Photochemistry and Photobiology

Cover image for Vol. 90 Issue 5

September'October 2014

Volume 90, Issue 5

Pages 957–1214

  1. Invited Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Invited Review
    3. Method Article
    4. Research Articles
    5. Research Notes
    6. Erratum
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Chemical and Biological Mechanisms of Pathogen Reduction Technologies (pages 957–964)

      Janna M. Mundt, Lindsay Rouse, Jeroen Van den Bossche and Raymond P. Goodrich

      Article first published online: 20 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12311

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      Illustrated summary of photochemical mechanisms for Theraflex UVC, Mirasol, Intercept and Theraflex MB pathogen reduction technologies.

  2. Method Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Invited Review
    3. Method Article
    4. Research Articles
    5. Research Notes
    6. Erratum
    1. A Tandem Mass Spectrometric Method for Singlet Oxygen Measurement (pages 965–971)

      Maarit Karonen, Heta Mattila, Ping Huang, Fikret Mamedov, Stenbjörn Styring and Esa Tyystjärvi

      Article first published online: 20 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12291

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      Singlet oxygen, a harmful reactive oxygen species, can be detected with TEMP (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine) that reacts with singlet oxygen, forming a stable nitroxyl radical called TEMPO. TEMPO has earlier been quantified with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. In this study, we show that TEMPO can be measured from both nonbiological and biological samples with an ultra–high-performance liquid chromatography—tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method. The results suggest that thylakoid membranes produce 3.7 × 10−7 molecules of singlet oxygen per chlorophyll molecule in a second when illuminated with the photosynthetic photon flux density of 2000 μmol m−2 s−1.

  3. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Invited Review
    3. Method Article
    4. Research Articles
    5. Research Notes
    6. Erratum
    1. Photophysics, Excited-state Double-Proton Transfer and Hydrogen-bonding Properties of 5-Deazaalloxazines (pages 972–988)

      Dorota Prukala, Igor Khmelinskii, Jacek Koput, Mateusz Gierszewski, Tomasz Pędziński and Marek Sikorski

      Article first published online: 5 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12289

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      Photophysics of 5-deazaalloxazine and its 1,3-methyl substituted derivatives in different solvents indicate strong influence of solvent acidity on their emission properties. The experimental results are compared to the theoretical calculations on different level of theory. Excited-state double-proton transfer of 5-deazaalloxazine in methylene chloride in the presence of acetic acid has been detected and studied.

    2. Observation of Magnetic Field Effects on Transient Fluorescence Spectra of Cryptochrome 1 From Homing Pigeons (pages 989–996)

      Xian-li Du, Jing Wang, Wei-song Pan, Qi-jun Liu, Xiao-jie Wang and Wen-jian Wu

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12276

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      Cryptochrome is suggested to be the most probable candidate magnetoreceptor in bird magnetoreception. Two members of cryptochrome/photolyase family have been found to be sensitive to the magnetic field and the magnetic sensitivity was proposed to be the general feature of this protein family. In this study, we constructed a magnetic field by Helmholtz coils and tested the magnetic field effects on the transient fluorescence of cryptochrome from homing pigeons at room temperature. Our results showed that, comparing to other flavin controls, the transient fluorescence of clCRY1 protein is sensitive to microtesla level magnetic field.

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Photophysical Properties and Singlet Oxygen Generation Efficiencies of Water-Soluble Fullerene Nanoparticles (pages 997–1003)

      Alexander S. Stasheuski, Victor A. Galievsky, Alexander P. Stupak, Boris M. Dzhagarov, Mi Jin Choi, Bong Hyun Chung and Jin Young Jeong

      Article first published online: 31 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12294

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      Conventional and time-resolved spectroscopy has been used to investigate polyhydroxylfullerene molecule and five fullerene-based nanoparticles. Our results demonstrate formation of disorder-induced states both in the polyhydroxylfullerene and in the nanoparticles.

