Photochemistry and Photobiology

Cover image for Vol. 91 Issue 3

May/June 2015

Volume 91, Issue 3

Pages 505–766

  1. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Research Articles
    3. Special Issue Dedicated to the Memory of Michael Kasha
    4. Special Issue Research Articles
    5. Corrigendum
    1. Photocatalytic Activity of LaSr2AlO5:Eu Ceramic Powders (pages 505–509)

      Carlos R. García, Jorge Oliva and Luis A. Díaz-Torres

      Article first published online: 18 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12428

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      Europium-doped LaSr2AlO5 (LSA:Eu) has been investigated as photocatalyst for methylene blue degradation in water solutions under UV light. The photograph shows a sequence of the solutions taken each 10 min in the third cycle of use, and achieving total degradation after 360 min of UV irradiation.

    2. One-Pot Synthesis of Cu2O/ZnO Nanoparticles at Present of Folic Acid to Improve UV-Protective Effect of Cotton Fabrics (pages 510–517)

      Seyyed Abbas Noorian, Nahid Hemmatinejad and Azadeh Bashari

      Article first published online: 10 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12420

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      In this work, zinc chloride and copper sulfate have been used as precursors and Cu2O/ZnO nanoparticles have been synthesized in aqueous/alkali media at the presence of cotton fabrics and folic acid. Folic acid, as a biotemplate for synthesis of Cu2O/ZnO, was used to improve the reducing and stabilizing the ability of cotton fabric. Cotton fabric was used as a soft template to control the synthesis of desirable nanostructures with specific size and morphology.

    3. Formulation of Aluminum Chloride Phthalocyanine in Pluronic P-123 and F-127 Block Copolymer Micelles: Photophysical properties and Photodynamic Inactivation of Microorganisms (pages 518–525)

      Bruno Henrique Vilsinski, Adriana Passarella Gerola, Junior Adalberto Enumo, Katieli da Silva Souza Campanholi, Paulo Cesar de Souza Pereira, Gustavo Braga, Noboru Hioka, Elza Kimura, André Luiz Tessaro and Wilker Caetano

      Article first published online: 6 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12421

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      Formulations of aluminum chloride phthalocyanine were prepared in polymeric micelles of pluronic surfactants F-127 and P-123 and tested for inactivation of microorganisms. The process of incorporation of AlPcCl on copolymers was effective and the formulation obtained for the system AlPcCl/P-123 had good results against different kind of microorganisms.

    4. Decontamination Efficiency of a DBD Lamp Containing an UV–C Emitting Phosphor (pages 526–532)

      Bruno Caillier, José Maurício Almeida Caiut, Cristina Muja, Julien Demoucron, Robert Mauricot, Jeanette Dexpert-Ghys and Philippe Guillot

      Article first published online: 22 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12426

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      An innovative mercury-free Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) flat lamp has been developed to obtain large spectrum UV-C radiation. The UV-C radiation is produced by a pyrophosphate phosphor doped with Pr3+ (α-Ca2P2O7: Pr2%Na2%) internal coating excited by the 172 nm emission of a Ne-Xe plasma. This work investigates the influence of the plasma parameters on the newly developed UV source energy efficiency and its bactericidal efficiency.

    5. Hiporfin-Mediated Photodynamic Therapy in Preclinical Treatment of Osteosarcoma (pages 533–544)

      Mengxiong Sun, Chenghao Zhou, Hui Zeng, Nahum Puebla-Osorio, Elisabetta Damiani, Jian Chen, Hongsheng Wang, Guodong Li, Fei Yin, Liancheng Shan, Dongqing Zuo, Yuxin Liao, Zhuoying Wang, Longpo Zheng, Yingqi Hua and Zhengdong Cai

      Article first published online: 16 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12424

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      Hiporfin is one kind of photosensitizer that has been approved by Chinese SFDA. In this study, hiporfin was used to see its photodynamic activity in osteosarcoma. After illumination by 630 nm laser, hiporfin killed osteosarcoma cells by increased ROS level and through apoptosis and necroptosis pathways. In vivo study also showed potent tumor eradication. All these provided evidences for the clinical trial of hiporfin on osteosarcoma.

