Photochemistry and Photobiology

Cover image for Vol. 90 Issue 1

January/February 2014

Volume 90, Issue 1

Pages 1–251

  1. Invited Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Invited Reviews
    3. Research Articles
    4. Research Notes
    1. You have free access to this content
      Formation and Direct Repair of UV-induced Dimeric DNA Pyrimidine Lesions (pages 1–14)

      Andrea Christa Kneuttinger, Gengo Kashiwazaki, Stefan Prill, Korbinian Heil, Markus Müller and Thomas Carell

      Version of Record online: 2 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12197

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      Direct repair of UV-induced DNA lesions represents an elegant method for many organisms to deal with these highly mutagenic and cytotoxic compounds. Although the participating proteins are structurally well investigated, the exact repair mechanism of the photolyase enzymes remains a vivid subject of current research. In this review, we summarize and highlight the recent contributions to this exciting field.

    2. You have free access to this content
      Implication of ultraviolet light in the etiology of uveal melanoma: A review (pages 15–21)

      Justin D. Mallet, Sébastien P. Gendron, Marie-Catherine Drigeard Desgarnier and Patrick J. Rochette

      Version of Record online: 30 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12161

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      Uveal melanoma is the most frequent intraocular cancer and the second most common form of melanoma after cutaneous. The evidences are contradictory about the role of ultraviolet (UV) light in the etiology of in uveal melanoma. We have compared epidemiological and genetic evidences of the potential role of UV radiation in uveal melanoma with data on cutaneous melanoma. We have reviewed the work done in the last decades in order to understand the etiology of uveal melanoma and discuss new avenues, which shed some light on the potential role of UV exposure in uveal melanoma.

  2. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Invited Reviews
    3. Research Articles
    4. Research Notes
    1. Photophysical Properties of Lanthanide (Eu3+, Tb3+) Hybrid Soft Gels of Double Functional Linker of Ionic Liquid–Modified Silane (pages 22–28)

      Qiu-Ping Li and Bing Yan

      Version of Record online: 3 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12149

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      Ternary lanthanide luminescent hybrid soft gels Gel-Im+[LaL4] were prepared by linking the europium/terbium tetrakis β-diketonate complexes into the silicon framework, which provides a representative method to assemble lanthanide-functionalized porous materials with chemical bonds.

    2. Investigation on Photophysical Properties of D–π–A–π–D-Type Fluorenone-Based Linear Conjugated Oligomers by Using Femtosecond Transient Absorption Spectroscopy (pages 29–34)

      Tian-hao Huang, Ying-hui Wang, Zhi-hui Kang, Jin-bo Yao, Ran Lu and Han-zhuang Zhang

      Version of Record online: 16 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12154

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      Dynamic mechanism of fluorenone-based linear conjugated oligomers.

    3. Theoretical Study of Fluorescence Spectra Utilizing the pKa Values of Acids in Their Excited States (pages 35–44)

      Miyabi Hiyama, Hidefumi Akiyama, Kenta Yamada and Nobuaki Koga

      Version of Record online: 16 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12156

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      With the help of theoretical pKa values in the first excited states the experimental fluorescence spectra of firefly luciferin and its conjugate acids and bases in solution with various pH values were successfully assigned.

    4. Investigation on “Excimer” Formation Mechanism of Linear Oligofluorenes-Functionalized Anthracenes by Using Transient Absorption Spectroscopy (pages 45–50)

      Ying-Hui Wang, Lu Zou, Zhi-Hui Kang, Cheng Qian, Fuyin Wang, Yu-Guang Ma, Ran Lu, Hong Ji and Han-Zhuang Zhang

      Version of Record online: 14 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12159

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      The “excimer” generation mechanisms of oligofluorenes-functionalized anthracenes molecules with fluorine-vinylene (FV) units in solution were studied. The diffusion of molecule (DM) and arene-arene interaction (A-A I) could be responsible for the formation processes of “excimer”. As the number of FV units increases, the DM-dependent “excimer” generation process could be restrained, but the A-A I dependent formation path may be enhanced. Fortunately, the total optical property of the linear oligofluorenes-functionalized anthracenes molecules could be improved due to the enhancement of intrinsic fluorescence quantum yield as the FV units increase.

