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Photochemistry and Photobiology

Cover image for Vol. 91 Issue 1

January/February 2015

Volume 91, Issue 1

Pages 1–251

  1. Invited Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Invited Reviews
    3. Research Articles
    4. Introduction to the Special Issue commemorating the 65th birthday of Craig A. Elmets
    5. Special Issue Invited Reviews
    6. Special Issue Research Articles
    7. Erratum
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      Recent Advances in the Application of Chlorophyll a Fluorescence from Photosystem II (pages 1–14)

      Ya Guo and Jinglu Tan

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12362

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      This review summarizes the literature on the applications of chlorophyll a fluorescence from photosystem II of plants published in the latest 10 years. Areas of application covered include: (1) plant senescence, damage, virus and diseases; (2) nutrient status; (3) salt stress; (4) chilling stress; (5) heat stress; (6) herbicides; (7) metal pollution; (8) aquatic ecosystems; (9) drought stress and (10) selection of stress-resistant species.

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      UV Signature Mutations (pages 15–26)

      Douglas E. Brash

      Article first published online: 28 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12377

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      Inverse relationship of canonical mutation patterns and mutation signatures for inferring the mutagen from mutations. Two mutagens are illustrated. A mutagen's canonical mutations deviate from random base changes, establishing a pattern typical for that mutagen. Different mutagens can produce the same canonical mutations (non-informative mutations). Signature mutations are the subset of canonical mutations that, in addition, are unique to that mutagen and permit inference backward from mutations to mutagen. A mutagen therefore produces signature mutations plus non-informative mutations. The latter are real and are produced by the mutagen, but are not useful for identifying that mutagen or carcinogen.

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      Oculocutaneous Albinism in Sub-Saharan Africa: Adverse Sun-Associated Health Effects and Photoprotection (pages 27–32)

      Caradee Y. Wright, Mary Norval and Richard W. Hertle

      Article first published online: 8 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12359

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      Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is a genetically inherited autosomal recessive condition. Individuals with OCA lack melanin and therefore are susceptible to the harmful effects of solar ultraviolet radiation, including extreme sun sensitivity, photophobia and skin cancer. OCA is a grave public health issue in sub-Saharan Africa with a prevalence as high as one in 1000 in some tribes. Given the extent of adverse sun-related health effects experienced among individuals with OCA, commitment to prevention and treatment regimens should be raised as a priority to curb the impact of OCA as a major health problem in sub-Saharan Africa.

  2. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Invited Reviews
    3. Research Articles
    4. Introduction to the Special Issue commemorating the 65th birthday of Craig A. Elmets
    5. Special Issue Invited Reviews
    6. Special Issue Research Articles
    7. Erratum
    1. You have free access to this content
      Synthesis, Structure and Photophysical Properties of Ferrocenyl or Mixed Sandwich Cobaltocenyl Ester Linked meso-Tetratolylporphyrin Dyads (pages 33–41)

      Sabapathi Gokulnath, Balahoju Shivaprasad Achary, Chakka Kiran Kumar, Rajiv Trivedi, Balasubramanian Sridhar and Lingamallu Giribabu

      Article first published online: 24 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12372

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      We have designed two new porphyrin–metallocene dyads, in which either ferrocene or mixed cobaltocenyl connected at meso position of porphyrin through ester linkage. Ground-state properties showed that there exists minimum π−π interactions between porphyrin and metallocene. Singlet state properties reveal that there is a photoinduced electron transfer from metallocene to singlet state of porphyrin.

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      ß-Ga2O3 Nanorod Synthesis with a One-step Microwave Irradiation Hydrothermal Method and its Efficient Photocatalytic Degradation for Perfluorooctanoic Acid (pages 42–47)

      Baoxiu Zhao, Xiang Li, Long Yang, Fen Wang, Jincheng Li, Wenxiang Xia, Weijiang Li, Li Zhou and Colin Zhao

      Article first published online: 5 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12383

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      ß-Ga2O3 was first synthesized via the microwave irradiation hydrothermal way and then was used to degrade PFOA under the UV light. Decomposition procedure involved the adsorption of PFOA on the surface of ß-Ga2O3 and the degradation. ß-Ga2O3 prepared by the microwave irradiation hydrothermal method owned the powerful photocatalytic degradation performance for PFOA and degradation kinetics constant was 0.0425 min−1.