    6. Survey of UV Emissions from Sunbeds in the UK (pages 545–552)

      Marina Khazova, John B. O'Hagan and Stewart Robertson

      Article first published online: 23 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12425

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      Spectral irradiance of 195 sunbeds in five areas of the United Kingdom was measured in order to assess the radiant doses as increased use of indoor tanning has led to concerns for its impact on the risk of cutaneous cancers. Use of sunbeds for cosmetic purposes should be discouraged, with effective enforcement of the ban on under-18 use, strict control on tanning duration and promotion of information on health risks of sunbed use. Such an integrated approach on safe equipment, safe use and information should reduce the risk of detrimental impact of sunbed use on public health.

    7. Solar Spectral Irradiance and Summary Outputs Using Excel (pages 553–557)

      Brian Diffey

      Article first published online: 6 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12422

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      An Excel spreadsheet that calculates solar spectral irradiance between 290–3000 nm on an unshaded, horizontal surface under a cloudless sky at sea level, together with summary outputs such as global UV index, illuminance and percentage of energy in different wavebands. The spreadsheet is easy to use by anyone with an interest in sunlight and solar power irrespective of their background in that just four inputs are required—geographical latitude, month, day of month and time of day.

    8. Evaluation of Photoprotective Potential and Percutaneous Penetration by Photoacoustic Spectroscopy of the Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi Extract (pages 558–566)

      Milena K. Bulla, Luzmarina Hernandes, Mauro L. Baesso, Ana C. Nogueira, Antonio C. Bento, Bruno B. Bortoluzzi, Lara Z. Serra and Diogenes A. G. Cortez

      Article first published online: 18 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12419

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      Plant extracts can be incorporated in photoprotective formulations. The crude extract and the fraction containing gallic acid, ethyl gallate and a mixture of flavonoids were obtained from Schinus terebinthifolius leaves. Emulsion and gel formulations containing the crude extract were prepared to evaluate the permeation and the histology of the skin after topical application of the formulations. The photoacoustic spectroscopy measurements confirmed absorption in the UV region and related to the permeation of these formulations. No histopathological changes were detected.

    9. Light Treatment Improves Sleep Quality and Negative Affectiveness in High Arctic Residents During Winter (pages 567–573)

      Michel A. Paul, Ryan J. Love, Andrea Hawton, Kaighley Brett, Donald R. McCreary and Josephine Arendt

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12418

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      Subjects residing at Canadian Forces Station (CFS) Alert (82° 30′ 00″ N) filled out questionnaires regarding sleep difficulty, psychological well-being and mood and wore Actigraphs to obtain objective sleep data. Saliva was collected prior to and following treatment to measure melatonin and assess melatonin onset. Individuals were given individualized daily light treatment interventions based on their pretreatment salivary melatonin profile. The light treatments were effective in improving sleep quality and reducing negative affect among the participants.

  2. Special Issue Dedicated to the Memory of Michael Kasha

    1. Top of page
    2. Research Articles
    3. Special Issue Dedicated to the Memory of Michael Kasha
    4. Special Issue Research Articles
    5. Corrigendum
    1. Introduction

      Kasha – Memories (pages 574–575)

      Jack Saltiel

      Article first published online: 27 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12442

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      Michael Kasha (1921–2013) inspiring scientist and teacher, in recognition of his enormous scientific contributions and his influence in stimulating research in photophysics and photochemistry.

