Photochemistry and Photobiology

Cover image for Vol. 90 Issue 6

November/December 2014

Volume 90, Issue 6

Pages 1215–1469, E1–E7

  1. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Highlight Article
    4. Research Articles
    5. Research Notes
    6. List of Reviewers
    1. Editorial (2014, issue 6) (page 1215)

      Jean Cadet

      Article first published online: 14 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12364

  2. Highlight Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Highlight Article
    4. Research Articles
    5. Research Notes
    6. List of Reviewers
    1. Photoactive Chitosan: A Step Toward a Green Strategy for Pollutant Degradation (pages 1216–1218)

      Niluksha Walalawela and Alexander Greer

      Article first published online: 16 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12355

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      This article highlights the work of Ferrari et al. who describe the use of rose bengal-chitosan conjugate as a reusable green photosensitizer that degrades phenolic compounds in aqueous media.

  3. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Highlight Article
    4. Research Articles
    5. Research Notes
    6. List of Reviewers
    1. Study of the Photodegradation Kinetics and Pathways of Hexaflumuron in Liquid Media (pages 1219–1223)

      Chengying Lu, Xing Yin, Xiaofeng Liu and Minghua Wang

      Article first published online: 12 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12314

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      1. The photodegradation kinetics of hexaflumuron under irradiation were investigated.
      2. Effects of light sources, pH values, organic solvents and water substances on hexaflumuron photodegradation were analyzed.
      3. Three photodegradation products were identified by GC-MS and the presumed photodegradation pathways of hexaflumuron in methanol were proposed.
    2. Rapid Sonosynthesis of N-Doped Nano TiO2 on Wool Fabric at Low Temperature: Introducing Self-cleaning, Hydrophilicity, Antibacterial/Antifungal Properties with low Alkali Solubility, Yellowness and Cytotoxicity (pages 1224–1233)

      Amir Behzadnia, Majid Montazer, Abousaeid Rashidi and Mahnaz Mahmoudi Rad

      Article first published online: 6 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12324

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      A novel simple short time in situ sonosynthesis method for simultaneous synthesis of N-doped TiO2 on wool is introduced. This is provided through treatment of wool fabric in ultrasound bath including TTIP in water/ethanol at pH = 7.5 (using ammonia) and 80°C for 1 h. This produces wool fabric with self-cleaning, antibacterial/antifungal and hydrophilicity properties with lower yellowness and alkali solubility at higher tensile strength along with no cytotoxicity. All of these confirmed through different analysis techniques and optimized through RSM.

    3. Photocatalysis of Chloroform Decomposition by Tetrachlorocuprate (II) on Dowex 2-X8 (pages 1234–1242)

      Brent M. Harvey and Patrick E. Hoggard

      Article first published online: 25 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12336

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      In the presence of CuCl42- heterogenized on a Dowex anion exchange resin, chloroform is decomposed under irradiation at wavelengths above 345 nm.

    4. Photocatalytic Degradation of Glyphosate in Water by N-Doped SnO2/TiO2 Thin-Film-Coated Glass Fibers (pages 1243–1250)

      Peerawas Kongsong, Lek Sikong, Sutham Niyomwas and Vishnu Rachpech

      Article first published online: 25 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12338

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      The N-doped SnO2/TiO2 films were prepared via sol–gel method, and coated on E-glass fibers by dipping method. Nitrogen doping resulted in shifting the absorption wavelength and narrowing the band gap energy leads to enhancement of photocatalytic performance. The optimal 20N/SnO2/TiO2 composite thin film exhibits about four-folds of glyphosate degradation rates compared to TiO2 and undoped SnO2/TiO2 as the tests performed under solar light irradiation.

    5. The Employment of a Removable Chitosan-Derivatized Polymeric Sensitizer in the Photooxidation of Polyhydroxylated Water-Pollutants (pages 1251–1256)

      Gabriela V. Ferrari, María E. Andrada, José Natera, Vanesa A. Muñoz, M. Paulina Montaña, Carolina Gambetta, María L. Boiero, Mariana A. Montenegro, Walter A. Massad and Norman A. García

      Article first published online: 13 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12350

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      The known O2(1g)-sensitizer system Chitosan-bounded-Rose Bengal (CH-RB), with the dye immobilized by irreversible covalent bonding to the polymer Chitosan (CH), soluble in aqueous acidic medium, was employed in the photodegradation of tri-hydroxy benzene water-contaminants (THBs). The system sensitizes the O2(1g)-mediated photodegradation of THBs. The polymeric sensitizer, totally insoluble in neutral medium, can be removed from the solution after the photodegradative cycle by precipitation through a simple pH change.

