Reza Mohammad Ali Malek

      Article first published online: 5 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12090

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      The main purpose of this work was to synthesize ZnO nano particles within the wool fabric. To do this, the pretreated wool fabric with protease was immersed in the solution of Zn(CH3COO)2, NH3 and Na(OH) as precursor and distilled water or water/ethanol mixture as the reaction environment. The samples were then subjected to daylight for 7 days. The reactive oxygen species produced as a result of photocatalytic activities of nano ZnO, which have potential of decomposing impurities of wool fibers including the natural pigments and waxes. This leads to the hydrophilic and roughly white wool fabric surface.

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      Interaction of Retinoic Acid Radical Cation with Lysozyme and Antioxidants: Laser Flash Photolysis Study in Microemulsion (pages 1064–1070)

      Kun Li, Mei Wang, Ting Wang, Dongmei Sun, Rongrong Zhu, Xiaoyu Sun, Xianzheng Wu and Shi-Long Wang

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12128

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      355 nm laser flash photolysis of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) in microemulsion leads to the formation of retinoic acid cation radicals (ATRA•+) via biphotonic processes. Deprotonated form of ATRA is more favorable for the formation of ATRA•+. ATRA•+ is proved to be reactive to lysozyme, tyrosine and tryptophan which is suggestive of its destructive effect on proteins. Meanwhile, some antioxidants, such as curcumin, gallic acid and vitamin C, can efficiently interact with ATRA•+, which indicates that it may competitively protect proteins from the attack of ATRA•+ by inactivating free radical.

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      The Binding of Curcuma longa Extract with Bovine Serum Albumin Monitored via Time-Resolved Fluorescence (pages 1071–1078)

      M. Adília Lemos and Graham Hungerford

      Article first published online: 9 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12129

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      The interaction of turmeric extract with bovine serum albumin was monitored using time-resolved fluorescence techniques. A kinetic time-correlated single-photon counting measurement allowed the binding process of the extract to the serum albumin to be followed and the use of time-resolved emission spectra enabled the binding environment to be elucidated. The results were consistent with the presence of two binding sites.

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      Radical Protection by Differently Composed Creams in the UV/VIS and IR Spectral Ranges (pages 1079–1084)

      Martina C. Meinke, Felicia Syring, Sabine Schanzer, Stefan F. Haag, Rüdiger Graf, Manuela Loch, Ingo Gersonde, Norbert Groth, Frank Pflücker and Jürgen Lademann

      Article first published online: 20 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12137

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      Free radicals in the skin are not only produced in the UV spectral range, up to 50% are formed in the visible and infrared spectral range. Therefore, protection strategies for these spectral ranges need to be provided. In this study, we could show that both antioxidants and physical filter can reduce radical formation in the IR spectral range and that a combination of physical and organic filters shows best protection in the UV/VIS spectral range. Sunscreens which contain organic UV filters, physical filters and antioxidants ensure protection in the complete solar spectrum.

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      Coencapsulation of Butyl-Methoxydibenzoylmethane and Octocrylene into Lipid Nanocarriers: UV Performance, Photostability and in vitro Release (pages 1085–1094)

      Gabriela Niculae, Nicoleta Badea, Aurelia Meghea, Ovidiu Oprea and Ioana Lacatusu

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12117

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      The coencapsulation of two UV filters, butyl-methoxydibenzoylmethane (BMDBM) and octocrylene (OCT), into solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) was explored to develop stable cosmetic formulations with broad-spectrum photoprotection and slow release properties. The lipid nanocarriers have been formulated into creams and the sun protection factor (SPF) and the erythemal UVA protection factor (EUVA–PF) of the developed cosmetic formulations were evaluated in vitro.

