Photochemistry and Photobiology

Cover image for Vol. 91 Issue 4

July/August 2015

Volume 91, Issue 4

Pages 767–991

  1. Invited Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Invited Review
    3. Research Articles
    4. Research Notes
    1. You have free access to this content
      Photosensitizing Activity of Endogenous Eye Lens Chromophores: An Attempt to Unravel Their Contributions to Photo-Aging and Cataract Disease (pages 767–779)

      Felipe Avila, Bertrand Friguet and Eduardo Silva

      Article first published online: 28 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12443

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      Human eye lens aging is accompanied with the generation of numerous chromophores, which can be found at higher concentrations in cataractous lenses. In this review we discuss the presence and UVA-visible photosensitizing capacity of the main families of chromophores associated with the etiology and progression of human cataract disease.

  2. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Invited Review
    3. Research Articles
    4. Research Notes
    1. Interfacial Engineering of CdO–CdSe 3D Microarchitectures with in situ Photopolymerized PEDOT for an Enhanced Photovoltaic Performance (pages 780–785)

      Iseul Lim, Dipak V. Shinde, Supriya A. Patil, Do Young Ahn, Wonjoo Lee, Nabeen K. Shrestha, Joong Kee Lee and Sung-Hwan Han

      Article first published online: 28 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12429

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      Interfacial engineering of 3D CdO–CdSe-microstructured film by deposition of PEDOT accelerates the interfacial electron transfer rate, and thereby the interfacial electron collection efficiency is enhanced. Thus, the short-circuit current of the device is enhanced significantly.

    2. Photodegradation of Hydrophobic Pyridineketoximes in Toluene and Heptane (pages 786–796)

      Karolina Wieszczycka and Joanna Zembrzuska

      Article first published online: 6 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12453

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      This study presents the photochemical reactivity of the hydrophobic 2- and 3- pyridineketoximes – (Z)-oxime of 1-(2-pyridyl)tridecan-1-one and (E)-oxime of 1-(3-pyridyl)tridecan-1-one – in toluene and heptane as solvent. The data indicated that the both oximes underwent significant E-Z photoisomerization, photo-Beckmann rearrangement and the photosubstitution to the pyridine ring. For example, in aliphatic solvent, the photo-Beckmann rearrangement of (Z)-oxime of 1-(2-pyridyl)tridecan-1-one led to the formation of 2-aminopyridine, eicosan-8-one and N-dodecylpyridine-2-carboxamide. In the case of (E)-oxime of 1-(3-pyridyl)tridecan-1-one, the photodegradation led to formation of N-dodecylpyridine-3-carboxamide, 3-aminopyridine and eicosan-8-one.

    3. Photo and Chemical Reduction of Copper onto Anatase-Type TiO2 Nanoparticles with Enhanced Surface Hydroxyl Groups as Efficient Visible Light Photocatalysts (pages 797–806)

      Hamed Eskandarloo, Alireza Badiei, Mohammad A. Behnajady and Ghodsi Mohammadi Ziarani

      Article first published online: 8 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12455

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      The visible–light-induced photocatalytic activity of anatase-type TiO2 nanoparticles was enhanced by a combined process of copper reduction and surface hydroxyl groups enhancement.

    4. Fluorescence Properties of Diphenylthiazolo[4,5-b]pyrazines Tuned by Donor-Acceptor Substituent Effects (pages 807–813)

      Tatsuki Nakagawa, Minoru Yamaji, Shojiro Maki, Haruki Niwa and Takashi Hirano

      Article first published online: 18 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12440

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      Fluorescence properties of 2,6- and 2,5-diphenylthiazolo[4,5-b]pyrazines having an electron-donating substituent (methoxy and dimethylamino) on the 6- and 5-phenyl groups were studied. Furthermore, 2,6-diphenyl derivatives having an additional cyano group on the 2-phenyl ring were developed, to give an excellent fluorophore.

    5. Hybrid Membrane of Agarose and Lanthanide Coordination Polymer: a Selective and Sensitive Fe3+ Sensor (pages 814–818)

      Kai Zheng, Kai-Li Lou, Cheng-Hui Zeng, Sha-Sha Li, Zhi-Wen Nie and Shengliang Zhong

      Article first published online: 14 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12460

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      A new hybrid membrane was prepared by a facile method. It is a highly selective and sensitive Fe3+ sensor. The sensing results can be easily distinguished by the naked eye in daylight or irradiated by a portable UV device.