    5. Synthesis, Characterization and Photocatalytic Activity of Mg-Impregnated ZnOSnO2 Coupled Nanoparticles (pages 51–56)

      Mohammad A. Behnajady and Yasamin Tohidi

      Version of Record online: 30 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12164

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      The coupled and Mg impregnated ZnOSnO2 nanoparticles were prepared by co-precipitation method with various Mg molar ratios and calcination temperatures. With Mg impregnation, the band gap energy of ZnOSnO2 nanoparticles increases by 0.05 eV, exhibiting a blue shift. Mg/ZnOSnO2 nanoparticles indicated a better performance than pure ZnOSnO2 nanoparticles.

    6. One-Pot Fabrication of RGO–Ag3VO4 Nanocomposites by in situ Photoreduction using Different Sacrificial Agents: High Selectivity Toward Catechol Synthesis and Photodegradation Ability (pages 57–65)

      Dipti P. Das, Alaka Samal, Jasobanta Das, Ajit Dash and Hariom Gupta

      Version of Record online: 18 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12172

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      One-pot synthesis of RGO–Ag3VO4 nanocomposites using various sacrificial agents like ethanol, methanol, propanol and ethylene glycol (EG) under visible light illumination. The activity of these synthesized nanocomposites is more than five-fold toward the photohydroxylation of phenol and photodegradation of textile dyes under visible light (VISL) illumination.

    7. The Role of the Relative Dye/Photocatalyst Concentration in TiO2 Assisted Photodegradation Process (pages 66–72)

      Vagner R. de Mendonça, Henrique A. J. L. Mourão, Andréa R. Malagutti and C. Ribeiro

      Version of Record online: 21 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12175

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      Plot presenting the relation between photoinduced RhB photodegradation rate constant (k* = k'/[TiO2]) as a function of TiO2 photocatalyst and Rhodamine B initial concentration.

    8. Substituent Effect on the Photolability of 4-Aryl-1,4-Dihydropyridines (pages 73–78)

      Cristóbal García, Karina Cabezas, Santi Nonell, Luis J. Núñez-Vergara, Javier Morales, Germán Günther and Nancy Pizarro

      Version of Record online: 30 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12178

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      The electronic nature of substituents attached to the 4-aryl moiety of 1,4-dihydropyridines strongly affect the photophysical and photochemical behavior of these family of compounds. The presence of an electron-donor substituent on the 4-aryl moiety (or the absence of electron-withdrawing ones), diminishes the photodecomposition quantum yields. Studies in micellar media allow us to conclude that 4-aryl-1,4-dihydropyridines are located near to the interface, however the surface charge of micelles has no effect on the photodegradation rate constant or the photoproducts profile. Our main conclusion is that the photolability of 4-aryl-1,4-dihydropyridines can be significantly reduced by the incorporation of antioxidant moieties.

    9. Photochemical Behavior and Photolysis of Protonated Forms of Levofloxacin (pages 79–84)

      Anna Polishchuk, Tatyna Emelina, Emilya Karaseva, Oana Cramariuc, Vladimir Chukharev and Vladimir Karasev

      Version of Record online: 13 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12152

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      The preferred direction of possible protolytic reactions induced by UV irradiation in fluoroquinolones at different pH of solutions was studied. It was found that the proton transfer processes have a considerable effect on the capability of the compound to emit light and occur on the nanosecond timescale. The photochemical reactions of the three protolytic forms of levofloxacin were studied by laser flash photolysis.

    10. Amplified Production of Singlet Oxygen in Aqueous Solution Using Metal Enhancement Effects (pages 85–91)

      Sara M. Mooi and Belinda Heyne

      Version of Record online: 21 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12176

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      Silver-silica core-shell nanoparticles, on to which rose bengal has been covalently attached to the shell, have been synthesized and conventionally characterized. These novel core-shell nanoparticles allow for an amplification of singlet oxygen production by 3.8 times in aqueous solution.