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      Geometric Effect on the Photocrosslinking Reaction between 3-Cyanovinylcarbazole Nucleoside and Pyrimidine Base in DNA/RNA Heteroduplex (pages 1095–1099)

      Kenzo Fujimoto, Satomi Kishi and Takashi Sakamoto

      Article first published online: 29 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12118

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      Geometric effect on the photocrosslinking reaction between oligodeoxyribonucleotide having CNVK (CNVK–ODN) and pyrimidine base in oligoribonucleotide (ORN) was investigated using uridine (U) and pseudouridine (Ψ) having a different geometry of a reactive double bond each other. We demonstrated that the geometry of the vinyl group on CNVK and the reactive double bond in the pyrimidine base affected the reactivity of the photocrosslinking reaction between CNVK–ODN and ORN, and that the favorable geometry of U in DNA/RNA heteroduplex enabled a highly efficient photocrosslinking reaction. Moreover, Ψ in DNA/RNA heteroduplex was also reactive with CNVK.

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      Study of the Mode and Efficiency of DNA Binding in the Damage Induced by Photoactivated Water Soluble Porphyrins (pages 1100–1105)

      Suneesh C. Karunakaran, Danaboyina Ramaiah, Ina Schulz and Bernd Epe

      Article first published online: 26 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12088

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      We describe interactions of neutral and water soluble porphyrins with DNA and their efficiency of photoinduced DNA damage. Uniquely these systems exhibited high affinity for DNA and efficient singlet oxygen mediated DNA damage sensitive to formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (Fpg protein), when compared with the well-known photosensitizer, hematoporphyrin. These results demonstrate the direct evidence for the role of the DNA binding mode and extent of interactions with DNA in the efficiency of the photoactivated DNA damage caused by the neutral porphyrins, which are believed to be the ideal candidates for photodynamic therapeutic applications.

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      Tryptophan Cluster Protects Human γD-Crystallin from Ultraviolet Radiation-Induced Photoaggregation In Vitro (pages 1106–1115)

      Nathaniel Schafheimer and Jonathan King

      Article first published online: 20 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12096

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      The Trp residues of human γD-crystallin (HγD-Crys) are highly conserved, and the energy transfer mechanism observed between them has been postulated to play a photoprotective role in this long lived, chronically ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposed lens protein. Here, we see that replacement of the Trp's with Phe, while reducing HγD-Crys's absorbing capacity, increases the rate of protein photoaggregation, suggesting that the placement and orientation of the Trp's is an evolved protective structure that could aid in filtering harmful UVR to protect the retina.

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      Oxygen-Dependent Photochemistry and Photophysics of “MiniSOG,” a Protein-Encased Flavin (pages 1116–1126)

      Frederico M. Pimenta, Rasmus L. Jensen, Thomas Breitenbach, Michael Etzerodt and Peter R. Ogilby

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12111

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      Encapsulating flavin mononucleotide, FMN, in a protein appreciably alters the photophysics and photochemistry of this chromophore. This has been examined using the so-called “mini Singlet Oxygen Generator” (miniSOG), an FMN-containing protein engineered from Arabidopsis thaliana phototropin 2.

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      Stratification of the Radiation Field Inside a Photobioreactor During Microalgae Growth (pages 1127–1134)

      Josué M. Heinrich, Ignacio Niizawa, Fausto A. Botta, Alejandro R. Trombert and Horacio A. Irazoqui

      Article first published online: 20 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12095

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      Microalgal growth rate depends on light availability which, in the photobioreactor, depends on the specific position, the emission characteristics of the light source, the optical properties of the suspension and the presence of bubbles. In this work, a Monte Carlo algorithm was developed to simulate the optical properties of the radiation field in the culture.

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      Destabilization of the Oxygen Evolving Complex of Photosystem II by Al3+ (pages 1135–1142)

      Imed Hasni, Saber Hamdani and Robert Carpentier

      Article first published online: 3 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12116

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      The inhibitory action of Al3+ on photosynthetic electron transport was investigated in isolated thylakoid membranes of spinach. Al3+ affects the donor side of PSII by destabilizing the oxygen evolving complex, including disorganization of the Mn4O5Ca cluster. This also causes an inhibition of electron transfer between QA and QB attributed to a transmembrane effect. In addition, Al3+ induces an inhibition of electron transfer between Tyr Z and P680 causing the formation of P680+.