    6. Photooxidation of Tryptophan Leading to 2-Aminoacetophenone – A Possible Reason for the Untypical Aging Off-flavor in Wine (pages 1257–1263)

      Nora Horlacher and Wolfgang Schwack

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12321

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      2-Aminoacetophenone (AAP) is known as the key compound for the so-called untypical aging off-flavor (UTA) in Vitis vinifera wines. In the present work we show that photooxidation of tryptophan (free and bound) in combination with a subsequent storage in model wine leads to the formation of AAP. Furthermore, we could show that the AAP formation mechanism proceeds via N-formyl-2-aminoacetophenone (FAP), but not exclusively. Both time of irradiation and time of storage in model wines greatly favored the formation of AAP.

    7. Enhanced Light-Harvesting Capacity by Micellar Assembly of Free Accessory Chromophores and LH1-like Antennas (pages 1264–1276)

      Michelle A. Harris, Tuba Sahin, Jianbing Jiang, Pothiappan Vairaprakash, Pamela S. Parkes-Loach, Dariusz M. Niedzwiedzki, Christine Kirmaier, Paul A. Loach, David F. Bocian, Dewey Holten and Jonathan S. Lindsey

      Article first published online: 5 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12319

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      Biohybrid light-harvesting antennas have been created that comprise LH1-like biohybrid architectures (with or without an attached synthetic bacteriochlorin) and free synthetic chromophores (hydrophobic boron-dipyrrin dye or an amphiphilic bacteriochlorin) in detergent micelles. The synthetic chromophores transfer energy directly or via relay processes to the bacteriochlorophyll acceptor array (B875) of the LH1-like cyclic oligomers.

    8. Self-aggregation of Synthetic Zinc Chlorophyll Derivatives Possessing 31-Hydroxy or Methoxy Group and 131-Mono- or Dicyanomethylene Moiety in Nonpolar Organic Solvents as Models of Chlorosomal Bacteriochlorophyll-d Aggregates (pages 1277–1286)

      Hitoshi Tamiaki, Masaki Kuno and Masaki Ohata

      Article first published online: 1 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12327

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      A synthetic zinc chlorophyll-a derivative possessing the 31-hydroxy and 131-dicyanomethylene groups self-aggregated in 1% THF–hexane despite lacking the 131-oxo moiety as a hydrogen-bonding acceptor to give chlorosome-like large oligomers with its Qy band at a near-infrared region.

    9. What Caused the Formation of the Absorption Maximum at 421 nm in vivo Spectra of Rhodopseudomonas palustris (pages 1287–1292)

      Chungui Zhao, Huiying Yue, Qianru Cheng, Shicheng Chen and Suping Yang

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12334

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      The 421 nm peak is frequently observed in various absorption spectra. However, less attention is attracted to examine its spectral origin. This study explored the formation origin of the absorption maximum at 421 nm in vivo with Rhodopseudomonas palustris for the first time. Our results ascertain that the 421 nm peak was a consequence of incorporation of magnesium protoporphyrin IX monomethylester (MPE), its accumulation inside cells could result in the formation of 421 nm peak. In addition, a simple, rapid, minimum interference and selective extraction strategy for MPE was developed. This work will helpful to characterize rationally the absorption spectra.

    10. Directed Improvement of Luciferin Regenerating Enzyme Binding Properties: Implication of Some Conserved Residues in Luciferin-Binding Domain (pages 1293–1298)

      Roohullah Hemmati, Reza H. Sajedi, Nuredin Bakhtiari and Saman Hosseinkhani

      Article first published online: 22 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12328

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      The addition of T-LRE single mutant T69R (LRE from Iranian firefly L. turkestanicus) to luciferin–luciferase reaction leads to decrease in bioluminescence decay over the time in comparison with wild-type T-LRE and control.