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      In Situ FTIR Spectroscopy Study of the Photodegradation of Acetaldehyde and azo Dye Photobleaching on Bismuth-Modified TiO2 (pages 48–58)

      Jiří Henych, Václav Štengl, Andreas Mattsson and Lars Österlund

      Article first published online: 21 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12374

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      The low-temperature process avoiding organometallic precursors and nonwater solvents was employed to produce Bi-doped titania nanoparticles. This method proceeds via peroxotitanium complexes and can be easily used for solution doping. Acetaldehyde adsorption and its photoinduced degradation was observed by in situ FTIR spectroscopy and revealed different photocatalytic behavior of doped samples compared to pure TiO2.

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      Highly Efficient Photodegradation of Organic Pollutants Assisted by Sonoluminescence (pages 59–67)

      Anna V. Volkova, Silke Nemeth, Ekaterina V. Skorb and Daria V. Andreeva

      Article first published online: 20 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12352

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      The kinetics of dye degradation via ultrasonication was studied. It was shown that Light emitted in cavitated liquid was essential for initiation of the photoreactions on the surface of the semiconductor particles. Direct attack of dye molecules by sonochemically formed reactive oxygen species causes relatively slow degradation of azo dyes. The mechanism of ultrasound-assisted degradation of azo dyes is mostly based on the activation of photocatalysts by sonoluminescence.

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      Inspection of Feasible Calibration Conditions for UV Radiometer Detectors with the KI/KIO3 Actinometer (pages 68–73)

      Zhimin Qiang, Wentao Li, Mengkai Li, James R. Bolton and Jiuhui Qu

      Article first published online: 18 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12356

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      Under feasible calibration conditions, the KI/KIO3 actinometer can be easily applied to calibrate UV radiometer detectors at 254 nm in a quasi-collimated beam apparatus in ordinary laboratories, which saves the cost and time for periodic detector recalibrations.

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      Analysis of Oxyluciferin Photoluminescence Pathways in Aqueous Solutions (pages 74–83)

      Miyabi Hiyama, Toshimitsu Mochizuki, Hidefumi Akiyama and Nobuaki Koga

      Article first published online: 17 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12370

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      The pathways for photoluminescence of oxyluciferin, which is well known as the emitter of firefly bioluminescence, in aqueous solutions of different pH values were theoretically investigated by estimating free energies of possible species with consideration of protonation/deprotonation.

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      Photostability of Cosmetic UV Filters on Mammalian Skin Under UV Exposure (pages 84–91)

      Constanze Stiefel, Wolfgang Schwack and Yen-Thi Hai Nguyen

      Article first published online: 25 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12357

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      Previous studies showed that common UV filter substances like BP-3, BM-DBM, EHS, OCR, EHMC and EHT were able to react with amino side chains of different proteins in vitro. The present work confirms that also in the case of real skin samples, differences in the recoveries could be observed when sunscreen samples were irradiated on either glass plates or pig skin, indicating the occurrence of certain skin-typical reactions, as the formation of protein adducts. The results were in good accordance with a recently developed HPTLC screening method, indicating a different photocontact allergenic potential of the UV filters.

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      Solar UV Irradiances Modulate Effects of Ocean Acidification on the Coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi (pages 92–101)

      Kai Xu and Kunshan Gao

      Article first published online: 10 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12363

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      The coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi may be calcifying less with progressive ocean acidification (OA). However, little is known about the physiological responses of E. huxleyi to OA under the natural solar irradiances, including UV radiation (280–400 nm, UVR). We found UVR could modulate the effects of OA on growth, photosynthesis, and calcification of E. huxleyi. This work emphasizes that UVR needs to be considered as a key factor when evaluating the impacts of OA on E. huxleyi.

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      N4-Methylation of Cytosine Drastically Favors the Formation of (6-4) Photoproducts in a TCG Context (pages 102–108)

      Thierry Douki, Jarah A. Meador, Izabel Bérard and Aude Wack

      Article first published online: 10 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12365

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      Methylation of cytosine at position C5 is known to favor the formation of UVB-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in DNA. We report here that methylation at another position, namely the N4 exocyclic amino group, enhances the photoreactivity of cytosine both in the UVB and UVC range, and drastically increases the formation of (6-4) photoproducts.