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      The Use of Solar Radiation by the Photosynthetic Bacterium, Rhodopseudomonas palustris: Model Simulation of Conditions Found in a Shallow Pond or a Flatbed Reactor (pages 1143–1162)

      Raymond J. Ritchie

      Article first published online: 3 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12124

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      Blue-diode based pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) fluorimeters can be used to measure photosynthetic electron transport (ETR) in non-sulfur purple photosynthetic bacteria. Photosynthesis can be calculated on BChl a basis or in terms of volume of culture filtered onto a glass fibre disk. The figure shows a comparison of the electron transport rate (ETR) vs pond depth for Rhodopseudomonas palustris and Afifella marina cells with acetate + benzoate and acetate as carbon sources respectively. Both curves exhibit classical photoinhibition at shallow depths. Rhodopseudomonas achieves much higher total photosynthesis than Afifella because it is able to use high irradiances more effectively.

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      Cloning and Characterization of Luciferase from a Fijian Luminous Click Beetle (pages 1163–1169)

      Yasuo Mitani, Ryo Futahashi, Kazuki Niwa, Nobuyoshi Ohba and Yoshihiro Ohmiya

      Article first published online: 15 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12097

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      The thorax part of a luminous Fijian click beetle, Photophorus jansonii. The Fijian click beetle emits green-yellow light from the two spots on the pronotum. The recombinant luciferase was pH-insensitive and the spectrum measured at pH 8.0 showed a peak at 559 nm. This is the first report describing the luciferase from Melanesian luminous click beetle.

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      Morphological and Structural Changes in Lung Tissue Infected by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: FTIR Photoacoustic Spectroscopy and Histological Analysis (pages 1170–1175)

      Edilaine M. Morato, Gutierrez R. Morais, Francielle Sato, Antonio N. Medina, Terezinha I. E. Svidzinski, Mauro L. Baesso and Luzmarina Hernandes

      Article first published online: 8 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12110

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      This study evaluated physicochemical and morphological changes of mice lungs infected with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. The results showed that lungs infected by P. brasiliensis underwent structural changes that varied according to the time period analyzed and that changes in the absorption bands of differing chemical groups were associated with the result of morphological changes. The used procedure was also innovative and suggests that the combination of FTIR-Photoacoustic spectroscopy with morphological evaluation is an effective method for the study of paracoccidioidomycosis, one of the most important systemic mycosis that can damage the lung architecture and consequently can impair respiratory function.


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      Improved In vitro and In vivo Cutaneous Delivery of Protoporphyrin IX from PLGA-based Nanoparticles (pages 1176–1184)

      Carolina L. da Silva, José O. Del Ciampo, Fábia C. Rossetti, Maria V. L. B. Bentley and Maria B. R. Pierre

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12121

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      Polymeric Nanoparticles (Nps) are emerging as an effective drug delivery system for hydrophobic photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy (PDT). In brief, PpIX-loaded NPs could improve (in vitro and in vivo) drug residence in deeper skin (i.e. EP + D), the target tissue for PDT in cutaneous tumors, without increasing transdermal transport. These NPs may be potential for topical application of PpIX as photosensitizer for PDT of skin cancers. In a typical scheme of cutaneous PDT, after application of photosensitizer-loaded Np and laser light source, the conversion of the triplet singlet oxygen into singlet will cause desired tumor destruction.

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      Vascular endothelial cells as targets for photochemical internalization (PCI) (pages 1185–1192)

      Marie Vikdal, Anette Weyergang, Pål Kristian Selbo and Kristian Berg

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12126

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      Photochemical internalization (PCI) utilizes photosensitizers localizing to endo-lysosomes in order to release drugs taken up by endocytosis. In order to study sensitivity of PCI in vasculature, this study compares uptake and localization of two of these photosensitizers, AlPcS2a and TPPS2a, in vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) and fibrosarcoma cells (HT1080). Photosensitizer uptake was found to be much higher in HUVECs compared to in HT1080 cells, while intracellular localization was similar. Efficacy of PCI are estimated and discussed in the study.