  3. Special Issue Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Research Articles
    3. Special Issue Dedicated to the Memory of Michael Kasha
    4. Special Issue Research Articles
    5. Corrigendum
    1. On the Dual Phosphorescence of Xanthone and Chromone in Glassy Hydrocarbon Hosts (pages 576–585)

      Dale McMorrow, Michon Irons Wyche, Pi Tai Chou and Michael Kasha

      Article first published online: 10 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12451

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      Trace quantities of hydrogen-bonding impurities in otherwise highly purified and dried glassy hydrocarbon matrices at 77 K modify the relative triplet state energy levels, and hence the photophysical properties of two aromatic ketones, xanthone and chromone, to the extent that the intrinsic spectroscopic properties are obscured. The intrinsic spectroscopic properties of each are revealed in multicrystalline n-alkane Shpol'skii matrices, and also in rigorously purified and dried hydrocarbon glasses at 77 K. The extreme sensitivity to substoichiometric quantities of hydrogen-bonding impurities arises from the near-degeneracy of the two lowest-lying triplet states, and the sensitive nature of the n[RIGHTWARDS ARROW]π* blueshift phenomena to specific hydrogen-bonding interactions.

    2. Absorption and Emission Sensitivity of 2-(2′-Hydroxyphenyl)benzoxazole to Solvents and Impurities (pages 586–598)

      Zhao Yuan, Qing Tang, Kesavapillai Sreenath, J. Tyler Simmons, Ali H. Younes, De-en Jiang and Lei Zhu

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12393

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      Minor long-wavelength absorption bands of the excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) dye 2-(2′-hydroxyphenyl)benzoxazole (HBO) have been observed in DMSO by us and others. These bands might have been caused by base or metal salt impurities introduced by glass Pasteur pipettes that are equipped with latex rubber bulbs. Without the interference of extraneous bases or metal salts, solvent-mediated deprotonation fails to occur. The propensity of HBO to deprotonation is much higher in DMSO than in less polar solvents. The solvatochromic shifts of HBO suggest that the ESIPT is hindered in polar solvents that are also strong hydrogen bond acceptors.

    3. Electronic and Vibrational Dynamics of Hollow Au Nanocages Embedded in Cu2O Shells (pages 599–606)

      Paul Szymanski, Mahmoud A. Mahmoud, Daniel O'Neil, Batyr Garlyyev and Mostafa A. El-Sayed

      Article first published online: 10 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12432

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      Femtosecond optical excitation of the localized surface plasmon resonance of Au–Cu2O core-shell nanocages creates hot electrons which transfer energy to the Au and Cu2O lattices on picosecond timescales, leading to coherent vibrational motion. Structural mechanics simulations reproduce the dominant lattice vibrational frequency by treating the rapid thermal expansion of the Au nanocage as a force that acts on the Cu2O shell.

    4. Photoisomerization of cis-1,2-di(1-Methyl-2-naphthyl)ethene at 77 K in Glassy Media (pages 607–615)

      Christopher Redwood, V. K. Ratheesh Kumar, Stuart Hutchinson, Frank B. Mallory, Clelia W. Mallory, Ronald J. Clark, Olga Dmitrenko and Jack Saltiel

      Article first published online: 21 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12367

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      One bond twist photoisomerization of cis-I,2-di(1-methyl-2-naphthyl)ethene in glassy media.

    5. Steric and Electronic Factors Associated with the Photoinduced Ligand Exchange of Bidentate Ligands Coordinated to Ru(II) (pages 616–623)

      Bryan A Albani, Tyler Whittemore, Christopher B. Durr and Claudia Turro

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12392

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      In an effort to create a molecule that can absorb low energy visible or near-infrared light for photochemotherapy (PCT) with easily tunable excited state properties, the new complexes [Ru(biq)2(dpb)](PF6)2 (1, biq = 2,2′-biquinoline, dpb = 2,3-bis(2-pyridyl)benzoquinoxaline) and [(biq)2Ru(dpb)Re(CO)3Cl](PF6)2 (2) were synthesized and characterized. Complex 1 undergoes photoinduced ligand dissociation of the dpb ligand in coordinating solvent in the PCT window, however, the bimetallic complex is photoinert but does absorb lower energy light. The differences in the photophysical properties and the crystal structures of the complexes are discussed and used to explain the differences in photoreactivity.