    6. Vibronic Structures in Absorption and Fluorescence Spectra of Firefly Oxyluciferin in Aqueous Solutions (pages 819–827)

      Miyabi Hiyama, Yoshifumi Noguchi, Hidefumi Akiyama, Kenta Yamada and Nobuaki Koga

      Article first published online: 20 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12463

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      The intensities of vibronic transitions for keto and enol oxyluciferin and their conjugate bases in aqueous solutions between their ground and first electronic excited states were calculated for the first time via estimation of the vibrational Franck–Condon factors. The theoretical spectral shapes and widths explain many relevant features of the experimentally observed spectra.

    7. Luciferin-Regenerating Enzyme Mediates Firefly Luciferase Activation Through Direct Effects of D-Cysteine on Luciferase Structure and Activity (pages 828–836)

      Roohullah Hemmati, Saman Hosseinkhani, Reza H. Sajedi, Taha Azad, Amin Tashakor, Nuredin Bakhtiari and Farangis Ataei

      Article first published online: 18 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12430

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      The addition of D-cysteine in the absence of T69R T-LRE (closed circle) to luciferase reaction increased the bioluminescent level over time in comparison with a luciferase reaction containing D-cysteine in the presence of T69R T-LRE (closed diamond) and control (solid line). Thus, even in the presence of LRE the majority of this increase occurs from the direct effects of D-cysteine.

    8. Effects of PAR and UV Radiation on the Structural and Functional Integrity of Phycocyanin, Phycoerythrin and Allophycocyanin Isolated from the Marine Cyanobacterium Lyngbya sp. A09DM (pages 837–844)

      Rajesh Prasad Rastogi, Ravi Raghav Sonani and Datta Madamwar

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12449

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      UV irradiances significantly affected the structural and functional integrity of biologically relevant molecules phycocyanin (PC, λmax: 615 nm), phycoerythrin (PE, λmax: 563 nm) and allophycocyanin (APC, λmax: 652 nm). UV radiation also affected the bilin chromophores covalently attached to phycobiliproteins (PBPs). The spectroscopic as well as sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE) analyses of the PC, PE and APC of Lyngbya sp. showed a marked decrease in the PBPs content with an increase in UV exposure time. In comparison to the PC, the fluorescence properties of PE and APC were severely lost under UV-B radiation.

    9. Effects of Enhanced UV-B Radiation on Biochemical Traits in Postharvest Flowers of Medicinal Chrysanthemum (pages 845–850)

      Chao Si, Xiao-Qin Yao, Xue-Li He, Jian-Zhou Chu, Chun-Hui Ma and Xiao-Fei Shi

      Article first published online: 6 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12450

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      This article mainly studied enhanced UV-B radiation effects on biochemical traits in postharvest flowers of chrysanthemum. The experiment included six levels of UV-B radiation (UV0, 0 μW cm−2; UV50, 50 μW cm−2; UV200, 200 μW cm−2; UV400, 400 μW cm−2; UV600, 600 μW cm−2 and UV800, 800 μW cm−2). The results indicated that UV-B effects on biochemical traits in postharvest flowers depended on UV-B radiation intensities, and enhanced UV-B radiation could promote secondary metabolism processes in postharvest flowers.

    10. Variability of Solar Radiation and CDOM in Surface Coastal Waters of the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea (pages 851–861)

      Richard Sempéré, Julien Para, Marc Tedetti, Bruno Charrière and Marc Mallet

      Article first published online: 16 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12434

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      The wavelengths 305 and 380 nm have been chosen as biologically effective wavelengths for the induction of DNA damages (CPDs) and photorepairs (PERs) respectively. The ratio of the mean doses received within the mixed layer at 305 and 380 nm [Q in % = H(m,305)]/H(m,380) × 100] along with the mixed layer depth (Zm) are presented. Q ratio can be considered as an indicator of changes in the balance between DNA damages (CPDs) and repairs (PERs). Clearly, Q increased with the stratification of the water column.