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      DNA Damage Checkpoint Responses in the S Phase of Synchronized Diploid Human Fibroblasts (pages 109–116)

      Paul D. Chastain II, Bruna P. Brylawski, Yingchun C. Zhou, Shangbang Rao, Haitao Chu, Joseph G. Ibrahim, William K. Kaufmann and Marila Cordeiro-Stone

      Article first published online: 24 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12361

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      When cells are exposed to UV, the ATR-Chk1-Cdc7-Dbf4 arm of the intra-S checkpoint is activated. In early and mid S, the checkpoint response is robust and DNA origin initiation is inhibited. However, this DNA damage effect is not seen in late-S phase cells.

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      Opsin Expression in Human Epidermal Skin (pages 117–123)

      Kirk Haltaufderhyde, Rana N. Ozdeslik, Nadine L. Wicks, Julia A. Najera and Elena Oancea

      Article first published online: 13 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12354

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      Human epidermal skin is exposed to a wide range of light wavelengths, raising the question whether it uses opsins, light-activated receptors that mediate photoreception in the eye, as photosensors. We found that the two major human epidermal cell types, melanocytes and keratinocytes, express mRNA for four opsins—OPN1-SW, OPN2, OPN3 and OPN5. OPN2 and OPN3 mRNA were significantly more abundant than other opsins and encoded full-length proteins. Future studies will determine the function of these opsins in melanocytes and keratinocytes.

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      In Vitro Photodynamic Inactivation Effects of Ru(II) Complexes on Clinical Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Planktonic and Biofilm Cultures (pages 124–133)

      Yucheng Wang, Qianxiong Zhou, Ying Wang, Jie Ren, Hongyou Zhao, Sumin Wu, Jiyong Yang, Jie Zhen, Yanping Luo, Xuesong Wang and Ying Gu

      Article first published online: 5 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12378

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      Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) is a compelling alternative treatment for infections, especially those caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria. In this study, a novel class of cationic photosensitizers, Ru(II) complexes, has been tested in their PDI effects against clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains, both in planktonic and biofilm cultures. Mechanisms of the PDI process were also investigated. It was demonstrated that PDI of planktonic bacteria was achieved primarily through damage to the cell envelope. Biofilms were eliminated through both the destruction of their structure and inactivation of the individual bacteria.

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      Combination of Er:YAG Laser and CO2 Laser Treatment on Skin Tissue (pages 134–138)

      Sana Mohammed Anayb Baleg, Noriah Bidin, Lau Pik Suan, Muhammad Fakarruddin Sidi Ahmad, Ganesan Krishnan, Abd Rahman Johari and Asmah Hamid

      Article first published online: 5 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12369

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      The skin is an important body-organ, protecting us from external environmental effects. Studies concerning the ability of skin to stretch and histological examinations of irradiated tissues have significant values for scientific and medical applications. Only few studies have been done to study the correlation between epidermis ablation and the changes that occur at dermal levels when using dual lasers in ablative resurfacing mode. The aim of this work is to determine this correlation and to estimate the effects of multiple pulses on induced collagen remodeling and the strength of skin exposed to dual lasers in an in vivo rat model.

  3. Introduction to the Special Issue commemorating the 65th birthday of Craig A. Elmets

    1. Top of page
    2. Invited Reviews
    3. Research Articles
    4. Introduction to the Special Issue commemorating the 65th birthday of Craig A. Elmets
    5. Special Issue Invited Reviews
    6. Special Issue Research Articles
    7. Erratum
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      Introduction (page 139)

      Mohammad Athar and Nihal Ahmad

      Article first published online: 14 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12408

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  4. Special Issue Invited Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Invited Reviews
    3. Research Articles
    4. Introduction to the Special Issue commemorating the 65th birthday of Craig A. Elmets
    5. Special Issue Invited Reviews
    6. Special Issue Research Articles
    7. Erratum
    1. You have free access to this content
      Oxidatively Generated Damage to Cellular DNA by UVB and UVA Radiation (pages 140–155)

      Jean Cadet, Thierry Douki and Jean-Luc Ravanat

      Article first published online: 27 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12368

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      UVA predominantly generates singlet oxygen that selectively oxidize guanine leading to 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine. Superoxide anion radical (inline image) is also produced as the precursor of H2O2 and subsequently of highly reactive hydroxyl radical (OH) that induces oxidized bases and single-strand breaks. Both UVA and UVB are able to trigger delayed biochemical responses including activation of enzymes, inflammation and bystander effects. As a result inline image and nitric oxide are released leading to the formation of OH and peroxynitrite. The latter species is expected through reaction with CO2 to produce the carbonate anion radical, an efficient one-electron oxidant of guanine.