    11. Photoreaction of Ketoprofen with Tryptophan and Tyrosine in Phosphate Buffer Solution (pages 92–98)

      Mio Shinoda, Tasuku Isozaki and Tadashi Suzuki

      Version of Record online: 30 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12168

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      Reaction of excited ketoprofen (KP) with tryptophan (Trp) and tyrosine (Tyr) in a phosphate buffer solution was studied by the transient absorption spectroscopy. Both amino acids accelerated the proton transfer reaction to yield 3-ethylbenzophenone ketyl biradical from KP carbanion. The reaction quantum yield was successfully estimated, and Trp and Tyr were found to be a good proton donor. The highly efficient proton transfer reaction can be explained by difference of the activation energy for the reaction. The proton transfer should be a key reaction of KP in a protein, causing photosensitization in vivo.

    12. On the Formation of Thymine Photodimers in Thymine Single Strands and Calf Thymus DNA (pages 99–106)

      Lisbeth Munksgaard Baggesen, Søren Vrønning Hoffmann and Steen Brøndsted Nielsen

      Version of Record online: 28 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12183

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      Solar light causes mutagenic photodimers. Here we provide synchrotron radiation circular dichroism spectra of the photodimers, and we find that the yield of photodimers in thymine single strands increases linearly with the length. On average two are formed for strands with ten thymine bases.

    13. Atrazine and Methyl Viologen Effects on Chlorophyll-a Fluorescence Revisited—Implications in Photosystems Emission and Ecotoxicity Assessment (pages 107–112)

      Analia Iriel, Johanna M. Novo, Gabriela B. Cordon and María G. Lagorio

      Version of Record online: 20 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12142

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      In this work we use the effect of herbicides at defined sites in the photosynthetic chain to derive information about the fluorescence emission of photosystems. Additionally, chlorophyll fluorescence was tested as a bioindicator for detection of both herbicides in aquatic environment.

    14. Effect of Light Environment on Growth and Phenylpropanoids of Yarrow (Achillea collina cv. SPAK) Grown in the Alps (pages 113–120)

      Annamaria Giorgi, Alessandra Manzo, Ilda Vagge and Sara Panseri

      Version of Record online: 16 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12150

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      A 2-year field study on the effect of different light environments, obtained by using cladding materials able to cut off specific regions of the photosynthetically active radiation and ultraviolet wavebands, on the growth and phenylpropanoids content of Achillea collina grown in the Alps was conducted. Plant growth was strongly enhanced in the second growing season irrespective of radiation treatment. Phenylpropanoid levels in inflorescences appeared to be more sensitive to the light environment than leaves as the latter showed high constitutive amounts of these compounds. The use of polyethylene films improved to some extent the content of caffeic acid derivatives in leaves.

    15. Synthesis of Zinc Chlorophyll Homo/Hetero-Dyads and their Folded Conformers with Porphyrin, Chlorin, and Bacteriochlorin π-Systems (pages 121–128)

      Hitoshi Tamiaki, Kazuhiro Fukai, Hideki Shimazu and Sunao Shoji

      Version of Record online: 21 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12173

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      Synthetic zinc chlorophyll dyads were intramolecularly folded with two methanol molecules to form their supramolecules by doubly coordinating and hydrogen-bonding. The resulting ππ stacked J-aggregates gave red-shifted Qy bands in a solution.

    16. Assessing the Applicability of Singlet Oxygen Photosensitizers in Leaf Studies (pages 129–136)

      László Kovács, Ferhan Ayaydin, Tamás Kálai, Júlia Tandori, Péter B. Kós and Éva Hideg

      Version of Record online: 4 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12148

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      Confocal microscopy imaging of tobacco leaf cells loaded with the photosensitizer Rose Bengal. Composite image shows Rose Bengal fluorescence as green and chlorophyll fluorescence as red.