    11. The Effects of NO3− Supply on Mazzaella laminarioides (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales) from Southern Chile (pages 1299–1307)

      Nelso P. Navarro, Félix L. Figueroa, Nathalie Korbee, Andrés Mansilla, Betty Matsuhiro, Tamara Barahona and Estela M. Plastino

      Article first published online: 30 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12344

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      The effect of inline image on Mazzaella laminarioides was evident by the preferential accumulation of mycosporine-glycine, rather than total MAAs. The fact that mycosporine-glycine, but not total MAAs, was increased could have resulted from interconversions among different MAAs. Synthesis and accumulation of compounds with antioxidant activities, such as mycosporine-glycine, could play an important ecological role.

    12. The Effects of UV-B Radiation Intensity on Biochemical Parameters and Active Ingredients in Flowers of Qi Chrysanthemum and Huai Chrysanthemum (pages 1308–1313)

      Xiao-Qin Yao, Jian-Zhou Chu, Xue-Li He and Chao Si

      Article first published online: 8 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12329

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      The article mainly studied UV-B effects on active ingredients in flowers of two chrysanthemum varieties during the bud stage. The experiment included four UV-B radiation levels (CK, ambient UV-B; T1, T2 and T3 indicated a 5%, 10% and 15% increase in ambient UV-BBE, respectively). The results indicated that appropriate UV-B radiation intensity did not result in the decrease in flower yield, and could increase chlorogenic acid and flavone content in flowers of two varieties.

    13. Cellular Changes Associated with the Acclimation of the Intertidal Sea Anemone Actinia tenebrosa to Ultraviolet Radiation (pages 1314–1323)

      Victor M. Cubillos, Miles D. Lamare, Barrie M. Peake and David J. Burritt

      Article first published online: 18 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12310

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      Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) levels in summer (A) and winter (B) UV-B-acclimated Actinia tenebrosa exposed to four radiation treatments (P [PAR], PA [PAR + UVA], PAB [PAR + UVA + UVB] and PAB-20% [PAR + UVA + UVB-20%]). Animals sampled in summer, exposed to artificially enhanced levels of UV-B and allowed to recover following exposure, showed no accumulation of CPDs over a 4-day experimental period. In contrast, organisms sampled in winter accumulated CPDs in a dose-dependent manner.

    14. UVB Irradiation Enhances TiO2 Nanoparticle-induced Disruption of Calcium Homeostasis in Human Lens Epithelial Cells (pages 1324–1331)

      Qiuxin Wu, Dadong Guo, Yuxiang Du, Dongmei Liu, Daoguang Wang and Hongsheng Bi

      Article first published online: 9 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12322

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      The scheme illustrates the possible pathway of intracellular Ca2+ elevation mediated by plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA). Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) were generated after HLE B-3 cells exposure to TiO2 NPs in the presence of UVB irradiation and the level of intracellular calcium ions was further elevated. The excessive ROS and the elevated intracellular Ca2+ level are both harmful to HLE B-3 cells via decreasing the expression of PMCA1 at gene and protein levels and inhibiting the Ca2+-ATPase activity, and further aggravate the disrupted intracellular calcium homeostasis, initiate Ca2+-dependent cellular apoptosis/necrosis signaling pathway and finally cause cell death.

    15. In Vitro Investigations on the Effect of Dermal Fibroblasts on Keratinocyte Responses to Ultraviolet B Radiation (pages 1332–1339)

      Tara L. Fernandez, Derek R. Van Lonkhuyzen, Rebecca A. Dawson, Michael G. Kimlin and Zee Upton

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12317

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      Cellular cross-talk between dermal fibroblasts and epidermal keratinocytes is critical for orchestrating cutaneous repair and regeneration. Herein, we describe the influence of keratinocyte–fibroblast interactions on key processes in the ultraviolet B photoresponse. Importantly, fibroblast-produced factors were observed to enhance keratinocyte survival and DNA repair by regulating the expression of specific apoptotic and cell cycle regulation proteins.

    16. Development of Refractoriness of HO-1 Induction to a Second Treatment with UVA Radiation and the Involvement of Nrf2 in Human Skin Fibroblasts (pages 1340–1348)

      Julia Li Zhong, Chintan M. Raval, Muhammad Farrukh Nisar, ChunXiang Bian, Jin Zhang, Li Yang and Rex M. Tyrrell

      Article first published online: 27 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12343

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      HO-1 refractoriness following a second dose of UVA irradiation: Lack of heme and lack of de novo Nrf2 activation will contribute to the development of refractoriness of the HO-1 protein to reinduction by a challenge dose of UVA. Low basal (A) and high level of HO-1 protein induction following UVA (B); HO-1 refractoriness of UVA/UVA (C).