    4. Influence of Dye Content on the Conduction Band Edge of Titania in the Steam-treated Dye-dispersing Titania Electrodes (pages 1004–1011)

      Rudi Agus Setiawan, Hiromasa Nishikiori, Nobuaki Tanaka and Tsuneo Fujii

      Article first published online: 18 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12297

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      The titania and dye-dispersing titania electrodes were prepared by a nitric acid-catalyzed sol-gel process. The dye-dispersing titania contains the dye molecules dispersed on the surface of the individual nanosized titania particles. The conduction band edge of the titania was shifted in a negative direction in the electrode containing a greater amount of the dye due to the dye-titania complex formation on the titania particle surface. The effect of the dye-titania complex formation on the shift in the titania conduction band edge was greater than that of the adsorption of nitrate ions due to strong interaction between the dye and titania.

    5. Retarded Photooxidation of Cyamemazine in Biomimetic Microenvironments (pages 1012–1016)

      Daniel Limones-Herrero, Raúl Pérez-Ruiz, Maria Consuelo Jiménez and Miguel A. Miranda

      Article first published online: 17 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12303

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      The photobehavior of cyamemazine (CMZ) has been examined within α1-acid glycoproteins, cyclodextrins and SDS micelles. Irradiation of the entrapped drug, under air, leads to the corresponding N,S-dioxide (CMZ-SONO). Within glycoproteins or SDS micelles the photooxidation reaction is clearly slower than in phosphate buffered solution, while the effect of cyclodextrins is less marked. The highest protection is achieved inside SDS micelles. The results of the steady-state irradiations in combination with laser flash photolysis studies are consistent with photoxidation of CMZ through photoionization and subsequent trapping of the resulting radical cation by oxygen, ultimately leading to CMZ-SONO.

    6. Photooxidation of Tetrahydrobiopterin under UV Irradiation: Possible Pathways and Mechanisms (pages 1017–1026)

      Andrey A. Buglak, Taisiya A. Telegina, Tamara A. Lyudnikova, Yulia L. Vechtomova and Mikhail S. Kritsky

      Article first published online: 20 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12285

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      The photochemistry of tetrahydrobiopterin (H4Bip) has never been studied, probably because it is pretty unstable. This cofactor is essential for higher organisms as it participates in several important biocatalytic reactions. We studied the photooxidation of H4Bip using HPLC and absorption spectroscopy. The process of H4Bip oxidation is induced by triplet state biopterin 3Bip. Apparently, electron transfer sensitization (Type-I mechanism) is dominant. Energy transfer (Type-II mechanism) and singlet oxygen generation play only a secondary role. The mechanisms of H4Bip photooxidation and their biological application are discussed in the context of vitiligo etiology.

    7. Excited State Photoreaction between the Indole Side Chain of Tryptophan and Halocompounds Generates New Fluorophores and Unique Modifications (pages 1027–1033)

      Carol L. Ladner, Khai Tran, Mary Le, Raymond J. Turner and Robert A. Edwards

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12279

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      Several fluorophores were produced by photoreactions between the amino acid tryptophan and halocompounds. The reaction with trihalocompounds in aqueous solution yielded products with carbonyl groups conjugated to the aromatic system at the 4 and 6 positions of the indole fluorophore and led to emission near 500 nm. This photoreaction also proceeded with monohalocompounds, but resulted in additions to the indole fluorophore without enlarging the conjugated systems so that the fluorescence properties of the indole in tryptophan did not change significantly.

    8. The Photolytic Activity of Poly-Arginine Cell Penetrating Peptides Conjugated to Carboxy-tetramethylrhodamine is Modulated by Arginine Residue Content and Fluorophore Conjugation Site (pages 1034–1042)

      Nandhini Muthukrishnan, Stephen Donovan and Jean-Philippe Pellois

      Article first published online: 3 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12288

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      Fluorophore–cell-penetrating peptide (Fl-CPP) conjugates can disrupt membranes of endocytic organelles upon light irradiation and promote the delivery of entrapped macromolecules such as proteins or nucleic acids into a cells’ cytosol. ROS production by the fluorophore and a latent lytic ability of CPPs act in synergy to elicit photolysis. In this report, using red blood cells as a model of biological membranes, we show that the number of arginine residues in a CPP as well as the position of fluorophore with respect to the CPP dramatically affect the photolytic activity of a fluorophore–CPP conjugate. These factors should therefore be considered for the development of effective photoinducible delivery agents.