    17. A Novel Catalytic Function of Synthetic IgG-Binding Domain (Z Domain) from Staphylococcal Protein A: Light Emission with Coelenterazine (pages 137–144)

      Satoshi Inouye and Yuiko Sahara-Miura

      Version of Record online: 27 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12192

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      The synthetic IgG-binding domain (Z domain) of staphylococcal protein A catalyzes the oxidation of coelenterazine to emit light like a coelenterazine-utilizing luciferase. The catalytic properties of the Z domain and the dimmer of Z domain are close to the Oplophorus luciferase and Gaussia luciferase, respectively.

    18. Cyclobutane Pyrimidine Dimer Density as a Predictive Biomarker of the Biological Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation in Normal Human Fibroblast (pages 145–154)

      Christopher D. Sproul, David L. Mitchell, Shangbang Rao, Joseph G. Ibrahim, William K. Kaufmann and Marila Cordeiro-Stone

      Version of Record online: 28 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12194

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      Exposure to UV, including the more energetic wavelengths present in sunlight (UVB), leads to the formation of DNA photoproducts. Among these, the cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) are the most abundant. CPD density in DNA of diploid human fibroblasts irradiated with three different UV irradiation sources correlated best with the measured biological outcomes.

    19. Regulation of MSK1-Mediated NF-κB Activation Upon UVB Irradiation (pages 155–161)

      Oliver L. Carpenter and Shiyong Wu

      Version of Record online: 30 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12163

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      Proposed model of MSK-1mediated NF-κB activation following UVB irradiation: UVB irradiation stimulates the activation of MSK1 via phosphorylation from ERK and p38. During the early-phase response, activation of MSK1 is heavily dependent on the function of p38, as opposed to the late-phase in which p38 and ERK work in a concerted effort to phosphorylate MSK1. Although MSK1 is highly phosphorylated during the early-phase, it is not until UVB has stimulated the translocation of NF-κB into the nucleus of the cell during the late-phase that MSK1 is able to transactivate NF-κB into a fully active form.

    20. Photohemolysis Sensitized by the Furocoumarin Derivative Alloimperatorin and its Hydroperoxide Photooxidation Product (pages 162–170)

      Alla Kyagova, Alexander Potapenko, Marianne Möller, Helga Stopper and Waldemar Adam

      Version of Record online: 25 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12184

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      The alloimperatorin 1 photosensitizes efficiently the hemolysis of erythrocytes (panel A). The rate of photohemolysis increases on raising the temperature of the post-irradiated incubation from 4°C to 37°C. Alloimperatorin 1 is autophotooxidized forming its hydroperoxide 2. The hydroperoxide 2 induces dark and photosensitized hemolysis more efficiently (panel B) than 1, and photosensitizes the formation of lipid-peroxidation products in erythrocytes. These processes are inhibited by tert-butanol and 2,6-di-tert-butyl-p-cresol. Our data imply that the photohemolysis sensitized by the alloimperatorin 1 is caused by the in-situ-formed hydroperoxide 2.

    21. Complexes of Chlorin e6 with Pluronics and Polyvinylpyrrolidone: Structure and Photodynamic Activity in Cell Culture (pages 171–182)

      Timur M. Zhiyentayev, Umed T. Boltaev, Anna B. Solov'eva, Nadezhda A. Aksenova, Nickolay N. Glagolev, Alexander V. Chernjak and Nickolay S. Melik-Nubarov

      Version of Record online: 28 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12181

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      Non-covalent binding of Chlorin e6 to hydrophilic polymers results in 5–7-fold enhancement of its phototoxicity in vitro.