    17. Red Light Interferes in UVA-Induced Photoaging of Human Skin Fibroblast Cells (pages 1349–1358)

      Tianhui Niu, Yan Tian, Qu Ren, Lizhao Wei, Xiaoxin Li and Qing Cai

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12316

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      This study demonstrated the use of LED red light with a wavelength of 633 nm leads to an attenuation of subtoxic UVA irradiation-induced skin photoaging. Red light intervention decreased the expression of senescence-associated β-galactosidase, upregulated SIRT1 expression, decreased matrix metalloproteinase MMP-1 and the acetylation of p53 expression. Our results suggest that red light plays a key role in the antiphotoaging of human skin fibroblasts by acting on different signaling transduction pathways.

    18. Validation and Application of a Model of Oxygen Consumption and Diffusion During Photodynamic Therapy In Vitro (pages 1359–1367)

      Mark A. Weston and Michael S. Patterson

      Article first published online: 1 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12320

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      Previously acquired phosphorescence signals generated during Pd(II) meso-Tetra(4-carboxyphenyl) porphine-PDT of cells in monolayers and suspensions are shown to be well described by PDT oxygen diffusion models. The diffusion models are used to determine the photodynamic oxygen consumption rates and in essence the treatment fluence rates, that maximize PDT dose in each of the treatment geometries. The cell suspension diffusion model was extended to describe multicell tumor spheroids. Due to large anoxic cores that develop during PDT, much less PDT dose is delivered to spheroids in comparison with similar treatments in cell suspensions and cell monolayers.

    19. Hypericin Damages the Ectatic Capillaries in a Roman Cockscomb Model and Inhibits the Growth of Human Endothelial Cells More Potently Than Hematoporphyrin Does through Induction of Apoptosis (pages 1368–1375)

      Zhuo-heng Li, De-sheng Meng, Yuan-yuan Li, Lai-chun Lu, Cai-ping Yu, Qian Zhang, Hai-yan Guan, Chen-wen Li, Xue Yang and Ruo-qiu Fu

      Article first published online: 9 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12323

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      Hypericin possesses more potent effects than hematoporphyrin in inhibition of growth and induction of apoptosis in a Roman Cockscomb Model and HUVECs.

    20. Design of a Gd-DOTA-Phthalocyanine Conjugate Combining MRI Contrast Imaging and Photosensitization Properties as a Potential Molecular Theranostic (pages 1376–1386)

      Duygu Aydın Tekdaş, Ruslan Garifullin, Berna Şentürk, Yunus Zorlu, Umut Gundogdu, Ergin Atalar, Ayse B. Tekinay, Alexander A. Chernonosov, Yusuf Yerli, Fabienne Dumoulin, Mustafa O. Guler, Vefa Ahsen and Ayşe Gül Gürek

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12332

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      A Gd-DOTA-phthalocyanine conjugate designed to combine MRI contrast imaging and photosensitization properties as a potential molecular theranostic has been prepared. The singlet oxygen generation ability of the phthalocyanine core is retained. Relaxivity of the complex is suitable for imaging purposes. The conjugate is well internalized in MCF-7 cells.

    21. Photodynamic Inactivation of Bacterial and Yeast Biofilms With a Cationic Porphyrin (pages 1387–1396)

      Sandra Beirão, Sara Fernandes, Joel Coelho, Maria A. F. Faustino, João P. C. Tomé, Maria G. P. M. S. Neves, Augusto C. Tomé, Adelaide Almeida and Angela Cunha

      Article first published online: 22 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12331

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      Irradiation with white light up to an energy dose of 64.8 J cm−2 in the presence of 20 µm of the cationic porphyrin 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(1-methylpyridinium-4-yl)porphyrin tetra-iodide caused a reduction of 3–6 log in the concentration of viable cells in biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans and a 81% decrease in the concentration of polysaccharides in the matrix of P. aeruginosa biofilms. The results indicate that the biofilm matrix may be a primary target of photodynamic damage.