    9. Possible Involvement of a Tetrahydrobiopterin in Photoreception for UV-B-induced Anthocyanin Synthesis in Carrot (pages 1043–1049)

      Junko Takeda, Rieko Nakata, Hiroshi Ueno, Akio Murakami, Mineo Iseki and Masakatsu Watanabe

      Article first published online: 15 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12302

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      On the basis of inhibitor studies in cultured carrot cells and a re-examination of action spectra reported previously, the authors propose that anthocyanin synthesis is coordinately regulated by a reduced pterin-type UV-B sensor and UVR8.

    10. Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation (UVA+UVB) on Young Gametophytes of Gelidium floridanum: Growth Rate, Photosynthetic Pigments, Carotenoids, Photosynthetic Performance, and Ultrastructure (pages 1050–1060)

      Carmen Simioni, Éder C. Schmidt, Marthiellen R. de L. Felix, Luz Karime Polo, Ticiane Rover, Marianne Kreusch, Debora T. Pereira, Fungyi Chow, Fernanda Ramlov, Marcelo Maraschin and Zenilda L. Bouzon

      Article first published online: 23 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12296

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      The radiation (PAR+UVA+UVB) on the young gametophytes of Gelidium floridanum affected the structure and resulted in depigmentation of the thallus and growth rate reduction. PAR+UVA+UVB promoted increase in cell wall thickness, increased of carotenoids compounds, accumulation of floridean starch grains in the cytoplasm and disruption of chloroplast internal organization. Photosynthetic pigments, in particular, phycoerythrin and allophycocyanin, suffered significant reduction in concentration after exposure to PAR+UVA+UVB. This result agrees with the decrease in photosynthetic performance observed after exposing to ultraviolet radiation, as measured by a decrease in the electron transport rate (ETR).

    11. Short-term UV-B Dose Stimulates Production of Protective Metabolites in Matricaria chamomilla Leaves (pages 1061–1068)

      Veronika Petruľová, Zuzana Dučaiová and Miroslav Repčák

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12300

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      Short-term irradiation with UV-A and UV-B influenced some physiological processes (photosynthesis, enzyme activity) in 7-week-old rosette leaves of chamomile and stimulated protective response. Enhanced accumulation of simple phenylpropanoid derivatives, like chlorogenic and 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, coumarin glycoside, daphnin and flavonols related to UV-stimulated PAL activity. Decreased content of free coumarins and their glycosides may indicate redirecting precursors of coumarin biosynthesis to biosynthesis of substances with higher antioxidative potential. Two chamomile cultivars, differed in ploidy level, were irradiated. Tetraploids were more damaged by oxidative stress, but in the course of experiment diploids expressed enhanced accumulation of compounds with higher antioxidative potential.

    12. The Light-Induced FOS Response in Melanopsin Expressing HEK-293 Cells is Correlated with Melanopsin Quantity and Dependent on Light Duration and Irradiance (pages 1069–1076)

      Birgitte Georg, Lene Rask, Jens Hannibal and Jan Fahrenkrug

      Article first published online: 2 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12298

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      HEK-293 cells expressing tetracycline inducible melanopsin were used to evaluate aspects of the melanopsin dependent light inducible FOS response. The FOS response's dependency on melanopsin amount and irradiance are shown to the left and right, respectively. Furthermore, we evaluated the time-course of the response to both continuous light and light followed by darkness. The study reveals new facets of melanopsin's response, which hopefully will be of value for future studies of effects mediated by melanopsin.

    13. Activation of Sperm EGFR by Light Irradiation is Mediated by Reactive Oxygen Species (pages 1077–1083)

      Shiran Shahar, Pnina Hillman, Rachel Lubart, Debby Ickowicz and Haim Breitbart

      Article first published online: 2 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12281

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      We previously showed that light irradiation of human sperm induces ROS production in the mitochondria. In turn, ROS activate voltage–dependent-Ca2+ channels causing elevation of intracellular Ca2+ which activates soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) resulting in cAMP production and PKA activation. We also show that PKA activates Src, which phosphorylates EGFR and gelsolin, resulting in increased actin polymerization and hyperactivation. Here, we show that visible-light irradiation of human spermatozoa, enhances ROS-dependent-EGFR phosphorylation/activation and actin polymerization leading to stimulation of hyperactivated motility. Moreover, light irradiation of mouse sperm enhances fertilization capacity mediated by ROS, EGFR and hyperactivated motility.