    22. A Comparative Study of the Photosensitizer Penetration into Artificial Caries Lesions in Dentin Measured by the Confocal Raman Microscopy (pages 183–188)

      Mary Anne S. Melo, Juliana P.M.L. Rolim, Iriana C.J. Zanin, José J.A. Silva, Alexandre R. Paschoal, Alejandro P. Ayala and Lidiany K.A. Rodrigues

      Version of Record online: 25 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12186

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      Considering the heterogeneous anatomical features of dentin, the penetration dynamics of photosensitizer (PS) into this substrate has become a faced drawback to establish suitable protocols for PACT. The degree of penetration of PS (toluidine blue ortho) in artificially demineralized dentin produced by two distinct caries-inducing models was investigated using confocal Raman microspectroscopy (CRM) for the first time. The rate of PS penetration was detected up to about ∼50 μm and the demineralization level does not interfere somehow on the magnitude of the results. These findings are relevant to guide new protocols for PACT against dental caries.

    23. Photodynamic and Nail Penetration Enhancing Effects of Novel Multifunctional Photosensitizers Designed for The Treatment of Onychomycosis (pages 189–200)

      Threes Smijs, Zoë Dame, Ellen de Haas, Jan-Bonne Aans, Stan Pavel and Henricus Sterenborg

      Version of Record online: 25 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12196

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      Double functionality of a multifunctional photosensitizer when applied the dermatophyte Trichophyton mentagrophytus in the presence of nail material: a nail penetration enhancement function and a function as photosensitizer for green light photodynamic treatment of onychomycosis. The possibility of these compounds to weaken the nail plate is based on their keratolytic capacity, viz. the possibility of SH-containing compounds to chemically reduce the covalent disulphide bonds as present in keratin protein fibers in human nail plates. The cationic part of the novel molecules should be responsible for the desired selective (pH 5) PDT effect when binding (•image_n/php12196-gra-0001.png) to fungal hyphae.

    24. Effects of Laser Irradiation on Pulp Cells Exposed to Bleaching Agents (pages 201–206)

      Adriano F. Lima, Fernanda G. Basso, Ana P. D. Ribeiro, Vanderlei S. Bagnato, Josimeri Hebling, Giselle M. Marchi and Carlos A. de Souza Costa

      Version of Record online: 13 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12155

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      The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on odontoblast-like cells exposed to a bleaching agent. Eight groups were established according to the exposure to the bleaching agent (35% hydrogen peroxide) and LLLT (0, 4, 10, and 15 J cm−2). The bleaching procedures reduced the cell viability, ALP activity, and gene expression of dentin proteins. Laser irradiation did not modulate the cell response; except for FN, since LLLT decreased the gene expression of this protein by the cells exposed to the 35% hydrogen peroxide.

    25. Analgesic Effect of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Therapy at Wavelengths of 635 and 945 nm on Bothrops moojeni Venom-Induced Hyperalgesia (pages 207–213)

      Nikele Nadur-Andrade, Stella R. Zamuner, Elaine F. Toniolo, Carlos J. de Lima, José C. Cogo and Camila S. Dale

      Version of Record online: 28 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12189

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      The effectiveness of LED at wavelengths of 635 and 945 nm, in reducing mechanical inflammatory hyperalgesia and allodynia induced by Bothrops moojeni venom (BmV) in mice, produced by a subplantar injection of BmV (1 μg) was evaluated at 1, 3, 6 and 24 h after BmV injection. The site of BmV injection (1.2 cm2) was irradiated by LEDs at 30 min and 3 h after BmV inoculation. Both 635 and 945 nm LED inhibited mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia of mice alone or in combination with antivenom treatment, even when the symptoms were already present.

    26. Protection from UVB Toxicity in Human Keratinocytes by Thailand Native Herbs Extracts (pages 214–224)

      Visa Thongrakard, Nijsiri Ruangrungsi, Maneerat Ekkapongpisit, Ciro Isidoro and Tewin Tencomnao

      Version of Record online: 3 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12153

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      The protection by Thai plants extracts against UVB DNA damage and cytotoxicity was investigated in human keratinocytes. Ethanol extract of turmeric and dichloromethane extract of ginger were shown to possess the maximum UV absorptions (a). These extracts stimulated the synthesis of Thioredoxin 1, an antioxidant protein (b), and could protect human HaCaT keratinocytes exposed to UVB from DNA damage (d) and caspase-3-mediated apoptosis (c). The present data support the utilization of turmeric and ginger extracts in anti-UV cosmetic pharmaceuticals.