    22. Simultaneous Irradiation with Different Wavelengths of Ultraviolet Light has Synergistic Bactericidal Effect on Vibrio parahaemolyticus (pages 1397–1403)

      Mutsumi Nakahashi, Kazuaki Mawatari, Akiko Hirata, Miki Maetani, Takaaki Shimohata, Takashi Uebanso, Yasuhiro Hamada, Masatake Akutagawa, Yousuke Kinouchi and Akira Takahashi

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12309

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      Bactericidal damages induced by UVA (320–400 nm) and UVC (<280 nm) are different. In this study, we revealed that simultaneous irradiation with UVA-LED (365 nm) and UVC (254 nm) induced bactericidal synergistic effects and suppressed the recovery of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs). The synergistic effect was absent in SOS response-deficient strains, such as the recA and lexA mutants. Because recA- and lexA- mediated SOS responses have crucial roles in DNA repair pathway, the synergistic bactericidal effect produced by the simultaneous irradiation could depend on suppression of the CPDs repair. This simultaneous irradiation is a candidate new procedure for effective water disinfection.

    23. Antitumor Effect of Sinoporphyrin Sodium-Mediated Photodynamic Therapy on Human Esophageal Cancer Eca-109 Cells (pages 1404–1412)

      Jianmin Hu, Xiaobing Wang, Quanhong Liu, Kun Zhang, Wenli Xiong, Chuanshan Xu, Pan Wang and Albert Wingnang Leung

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12333

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      The chemical structure of DVDMS.

    24. Specific Features of Early Stage of the Wound Healing Process Occurring Against the Background of Photodynamic Therapy Using Fotoditazin Photosensitizer–Amphiphilic Polymer Complexes (pages 1413–1422)

      Tatiana G. Rudenko, Anatoly B. Shekhter, Anna E. Guller, Nadezhda A. Aksenova, Nikolay N. Glagolev, Andrey V. Ivanov, Ruben K. Aboyants, Svetlana L. Kotova and Anna B. Solovieva

      Article first published online: 20 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12340

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      Here we analyze the effects of Fotoditazin, a e6 chlorine derivative, and its complexes with amphiphilic polymers, on the early stage of wound healing in a rat model. In this hematoxylin–eosin stained tissue (magnification ×200) one can see the difference between an untreated wound (1) with a thick fibrinous-leucocytic layer and immature granulation tissue, and a wound treated with the Fotoditazin–Pluronic 127 complex (2), showing relatively mature granulation tissue with vertical capillaries. Compositions of Fotoditazin and amphiphilic polymers, especially Pluronic F127, probably have a great potential for therapy of wounds.

    25. Observation of In vivo Morphologic Changes after Carbon Dioxide Ablative Fractional Laser in a Mouse Model Using Noninvasive Imaging Modalities and Comparison with Histologic Examination (pages 1423–1426)

      Kwang Ho Yoo, Tae Rin Kwon, So Young Kim, Yi Seop Song, Young Sook Cheon, Yu Mi Kim, In Kwon Yeo, Eun Jung Ko, Kapsok Li, Myeung Nam Kim and Beom Joon Kim

      Article first published online: 22 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12313

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      The ability to observe skin changes in vivo is important when evaluating the efficacy of laser treatment. This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of the CO2 ablative fractional laser through using noninvasive imaging modalities (Folliscope® and Visioscan 98®) and tissue analysis. Although numerous previous reports have described a similar function of this laser in in vivo skin specimens, in this study we analyzed treatment effectiveness by noninvasive imaging modalities. Based on our data, we suggest that these technologies may be useful alternative modalities for assessing laser ablation that are easier to perform and less invasive than skin biopsy.

    26. Skin Responses to Micro Scale Field Size of Solar-Simulated Radiation – Preliminary Evaluation by Reflectance Confocal Microscopy in vivo (pages 1427–1432)

      InSeok Seo, Melissa Chu, Paulo R. Bargo and Nikiforos Kollias

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12348

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      We investigated the link between the areas of exposure from solar-simulated radiation and that of cellular changes, delayed erythema and pigmentation, and to determine if a microscopic skin site might be used when photo testing is necessary in clinical studies of photodermatoses or in testing for protection by various modalities. Through the use of micro scale beam size for radiation we were able to visualize spatially dissimilar skin responses of delayed erythema and pigmentation suggesting different cellular mechanisms.