    6. Transition from Charge-Transfer to Largely Locally Excited Exciplexes, from Structureless to Vibrationally Structured Emissions (pages 624–636)

      Ralph H. Young, Adam M. Feinberg, Joseph P. Dinnocenzo and Samir Farid

      Article first published online: 8 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12380

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      Exciplexes of 9,10-dicyanoanthracene with low oxidation potential (Eox) alkylbenzenes in cyclohexane show structureless emission spectra suggesting ideal charge-transfer (CT) states. With higher Eox donors, vibrational structure emerges. A theoretical model of mixing with a locally excited (LE) state reproduces the spectra and radiative rate constants. The fractional CT character of a highly mixed exciplex varies widely with fluctuations in the microscopic environment and/or librational geometry. Fluctuations favoring the LE (or CT) state contribute more to the blue (or red) side of the overall spectrum. The “ideal CT” appearance of the low-Eox spectra is illusory, resulting instead from several compensating factors.

    7. Improved Spectral Coverage and Fluorescence Quenching in Donor–acceptor Systems Involving Indolo[3-2-b]carbazole and Boron-dipyrromethene or Diketopyrrolopyrrole (pages 637–653)

      Adis Khetubol, Sven Van Snick, Melissa L. Clark, Eduard Fron, Eduardo Coutiño-González, Arvid Cloet, Koen Kennes, Yuliar Firdaus, Maarten Vlasselaer, Volker Leen, Wim Dehaen and Mark Van der Auweraer

      Article first published online: 28 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12437

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      We report synthesis and studies of organic compounds incorporating indolo[3,2-b]-carbazole (ICZ), and 4,4-difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene (BODIPY) or diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP). The spectroscopic studies suggest stronger interaction between ICZ and BODIPY in both ground and excited states as well as more efficient energy transfer from ICZ to BODIPY, compared to those of the ICZ-DPP compound, which could be related to the unfavorable orientation of the transition dipoles of ICZ and DPP chromophores. Furthermore, in a solid film of the ICZ–π–BODIPY triad an aggregate of the triad molecules was observed, resulting in a redshift of the absorption maximum (~100 nm) relative to a solution.

    8. A New Series of Fluorescent Indicators for Super Acids (pages 654–659)

      I-Chih Shih, Yu-Shan Yeh, I-Che Wu, You-Hua Chen, Jiun-Yi Shen, Yi-An Chen, Mei-Lin Ho and Pi-Tai Chou

      Article first published online: 6 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12326

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      A new series of fluorescent indicators are developed for sensing super acids. The fluorescence intensity switches from the nonemissive state (the diprotonated form) to the intense emissive state (the triprotonated form) with pKa as low as −3.16. This super acid indicator with the highly emissive intensity, great chemical stability and excitation/emission wavelengths in the visible region may find potential applications in industry.

    9. Steady-State Spectroscopy of the 2-(N-methylacetimidoyl)-1-naphthol Molecule (pages 660–671)

      Juan Carlos del Valle and Cristina Díaz-Oliva

      Article first published online: 28 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12444

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      The steady-state spectroscopy of 2-(N-methylacetimidoyl)-1-naphthol reveals composite absorption and emission spectra from 298 to 193 K in hexane. The S0 state absorption can be assigned to the sum of three molecular structures in chemical equilibrium: the OH normal tautomer and two NH proton transfer tautomers. On photoexcitation of the OH tautomer the excited state intramolecular proton transfer is undergone, and the corresponding NH emission is monitored at 470 nm. On photoexcitation of the NH tautomers the previous emission is monitored in addition to another emission at 600 nm, which is ascribed to intramolecular hydrogen-bonded (IHB) nonplanar NH tautomers generated from the IHB planar NH tautomers.

    10. Electron Spin Exchange in Linked Phenothiazine–Viologen Charge Transfer Complexes Incorporated in “Through-Ring” (Rotaxane) α-Cyclodextrins (pages 672–677)

      Hiroaki Yonemura and Malcolm D. E. Forbes

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12436

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      Photoexcitation of covalently bound phenothiazine donors with methylviologen acceptors separated by C8, C10 and C12 alkane chain spacers incorporated in a “through-ring” (rotaxane) fashion to α-cyclodextrin hosts leads to biradicaloid charge-separated states that are studied by time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy at the X-band and Q-band microwave frequencies. Computer simulation of the spectra using a “static” model for spin-correlated radical pairs allows extraction of the spin exchange interactions, which range from –2 to –1000 Gauss. The results are discussed in terms of through-bond vs through-space electronic coupling mechanisms as a function of donor–acceptor distance.