    27. Spectral and Spatial UV Sky Radiance Measurements at a Seaside Resort Under Clear Sky and Slightly Overcast Conditions (pages 225–232)

      Henner Sandmann and Carsten Stick

      Version of Record online: 1 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12180

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      Spatial measurements of the diffusely scattered sky radiance at a seaside resort under clear sky and slightly overcast conditions have been used to calculate the sky radiance distribution across the hemisphere. The measurements were done shortly after the solstice at 307 nm, 350 nm and 550 nm representing UVB, UVA and VIS. Normalizing the measured values by use of direct solar radiation made the spatial distributions of sky radiance comparable. The results convey a spatial impression of the distribution of the radiance. The effect of shading parts of the sky can be estimated from the radiance distribution.

    28. Smartphone-Based Android app for Determining UVA Aerosol Optical Depth and Direct Solar Irradiances (pages 233–237)

      Damien P. Igoe, Alfio Parisi and Brad Carter

      Version of Record online: 25 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12185

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      The comparison of aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 380 nm derived from an Android app specifically written and calibrated, installed on a LG Optimus L3 smartphone compared to the subsequent readings from a Microtops sun photometer. This close relationship was achieved by calibrating, testing and validating an Android app on clear days at two locations in south east Queensland, Australia.

  3. Research Notes

    1. Top of page
    2. Invited Reviews
    3. Research Articles
    4. Research Notes
    1. Novel Collimated Beam Setup to Study the Kinetics of VUV-Induced Reactions (pages 238–240)

      Clara Duca, Gustavo Imoberdorf and Madjid Mohseni

      Version of Record online: 20 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12157

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      Vacuum UV (VUV) process is an incipient advanced oxidation process (AOP), which can be used for water treatment. HO radicals are formed through the VUV-induced (185 nm) photolysis of water. Ozone generating mercury vapor lamps, which emit 10% of the radiation at 185 nm and 90% at 254 nm, are usually used for the degradation of micropollutants. Conventional UV-collimated beam setups cannot be used to study VUV processes as oxygen in air absorbs 185 nm photons. In this technical note, a new VUV-collimated beam, which allows the irradiation of samples with 185, 254 nm radiation, or both, is presented.

    2. UVA and UVB-Induced 8-Methoxypsoralen Photoadducts and a Novel Method for their Detection by Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS) (pages 241–246)

      Alexandru D. Buhimschi and Francis P. Gasparro

      Version of Record online: 17 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12171

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      Upon irradiation with ultraviolet light, a DNA intercalated 8-Methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) molecule will bind to an adjacent thymine, leading to monoadduct formation. Also shown is a SELDI-TOF MS tracing of an 8-MOP and DNA solution irradiated with 17.7 J cm−2 of UVB. Using an alternating 10 bp adenine and thymine oligonucleotide (3025 m/z), we observed the dose dependent formation of a peak at 3241 m/z, which corresponds to the combined mass of our oligonucleotide and an 8-MOP molecule. This novel protocol provided a rapid modality for assessing the overall binding efficiencies and stoichiometries of psoralen derivatives upon irradiation in the presence of DNA.

    3. Chemical Analysis of the Luminous Slime Secreted by the Marine Worm Chaetopterus (Annelida, Polychaeta) (pages 247–251)

      Bruce R. Branchini, Curran E. Behney, Tara L. Southworth, Renu Rawat and Dimitri D. Deheyn

      Version of Record online: 17 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12169

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      The marine worm Chaetopterus variopedatus produces bioluminescence by an unknown mechanism. We show that the luminous slime produced by the worm exhibits blue fluorescence that matches the bioluminescence emission suggesting that the oxyluciferin emitter is present. As the blue fluorescence decays over time green fluorescence is increasingly revealed. We determined that riboflavin is the major green fluorescent component. It is likely that riboflavin accounts for the green fluorescence observed throughout the worm and we speculate that riboflavin or a structurally related derivative serves as the emitter in the worm's light producing reaction.