    14. Comparative Antibacterial Efficacy of Photodynamic Therapy and Ultrasonic Irrigation Against Enterococcus faecalis In Vitro (pages 1084–1088)

      Yanhuang Wang and Xiaojing Huang

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12293

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      Enterococcus faecalis is one of the primary organisms that play an important role in post-treatment endodontic failure. The results of this study shown that a synergistic root canal disinfection strategy combining ultrasonic irrigation with photodynamic therapy together had a significant effect on the viability of Enterococcus faecalis in infected root canals.

    15. Disinfection of Escherichia Coli Gram Negative Bacteria Using Surface Modified TiO2: Optimization of Ag Metallization and Depiction of Charge Transfer Mechanism (pages 1089–1098)

      LakshmipathiNaik Gomathi Devi and Basavalingaiah Nagaraj

      Article first published online: 1 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12308

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      Metallization of silver on the surface of TiO2 is carried out by the photodeposition method and its evaluation for disinfection of 10Escherichia coli cell suspension in the presence of solar light illumination is depicted.

    16. Photoactive Titania Float for Disinfection of Water; Evaluation of Cell Damage by Bioanalytical Techniques (pages 1099–1107)

      R. Shwetharani, M. S. Jyothi, P. D. Laveena and R. Geetha Balakrishna

      Article first published online: 25 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12277

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      The titania-coated polymeric float effectively disintegrates the bacteria by adsorption and diffusion to cause complete disintegration of cell membrane and thus disinfects water.

    17. Chlorin e6 Derivative Radachlorin Mainly Accumulates in Mitochondria, Lysosome and Endoplasmic Reticulum and Shows High Affinity toward Tumors in Nude Mice in Photodynamic Therapy (pages 1108–1118)

      Raktim Biswas, Jeong Hwan Moon and Jin-Chul Ahn

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12273

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      Cellular uptake and tumor affinity of chlorin e6 photosensitizer, radachlorin were studied in anaplastic thyroid cancer cells and xenograft nude mice model. Results showed radachlorin mainly accumulated in mitochondria and partially in lysosome and endoplasmic reticulum. It showed a higher accumulation in tumor site within 3–6 h and was further cleared from the tumor in next 24–48 h. Radachlorin also showed a higher efficacy in photodynamic therapy after 6 h of drug injection. Therefore, the knowledge of possible sites and time of photosensitizers accumulation in tumor cells may help in optimizing the efficacy of PDT.

    18. “Pointsource” Delivery of a Photosensitizer Drug and Singlet Oxygen: Eradication of Glioma Cells In Vitro (pages 1119–1125)

      Ashwini A. Ghogare, Imran Rizvi, Tayyaba Hasan and Alexander Greer

      Article first published online: 21 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12274

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      A sensitizer-tipped microoptic device for the eradication of glioma U87 cells is described. The device has a porous silica tip that emits 1O2 molecules and small quantities of pheophorbide sensitizer for additional production of 1O2 in the immediate vicinity. The implication of these results for a new PDT tool of hard-to-resect tumors, e.g. in the brain, is discussed.

    19. Combination of Oral Vitamin D3 with Photodynamic Therapy Enhances Tumor Cell Death in a Murine Model of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma (pages 1126–1135)

      Sanjay Anand, Kishore R. Rollakanti, Ronald L. Horst, Tayyaba Hasan and Edward V. Maytin

      Article first published online: 25 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12286

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      We report the results of a preclinical study in mice, showing that a combination of oral vitamin D (vit D3) and PDT can improve therapeutic killing of subcutaneous SCC tumors without the risk of hypercalcemia usually associated with calcitriol, the active hormonal form of vit D3. Dietary supplementation with vit D3 (10 days) enhanced PpIX levels, promoted tumor differentiation and proliferation and resulted in enhanced tumor cell death following PDT. These data suggest that a clinical study using oral vit D3 prior to PDT could establish a promising new approach for effective therapy of nonmelanoma skin cancer.