    11. Photo-Wolff Rearrangement of 2-Diazo-1,2-naphthoquinone: Stern–Volmer Analysis of the Stepwise Reaction Pathway (pages 678–683)

      Manfred Ladinig, Markus Ramseier and Jakob Wirz

      Article first published online: 30 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12341

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      A quantitative assessment of the stepwise versus concerted photodeazotization pathways of 2-diazo-1,2-naphthoquinone (1) forming ketene 3 is provided. Trapping of the carbene intermediate 2 by methanol yields 2-methoxy-1-naphthol (4) in up to 12% yield. [3+2]Cycloaddition of 2 and acetonitrile yielding 2-methylnaphth[2,1-d]oxazole (5) was also observed. The lifetime of the thermalized carbene 2 is at least 200 ps. A comparison of the yields of 5 formed upon photolysis and upon thermolysis of 1 in acetonitrile provides evidence that a substantial part of the hot nascent carbene 2 formed photolytically rearranges to the ketene 3 during its vibrational relaxation (hot ground-state reaction).

    12. Utilization of PARAFAC-Modeled Excitation-Emission Matrix (EEM) Fluorescence Spectroscopy to Identify Biogeochemical Processing of Dissolved Organic Matter in a Northern Peatland (pages 684–695)

      Malak M. Tfaily, Jane E. Corbett, Rachel Wilson, Jeffrey P. Chanton, Paul H. Glaser, Kaelin M. Cawley, Rudolf Jaffé and William T. Cooper

      Article first published online: 8 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12448

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      Spectral characteristics of five components of Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) in Glacial Lake Agassiz peatland porewaters identified by PARAFAC modeling of EEM fluorescence spectra. Color contours reflect intensities expressed in Quinine Sulfate Equivalent (QSE) units; blue low, red high. The relative loadings of these components to total fluorescence vary as a function of peat type and depth, and appear to be a function of the quality of the DOM and the active microbial community present.

    13. Comparison of Templating Abilities of Urea and Thioruea During Photodimerization of Bipyridylethyelene and Stilbazole Crystals (pages 696–704)

      Balakrishna R. Bhogala, Burjor Captain and Vaidhyanathan Ramamurthy

      Article first published online: 7 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12353

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      Templating properties of urea in solid-state photodimerization of stilbazoles and bispyridylethylenes have been established through a study that combined photochemistry and X-ray crystallography. The templating ability of urea derives from its ability to form hydrogen bond with itself and with coguests stilbazoles and bispyridylethylenes. At this stage, it is not easy to predict when urea will and when will not function as a template.

    14. Following Oxygen Consumption in Singlet Oxygen Reactions via Changes in Sensitizer Phosphorescence (pages 705–713)

      Tingting Feng, Tod A. Grusenmeyer, Max Lupin and Russell H. Schmehl

      Article first published online: 28 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12381

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      Photolysis of a Ruthenium-pyrene complex in oxygenated aqueous solutions results in efficient sensitization of singlet oxygen. In the presence of substrates, large increases in the orange luminescence of the Ruthenium-pyrene complex are observed as dissolved oxygen reacts with the substrate. Luminescence intensity changes allow determination of rate constants for singlet oxygen reaction with substrates.

    15. o-Amino Analogs of Green Fluorescence Protein Chromophore: Photoisomerization, Photodimerization and Aggregation-induced Emission (pages 714–722)

      Guan-Jhih Huang, Che-Jen Lin, Yi-Hung Liu, Shie-Ming Peng and Jye-Shane Yang

      Article first published online: 24 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12373

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      The GFP-like chromophore O0 undergoes solid-state [2 + 2] photodimerization to form a head-to-tail syn-oriented photodimer OD that is confirmed by X-ray crystallography. The excited-state “meta-ortho effect” of the amino analogs of GFP chromophore in solutions and aggregates is also established and discussed.