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      UV Radiation Increases Carcinogenic Risks for Oral Tissues Compared to Skin (pages 1193–1198)

      Anant Agrawal, Eli Shindell, Fredrick Jordan, Larissa Baeva, Joshua Pfefer and Dianne E. Godar

      Article first published online: 17 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12140

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      A tri-fluorescent labeled picture of a 3D-engineered oral tissue section 24 h after 660 J m−2 of erythemally weighted UVB radiation. Significantly fewer cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) are repaired (red; ~17%) compared to skin (~42%). The green cells are TUNEL-labeled apoptotic cells and the blue nuclei show all DNA (DAPI). Oral cells have more DNA damage and fewer dead cells 24 h after UVB exposure and the apoptotic cell numbers do not increase for up to 72 h. Thus, oral cells are at a higher carcinogenic risk than skin cells because their living cell population accumulates more DNA damage per UVB dose.

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      Protective Effect of Tropical Highland Blackberry Juice (Rubus adenotrichos Schltdl.) Against UVB-Mediated Damage in Human Epidermal Keratinocytes and in a Reconstituted Skin Equivalent Model (pages 1199–1207)

      Laura Calvo-Castro, Deeba N. Syed, Jean C. Chamcheu, Fernanda M. P. Vilela, Ana M. Pérez, Fabrice Vaillant, Miguel Rojas and Hasan Mukhtar

      Article first published online: 8 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12104

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      Blackberry juice (BBJ) protected in vitro cell cultures and skin equivalents against UVB-induced damage. Treatment with BBJ reduced CPDs and 8-oxodGs in UVB-irradiated epidermal cells, potentially suppressing the initiating carcinogenic stimuli. BBJ treatment also enhanced apoptosis of UVB-damaged cells, potentially preventing carcinogenesis by stopping the progression of cells that might have genotoxic damage.

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      Dietary Feeding of Opuntia Humifusa Inhibits UVB Radiation-Induced Carcinogenesis by Reducing Inflammation and Proliferation in Hairless Mouse Model (pages 1208–1215)

      Jin-A Lee, Bock-Gie Jung, Tae-Hoon Kim, Su-Gil Lee, Young-Seok Park and Bong-Joo Lee

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12113

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      The UVB irradiation is a major etiology factor for both squamous and basal cell carcinomas, as a tumor initiator and promoter. Opuntia humifusa is a member of the Cactaceae family has been extensively used as a popular folk medicine to stimulate the immune system and has been employed as a traditional natural coloring agent for centuries. The present study demonstrated that O. humifusa could inhibit the photocarcinogenic activity through the alleviation of UVB-induced inflammatory mediators as well as down-regulation of cell proliferative controls by the suppression of signaling cascades leading to the activation of NF-κB in mouse skin.

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      In vitro and In vivo Antiproliferative Effect of a Combination of Ultraviolet-A and Alkoxy Furocoumarins Isolated from Umbelliferae Medicinal Plants, in Melanoma Cells (pages 1216–1225)

      Yoshiyuki Kimura, Maho Sumiyoshi, Masahiro Sakanaka, Masahiko Taniguchi and Kimiye Baba

      Article first published online: 2 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12122

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      Oxypeucedanin hydrate (6) increased the Chk1 phosphorylation at low concentrations of 0.05 and 0.1 μm, under UVA irradiation. On other hand, oxypeucedanin hydrate (6) reduced the level of cdc2 phosphorylation (Thr 161) at 0.1 μm, under UVA irradiation. Furthermore, oxypeucedanin hydrate (6) reduced tumor weight at 0.3 mg kg−1 under UVA irradiation. We suggest the antitumor actions of UVA plus furocoumarins having an alkoxy group at C-5 to be due to the arrest of the cell cycle of G2/M through an increase in phosphor-Chk1 and decrease in phospho-cdc2.

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      Sunburn Risk Among Children and Outdoor Workers in South Africa and Reunion Island Coastal Sites (pages 1226–1233)

      Caradee Y. Wright, Colette Brogniez, Katlego P. Ncongwane, Venkataraman Sivakumar, Gerrie Coetzee, Jean-Marc Metzger, Frédérique Auriol, Christine Deroo and Béatrice Sauvage

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12123

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      Outdoor workers in sunny climates have the potential for high solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure. Their potential total daily solar UVR exposure may be overlaid with the estimated amount of solar UVR to elicit sunburn by skin type to highlight at-risk groups. Outdoor workers with skin types I, II, III, IV and V were at risk of sunburn on at least one day and in most cases more than several days during the year in all places investigated when applying the weighting of 20% of total daily ambient solar UVR exposure. For at-risk groups, targeted sun protection advice is necessary.