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      Proanthocyanidins from Grape Seeds Inhibit UV–Radiation-Induced Immune Suppression in Mice: Detection and Analysis of Molecular and Cellular Targets (pages 156–162)

      Santosh K. Katiyar

      Article first published online: 8 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12330

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      Prevention of UV–radiation-induced immunosuppression by dietary grape seed proanthocyanidins is mediated through: (i) alterations in immunoregulatory cytokines, such as, IL-10 and IL-12, (ii) stimulation of DNA repair and (iii) DNA repair-dependent functional activation of dendritic cells in mice.

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      Light-Regulated MicroRNAs (pages 163–172)

      Ashika Jayanthy and Vijayasaradhi Setaluri

      Article first published online: 11 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12386

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      Exposure to different types of electromagnetic radiation is sensed by cells through various light-absorbing molecules such as opsins, cryptochromes and DNA. Activation of specific second messengers and signaling pathways lead to changes in expression of several genes including microRNAs (miRNA) and miRNA processing enzymes. Altered levels of miRNAs produce pleotropic effects by fine-tuning cellular levels of multitude of mRNAs leading to manifestation of EM radiation-induced phenotypes.

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      MicroRNAs and Photocarcinogenesis (pages 173–187)

      Rahul K. Lall, Hasan Mukhtar and Deeba N. Syed

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12346

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      The modulation of gene expression in UV exposed human skin under the regulatory control of small noncoding miRNAs adds an additional layer of complexity to the process of skin carcinogenesis. An in-depth knowledge of the functionality of miRNAs in the human skin will have enormous implications to risk assessment, and to target interventions against signaling events involved in photocarcinogenesis.

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      MC1R, Eumelanin and Pheomelanin: Their Role in Determining the Susceptibility to Skin Cancer (pages 188–200)

      Tahseen H. Nasti and Laura Timares

      Article first published online: 7 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12335

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      Animal models indicate that the presence of pheomelanin is a required component for elaborating the increased melanoma risk in MCR1mutant mouse strains. This review examines the properties of pheomelanin and eumelanin with respect to the generation of toxic byproducts, depletion of scavenger pools, photoinstability and poor UVR absorption properties. Furthermore, a new understanding of MC1R function in cells of innate and adaptive immunity, suggests that the mutant receptor also causes altered responses, in terms of high inflammatory responses, contributing toward increasing the risk of melanoma development in light or red-headed individuals.

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      Vitamin D and Skin Cancer (pages 201–209)

      Erin M. Burns, Craig A. Elmets and Nabiha Yusuf

      Article first published online: 8 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12382

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      Vitamin D production and supplementation have been shown to exert protective effects in several diseases and cancers, including skin cancer. While ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation is the main etiologic factor for skin cancer, UVB also induces cutaneous vitamin D production. This paradox has been the subject of contradictory findings in the literature in regards to amount of sun exposure necessary for appropriate vitamin D production, as well as any beneficial or detrimental effects of vitamin D supplementation for disease prevention. Further clinical and epidemiological studies are necessary to elucidate the role of vitamin D in skin carcinogenesis.

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      UVA Irradiation Induced Heme Oxygenase-1: A Novel Phototherapy for Morphea (pages 210–220)

      Muhammad Farrukh Nisar, Kimberly Suzanne George Parsons, Chun Xiang Bian and Julia Li Zhong

      Article first published online: 8 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12342

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      The possible mechanism of UVA1-induced antifibrotic HO-1 and MMP-1 expressions in UVA1 phototherapy of morphea. Regulation of HMOX-1 gene upon UVA irradiation in human skin cells to induce cytoprotection: UVA1-induced ROS activation of Nrf2 and release of Keap1 for ubiquitination, translocation of Nrf2 to the nucleus to switch on the ARE‘s to evoke HO-1 expression. UVA1 generated ROS lead to the MMP-1 expression directly via ERK, TNFα, IL-1, and IL-6, or indirectly through HO-1 expression. Both antifibrotic effects of MMP-1 and HO-1 may, through TGFβ1, rebuild the ECM.