    20. Neurotransmitter Transporter Family Including SLC6A6 and SLC6A13 Contributes to the 5-Aminolevulinic Acid (ALA)-Induced Accumulation of Protoporphyrin IX and Photodamage, through Uptake of ALA by Cancerous Cells (pages 1136–1143)

      Tai Tien Tran, Anfeng Mu, Yuka Adachi, Yasushi Adachi and Shigeru Taketani

      Article first published online: 23 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12290

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      GABA-related compounds, including taurine and β-alanine inhibited the ALA-induced accumulation of protoporphyrin in colon canerous cells. The expression of Na+- and Cl-dependent neurotransmitter transporter SLC6A6 and SLC6A13 increased the uptake of ALA by the cells, the ALA-induced accumulation of protoporphyrin and photodamage. Silencing of SLC6A6 and SLC6A13 reduced the accumulation of protoporphyrin. Based on observations that SLC6A6 and SLC6A13 were expressed in various cancerous cells and in adenocarcinoma cells, neurotransmitter transporters are involved in the uptake of ALA, followed by ALA-PDT.

    21. 5-Aminolevulinic acid-Loaded Fullerene Nanoparticles for In Vitro and In Vivo Photodynamic Therapy (pages 1144–1149)

      Zhi Li, Li-Li Pan, Fei-Long Zhang, Xia-Li Zhu, Yang Liu and Zhen-Zhong Zhang

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12299

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      Nonfluorescent C60-5-ALA is taken up by tumor cells and then induces the biosynthesis and accumulation of fluorescent protoporphyrin IX (PpIX).

    22. Therapeutic Effect of Irradiation of Magnetic Infrared Laser on Osteoarthritis Rat Model (pages 1150–1159)

      Chul-Hwan Moon, Ogon Kwon, Chang-Hoon Woo, Hee-Duk Ahn, Young-Sam Kwon, Soo-Jin Park, Chang-Hyun Song and Sae-Kwang Ku

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12304

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      Eight rats per group received a surgical operation for osteoarthritis (OA) or sham. Controls for sham (A) and OA (B) had no treatment, and other OA models were treated with either of diclofenac sodium at 2 mg kg−1 (Diclofenac, C) as a reference or magnetic infrared laser (MIL) at 6.65 J cm−2 (D), 2.66 J cm−2 (E) and 1.33 J cm−2 (F) with constant magnetic field. Comparing to OA control, 4-week MIL treatment improved maximum extension angle of knee joint dose dependently. Histopathological analyses revealed that the MIL treatment inhibits the cartilage degradation. Together with other results, these suggest that MIL can be useful for OA treatment.

    23. Therapeutic Effects of Full Spectrum Light on the Development of Atopic Dermatitis-like Lesions in NC/Nga Mice (pages 1160–1169)

      Tae-Rin Kwon, Seog Kyun Mun, Chang Taek Oh, Hyuckki Hong, Yeon Shik Choi, Bong-Jun Kim and Beom Joon Kim

      Article first published online: 19 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12284

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      Full spectrum light includes UVA, visible light and infrared light. FSL phototherapy exerts positive therapeutic effects on Df-induced AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice by reducing IgE levels, thus promoting recovery of the skin barrier. The mechanisms by which FSL phototherapy exerts its effects may involve the inhibition of scratching behavior, reduction of IL-6 levels and reductions in the levels of expression of adhesion molecules. The present study indicates that FSL phototherapy inhibits the development of AD in NC/Nga mice by suppressing the expression of cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules, and thus could potentially be useful in treating AD.

    24. Ultraviolet Erythematic Radiation Dose Received by Golfers in Winter, in Valencia (pages 1170–1173)

      Gonzalo Gurrea Ysasi, Juan Carlos Moreno and María Antonia Serrano

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12295

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      This article analyzes Ultraviolet Erythematic Radiation (UVER) dose received by several golf players in winter in Valencia. Playing golf involves spending several hours outdoors because of the length of golf matches and training. Moreover, in Valencia there are many golf players coming from northern Europe, with a very sensitive phototype (I–II). For that reason these people have an increased risk while playing. This article shows that harmful effects coming from UVER radiation may occur not only in summer time but also in winter, especially at cities with a latitude similar to Valencia's one (39°28′N, 0°22′W).