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      Seasonal Variations in the Subsurface Ultraviolet-B on an Inshore Pacific Coral Reef Ecosystem (pages 1234–1243)

      Nathan J. Downs, Peter W. Schouten and Alfio V. Parisi

      Article first published online: 16 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12101

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      Long term underwater UVB field exposures are presented for an inshore coral reef ecosystem, Hervey Bay, Australia (25oS, 153oE). Measurements were taken over a nine month period and include in-situ coral exposures during the significant La Niña event of late 2010 (SOI +27.1) which resulted in unprecedented high sea surface temperatures and severe flooding impacting upon the lagoon regions of the Great Barrier Reef and adjacent coastal estuaries. Exposures are presented with respect to modelled surface UVB, tidal depth variation and rainfall revealing some trends by level of significance in tide level, water turbidity and seasonal UV irradiance. Exposures for the reef ranged from between 30% to 1% relative to the study site surface UVB between clearer winter and turbid summer conditions respectively.

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      Evaluating UVA Aerosol Optical Depth using a Smartphone Camera (pages 1244–1248)

      Damien P. Igoe, Alfio V. Parisi and Brad Carter

      Article first published online: 20 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12082

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      An enlarged image taken of the sun using the LG Optimus smartphone camera at a wavelength of 380 nm. The image was achieved using attached narrowband and neutral density filters. The grayscale response can be used to determine the solar irradiance and aerosol optical depth with a high level of accuracy when compared with the readings obtained from a Microtops II sunphotometer.

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      Effect of Laser Thermal Injury on Langerhans Cells in Mouse and Hairless Guinea Pig Epidermis (pages 1249–1254)

      Kim Burnham, Kurt Schuster, Aurora Shingledecker, Robert Kornegay and Jeffrey Oliver

      Article first published online: 5 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12092

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      Mice and hairless guinea pigs were exposed to a thulium laser at a wavelength of 2.0 μm. Mouse skin exhibited histological evidence of thermal damage and decreases in epidermal Langerhans cells at 24 and 48 h following doses from 0.14 to 0.56 W. In contrast, hairless guinea pig skin only showed consistent histological evidence of thermal damage and the disappearance of Langerhans cells following the highest dose administered (0.70 W). These results suggest a correlation between thermal damage and Langerhans cell disappearance for both mice and hairless guinea pigs.

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      Estimation of Daily Ultraviolet Radiation in Beijing Using a Semiempirical Method (pages 1255–1261)

      Xinghua Zhang, Bo Hu and Yuesi Wang

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12138

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      UV radiation under cloudless-sky conditions is mainly affected by atmospheric aerosols, in order to quantify the effects of aerosols on UV radiation, the daily UV aerosol attenuation ratio (UVAAR) was defined. Dependence of daily UVAAR on aerosol optical depth (AOD) demonstrates that UVAAR increases with increasing AOD, but the increasing trend slows down upon further increasing of AOD, a polynomial fitting function may be exists with a good correlation coefficient of 98.75%.

  4. Research Note

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      Luminescent Hybrid Ionogels Functionalized with rare Earth fluoride Up-conversion Nanocrystals Dispersing in Ionic Liquid (pages 1262–1268)

      Zhi-Yuan Yan and Bing Yan

      Article first published online: 5 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12125

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      Lanthanide doped fluorides (BaMgF4, NaYF4 and BaYF5/BaLuF5) have been synthesized and dispersed in a ionic liquid compound 1-(3-tetraethoxysilane) propyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (denoted as IM+Cl). Through the cohydrolysis and copolycondensatoin reaction between the alkoxy group (3-tetraethoxysilane) of IM+ and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) in the presence of carboxylic acids [formic acid (FA)] as catalyst and water source, luminescent hybrid iongels form subsequently. These hybrid iongels exhibit the upconversion luminescence properties of immbolized rare earth fluoride nanocrystals (BaMgF4, NaYF4 and BaYF5/BaLuF5).