  5. Special Issue Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Invited Reviews
    3. Research Articles
    4. Introduction to the Special Issue commemorating the 65th birthday of Craig A. Elmets
    5. Special Issue Invited Reviews
    6. Special Issue Research Articles
    7. Erratum
    1. You have free access to this content
      ROS and p53 in Regulation of UVB-induced HDM2 Alternative Splicing (pages 221–224)

      Lingying Tong and Shiyong Wu

      Article first published online: 26 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12306

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      Hdm2, the human homologue of mdm2 (murine double minute oncogene 2), is an oncogene for its role in suppression of p53. Hdm2 alternative splicing, occurs in both tumor and normal tissues, is suggested to be a response of cells for cellular stress, and thus modulate p53 activity. In this study, we demonstrated that UVB is weaker inducer of alternative splicing than UVC is. We also provided evidences that the UV-induced alternative splicing is promoted by DNA-damage, but suppressed by ROS formation and p53 activity of the irradiated cells.

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      Fisetin Inhibits UVB-induced Cutaneous Inflammation and Activation of PI3K/AKT/NFκB Signaling Pathways in SKH-1 Hairless Mice (pages 225–234)

      Harish Chandra Pal, Mohammad Athar, Craig A. Elmets and Farrukh Afaq

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12337

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      Exposure to solar UVB radiation has been implicated as the main cause for skin cancer. In this study, we investigated whether fisetin, a flavonoid abundantly present in fruits and vegetables, reduces inflammatory responses and modulates PI3K/AKT/NFκB cell survival signaling pathways in UVB-exposed SKH-1 hairless mouse skin. Our data demonstrated that topical application of fisetin to SKH-1 mice inhibited UVB-induced inflammation and proliferation by modulating PI3K/AKT/NFκB signaling pathways. In addition, fisetin treatment augmented UVB-induced protein expression of p53 and p21 as well as reduced DNA damage caused by UVB exposure. Overall, these findings suggest that fisetin could be developed as a novel photochemopreventive agent.

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      Interleukin-17 Mediated Inflammatory Responses Are Required for Ultraviolet Radiation-Induced Immune Suppression (pages 235–241)

      Hui Li, Ram Prasad, Santosh K. Katiyar, Nabiha Yusuf, Craig A. Elmets and Hui Xu

      Article first published online: 13 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12351

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      Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) causes immune suppression which is associated with an increased risk of skin cancers. Exposure to UVR induces inflammation with an increased level of interleukin-17 in the skin. Our data show that blockade of interleukin-17 inhibits UVR-induced immune suppression. The lack of interleukin-17-mediated inflammation reduces the infiltration and development of suppressive myeloid cells in the ultraviolet-irradiated skin and development of regulatory T cells. The results implicate that interleukin-17 is an important mediator for UVR-induced immune suppression and may be a target for development of new strategies for the prevention of UVR-induced skin cancers.

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      Effect of Immunosuppressants Tacrolimus and Mycophenolate Mofetil on the Keratinocyte UVB Response (pages 242–247)

      Mei Ming, Baozhong Zhao, Lei Qiang and Yu-Ying He

      Article first published online: 12 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12318

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      This study investigated the effects of the newer generation of immunosuppressants including tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) on keratinocyte UVB response. Tacrolimus and MMF impairs UVB-induced DNA repair and apoptosis in human keratinocytes. In addition, tacrolimus inhibits UVB-induced checkpoint signaling, while MMF had no effect. Our findings have demonstrated that tacrolimus and MMF compromises proper keratinocyte UVB response, suggesting an immunosuppression-independent mechanism in the tumor-promoting action of these immunosuppressants.

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      Effective Photoprotection of Human Skin against Infrared A Radiation by Topically Applied Antioxidants: Results from a Vehicle Controlled, Double-Blind, Randomized Study (pages 248–250)

      Susanne Grether-Beck, Alessandra Marini, Thomas Jaenicke and Jean Krutmann

      Article first published online: 24 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12375

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      Topical application of an SPF30 sunscreen containing an antioxidant mixture consisting of grape seed extract, vitamin E, ubiquinone and vitamin C significantly protects human skin (n = 30) against IRA radiation-induced MMP-1 mRNA expression.

  6. Erratum

    1. Top of page
    2. Invited Reviews
    3. Research Articles
    4. Introduction to the Special Issue commemorating the 65th birthday of Craig A. Elmets
    5. Special Issue Invited Reviews
    6. Special Issue Research Articles
    7. Erratum
    1. You have free access to this content

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