    16. Interaction of Crown Ether-Annelated Styryl Dyes with Double-Stranded DNA (pages 723–731)

      Daria V. Berdnikova, Olga A. Fedorova, Elena V. Tulyakova, Haixing Li, Sarah Kölsch and Heiko Ihmels

      Article first published online: 23 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12405

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      Binding of 15-crown-5-derived mono- and bis-styryl dyes to the nucleic acids leads to a fluorescence enhancement by a factor of up to 54.

    17. Nanometal Surface Energy Transfer Optical Ruler for Measuring a Human Telomere Structure (pages 732–738)

      Rachel E. Armstrong, Ryan A. Riskowski and Geoffrey F. Strouse

      Article first published online: 28 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12423

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      Through the use of optical quenching of a molecular dye (DY680) by a gold nanoparticle appended to DNA, the conformation of the Hybrid-2 conformer in telomeric DNA sequence was measured. The results clearly demonstrate the versatility of nanometal surface energy transfer (NSET) molecular rulers for measuring biopolymer structures, allowing mapping of the structure and no evidence of nonspecific interactions between the gold and DNA sequence which would lead to perturbation of the folding landscape.

    18. Electronic Interactions of Michler's Ketone with DNA Bases in Synthetic Hairpins (pages 739–747)

      Almaz S. Jalilov, Ryan M. Young, Samuel W. Eaton, Michael R. Wasielewski and Frederick D. Lewis

      Article first published online: 30 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12360

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      The behavior of DNA conjugates having Michler's ketone hairpin linkers is dependent upon the ground state conformation of the linker. Linkers in which there is little interaction with the adjacent base pair undergo fluorescence and intersystem crossing to form a long-lived triplet state; whereas linkers that are stacked with an adjacent purine base undergo fast, reversible electron transfer.

    19. Opening Enediyne Scissors Wider: pH-Dependent DNA Photocleavage by meta-Diyne Lysine Conjugates (pages 748–758)

      Kemal Kaya, Madeleine Johnson and Igor V. Alabugin

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12412

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      Upon photochemical activation, meta-bis-tetrafluoropyridinylalkyne-lysine conjugates induce pH-dependent DNA ds-photocleavage. Efficiency of DNA damage is strongly enhanced at pH < 7. The observed pH-dependence of the DNA photocleavage activity stems from change in the protonation states of lysine amino groups. The ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) scavenger experiments suggest that singlet oxygen is partially involved in the DNA damage.

    20. Electronic Excitations in G-quadruplexes Formed by the Human Telomeric Sequence: A Time-Resolved Fluorescence Study (pages 759–765)

      Pascale Changenet-Barret, Ying Hua, Thomas Gustavsson and Dimitra Markovitsi

      Article first published online: 28 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12379

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      G-quadruplexes formed by folding of the human telomeric sequence d(GGGTTAGGGTTAGGGTTAGGG) in presence of K+ ions are studied by fluorescence spectroscopy from femtosecond to nanosecond domains. Population of exciton states leads to ultrafast energy transfer. Bright excited states with weak charge transfer character emit at the fluorescence maximum and decay between 1 and 100 ps. Charge transfer states with longer lifetime emit at lower energy. Due to the increased rigidity of these monomolecular structures, the persistence of excitations is longer and the contribution of charge transfer states is more pronounced than what is observed for tetramolecular G-quadruplexes.

  4. Corrigendum

    1. Top of page
    2. Research Articles
    3. Special Issue Dedicated to the Memory of Michael Kasha
    4. Special Issue Research Articles
    5. Corrigendum
    1. You have free access to this content
      Vitamin D and Skin Cancer (page 766)

      Erin M. Burns, Craig A. Elmets and Nabiha Yusuf

      Article first published online: 27 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12447

      This article corrects:

      Vitamin D and Skin Cancer1

      Vol. 91, Issue 1, 201–209, Article first published online: 8 DEC 2014