    25. Risk of Ocular Exposure to Biologically Effective UV Radiation in Different Geographical Directions (pages 1174–1183)

      Fang Wang, Liwen Hu, Qian Gao, Yanyan Gao, Guangcong Liu, Yang Zheng and Yang Liu

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12287

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      The image shows the distributions of the 1-h cumulative effective radiant exposure (Heye, in J m−2) in 60 geographical directions. The maximum 1-h cumulative Heye values in the six trials ranged from 45 to 59 J m−2. The dangerous periods in summer (Trials 1–3) occurred between 9:00 and 10:00 CST around east and between 15:00 and 16:00 CST around west. In Trials 4–6, the dangerous period was at noon (12:00–13:00 CST) around south. The higher risk of eye caused by biologically effective UV radiation varies according to the midday maximum SEA corresponding to different geographical direction.

    26. On the Role of Exponential Smoothing in Circadian Dosimetry (pages 1184–1192)

      Luke L. A. Price

      Article first published online: 24 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12282

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      Exponential smoothing is used to convert noisy light exposure time series into circadian variables for amplitude, phase and duration of light exposures (or photoperiod). This modifies the reciprocity view of dose calculation, and matches the duration-response of melatonin suppression to light. As well as applying these calculations to personal light exposures, available light exposures within buildings can be analyzed using these metrics to investigate the effects of design on circadian entrainment. Data for a sample of private UK dwellings are analyzed in contrasting seasons.

    27. Sun exposure and Protection Behavior of Danish Farm Children: Parental Influence on Their Children (pages 1193–1198)

      Mette Bodekær Larsen, Bibi Petersen, Peter Alshede Philipsen, Antony Young, Elisabeth Thieden and Hans Christian Wulf

      Article first published online: 21 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12280

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      We examined sun exposure and protection behavior in children, and the association to their parents. Sun behavior was recorded daily during summer (15 985 diary days) and the Pigment Protection Factor (PPF) was used as an objective measure of sun exposure. Risk behavior (upper body sun exposure) was exhibited on 9.5 days (boys) and 15.6 days (girls). Sunburn and sunscreen use were infrequent. Boys’ and girls’ sun exposure produced an increased photo protection of 1.7 and 0.9 SED (upper arm), respectively, and 0.8 and 0.5 SED (shoulder), respectively. Boys’ sunscreen use and girls’ number of risk days and sun exposure correlated with their mothers.

    28. New Advances in Protection Against Solar Ultraviolet Radiation in Textiles for Summer Clothing (pages 1199–1206)

      José Aguilera, María Victoria de Gálvez, Cristina Sánchez-Roldán and Enrique Herrera-Ceballos

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12292

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      Microscopic analysis of different types of fabrics used in traditional summer clothing shows differences in structure, yarn and composition. Five different types of fabric were classified as follows: linen shirts (A), polyester shirts (B), T-shirts (C), polo T-shirts (D) and the latest generation of sport textiles (E), which leads to different abilities of light transmission, namely cover. Ultraviolet protection factor, based on the potential of protection against the erythematic fraction of UV radiation increases exponentially as the fabric cover does.

  4. Research Notes

    1. Top of page
    2. Invited Review
    3. Method Article
    4. Research Articles
    5. Research Notes
    6. Erratum
    1. Preliminary Ultrasonication Affects the Rate of the Bacteriorhodopsin Bleaching and the Effectiveness of the Reconstitution Process in Bacterioopsin (pages 1207–1210)

      Anna B. Druzhko and Sergey K. Pirutin

      Article first published online: 21 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12275

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      A high-concentrated BR suspension is bleached in a PHA reaction at a very low rate. To accelerate this reaction the preliminary ultrasonication (kGz range) has been used. This is largely responsible for increasing the rate of this reaction and high quality of resulted apomembrane. A further process of apomembrane reconstitution with retinal relies upon preliminary ultrasonication (kGz range) of a high-concentrated apomembrane either. After ultrasonication the effectiveness of reconstitution has been increased. The quantitative characteristics of two processes depend upon types of BR strains. So, we offer a simple way to enhance the PM bleaching and AM reconstitution.

    2. Reversible Effects of Photodamage Directed Toward Mitochondria (pages 1211–1213)

      David Kessel

      Article first published online: 14 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12283

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      Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) directly after mitochondrial photodamage predicts for the subsequent loss of viability as determined by a clonogenic assay. MitoTracker Orange was used as the fluorescent probe for Δψm.

  5. Erratum

    1. Top of page
    2. Invited Review
    3. Method Article
    4. Research Articles
    5. Research Notes
    6. Erratum
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