    27. The Injury and Cumulative Effects on Human Skin by UV Exposure from Artificial Fluorescence Emission (pages 1433–1438)

      Yan Tian, Wei Liu, TianHui Niu, CaiHong Dai, Xiaoxin Li, Caijuan Cui, Xinyan Zhao, Yaping E and Hui Lu

      Article first published online: 4 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12315

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      The injury and cumulative effects of UV emission from compact fluorescence lamp (CFL) were studied on human skin. (A) HE staining. The thickness of the cuticle and epidermis increased. Dermal collagen fibers were clumped and aggregated with light color and unclear staining; (B) Elastic fiber staining. Fragmentation of the elastic fibers and intermittent zonal distribution was observed; (C) MMP-1 expression. The staining intensity of MMP-1 increased; (D) SIRT1 expression. Both staining intensity and area of SIRT1 increased; (E) p53 expression. The staining intensity of p53 expression increased.

    28. Sun protection Provided by Regulation School Uniforms in Australian Schools: An Opportunity to Improve Personal Sun protection During Childhood (pages 1439–1445)

      Denise Turner and Simone L. Harrison

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12312

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      Ultra violet exposure during the childhood years is linked to the development of melanocytic nevi (moles) which are a risk factor for the development cutaneous melanoma. Sun-protective clothing protects the skin from ultra violet radiation, reducing the development of melanocytic nevi and skin cancer risk. Simple alterations to school uniforms (such as slightly longer sleeves and hems) would increase body surface area covered without causing heat stress. Sensibly designed school uniforms/clothing would be a practical way to protect school children from ultra violet radiation. Body surface area covered needs to be added to clothing standards.

    29. Improving Photoprotection Attitudes in the Tropics: Sunburn vs Vitamin D (pages 1446–1454)

      Abel A. Silva

      Article first published online: 13 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12347

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      Time in the Sun for adequate Standard Vitamin D dose (SDD) in the Tropics for cloudless days in the winter and summer. The annual average SDD is 210 J m−2.

    30. Sun Exposure and Vitamin D Status as Northeast Asian Migrants Become Acculturated to Life in Australia (pages 1455–1461)

      Shuyu Guo, Peter Gies, Kerryn King and Robyn M Lucas

      Article first published online: 13 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12349

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      In this community-based study of 100 Northeast-Asian immigrants in Canberra, Australia, we examined predictors of vitamin D status, its association with indicators of acculturation (English language use; time since migration) and mediators of that association. In a multiple linear regression model, predictors for 25(OH)D concentration were season of blood collection, vitamin D supplementation, UVR exposure, body mass index, physical activity and having private health insurance. Greater acculturation was associated with lower risk of vitamin D deficiency (de-seasonalized 25(OH)D level <50 nmol L−1); this association was statistically mediated by physical activity and time outdoors. Vitamin D deficiency was associated with higher total cholesterol levels. This figure shows that the odds of having higher cholesterol decrease with higher 25(OH)D levels.

  4. Research Notes

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Highlight Article
    4. Research Articles
    5. Research Notes
    6. List of Reviewers
    1. Photoactive Hybrid Materials of Lanthanide (Eu3+, Tb3+, Sm3+) Beta-Diketonates and Polymer Resin Through Ionic Liquid Bridge (pages 1462–1466)

      Ying Mei and Bing Yan

      Article first published online: 31 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12307

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      A special multifunctional ionic liquid compound (1-methyl-3-(2-(thiocarboxyoxy)-ethyl)-2H-imidazole-1,3-diium bromide (SHIL)) is engaged as the chemical bridge to link lanthanide beta-diketonates and polymer sphere-like resin to construct the hybrid materials Ln(L)4-SHIL-WR/MR. The results provide a novel path to construct photofunctional hybrids for further device application.

    2. Hydroxyl Radical as an Unlikely Key Intermediate in the Photodegradation of Emerging Pollutants (pages 1467–1469)

      Gemma M. Rodriguez-Muñiz, Juan Gomis, Antonio Arques, Ana M. Amat, M. Luisa Marin and Miguel A. Miranda

      Article first published online: 6 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12325

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      In the real (diluted) emerging pollutants (EPs)-containing waters, quenching of the short-lived ·OH must be very inefficient. In other words, EPs photodegradation cannot purely rely on the generation and reaction of ·OH. Hence, alternative pathways have to be considered to explain the oxidative photodegradation of EPs actually achieved under AOPs conditions.

  5. List of Reviewers

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Highlight Article
    4. Research Articles
    5. Research Notes
    6. List of Reviewers