    11. A Novel Microsensor for Measuring Angular Distribution of Radiative Intensity (pages 862–868)

      Thomas E. Murphy, Stuart Pilorz, Leslie Prufert-Bebout and Brad Bebout

      Article first published online: 28 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12452

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      Measurement of the directional dependence of radiative intensity is essential for understanding light transport in microbial mats, plant leaves, soils and phototrophic biofilms. Previously, measuring the directional intensity in these environments required inserting a field radiance probe with a small acceptance angle into a tissue at multiple angles, which required significant time and labor. This paper presents a novel differential acceptance angle (DAA) light probe, which can measure the directional intensity in light fields from a single location without reorienting the probe. We discuss the construction of the DAA probe and its performance compared to a conventional field radiance probe.

    12. Light-mediated DNA Repair Prevents UVB-induced Cell Cycle Arrest in Embryos of the Crustacean Macrobrachium olfersi (pages 869–878)

      Eliane Cristina Zeni, Dib Ammar, Mayana Lacerda Leal, Heloisa Schramm da Silva, Silvana Allodi, Yara Maria Rauh Müller and Evelise Maria Nazari

      Article first published online: 4 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12457

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      In this paper, we simulated in laboratory the UVB irradiance that embryos receive in the natural environment. After irradiation, embryos were kept under different visible light conditions in order to recognize the presence of cell damage repair. In summary, our results showed that UVB radiation negatively impacts embryos of M. olfersi. The impairments observed in proliferation probably resulted from unrepaired DNA damage, which was responsible for the overexpression in darkness of p53 after 48 h and PCNA after 1 h. Moreover, in this study we demonstrated that, under visible light, embryos showed successful DNA repair.

    13. Salvianolic Acid B Protects Normal Human Dermal Fibroblasts Against Ultraviolet B Irradiation-Induced Photoaging Through Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase and Activator Protein-1 Pathways (pages 879–886)

      Zhengwang Sun, Sang-Yong Park, Eunson Hwang, Mengyang Zhang, Fengxie Jin, Baochun Zhang and Tae Hoo Yi

      Article first published online: 18 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12427

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      UV causes increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity and decreased collagen synthesis, leading to skin photoaging. We found that salvianolic acid B (SAB) significantly inhibited the UVB-induced expression of metalloproteinases-1 (MMP-1) while promoting the production of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1). Moreover, SAB strongly inhibited UVB-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 phosphorylation, which resulted in decreasing UVB-induced phosphorylation of c-Fos and c-Jun. These results indicate that SAB down-regulates UV-induced MMP-1 expression by inhibiting mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways and activator protein-1 (AP-1) activation.

    14. Actual Isothermal Effects of Water-Filtered Infrared A-Irradiation (pages 887–894)

      Annika Höhn, Petra Hartmann, Veronika Gebhart, Johanna Sonntag, Tilman Grune and Tobias Jung

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12439

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      In this work, we exposed human dermal fibroblasts to water-filtered infrared A (wIRA)-irradiation under isothermal conditions in order to investigate changes in the parameters intracellular free calcium, mitochondrial membrane potential and radical production, DNA and protein oxidation, cell proliferation and protection against UVB.

    15. Histopathological Analysis of UVB and IR Interaction in Rat Skin (pages 895–900)

      Vinícius C. Gonzalez, Ana C. M. Beheregaray, Bárbara M. Peres, Eliza S. V. Sallis, Antônio S. Varela Junior and Gilma S. Trindade

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12435

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      Chronic IR exposure before UVB irradiation can reduce some of the histopathological alterations caused by UVB while chronic IR exposure after UVB irradiation can enhance most of the histopathological features caused by UVB skin damage.

    16. Endogenous Retinoic Acid Required to Maintain the Epidermis Following Ultraviolet Light Exposure in SKH-1 Hairless Mice (pages 901–908)

      Katherine L. Gressel, F. Jason Duncan, Tatiana M. Oberyszyn, Krista M. La Perle and Helen B. Everts

      Article first published online: 28 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12441

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      Ultraviolet light B (UVB) exposure alters the expression of some retinoid metabolism proteins; but an analysis of the complete system in vivo is lacking. We analyzed the expression of retinoid metabolism proteins by immunohistochemistry 48 h after UVB treatment of SKH-1 mice. Acute UVB localized retinoic acid (RA) synthesis and signaling to the upper stratum granulosum; localized RA degradation to the lower stratum granulosum and stratum spinosum; and reduced retinoid storage. Inhibition of RA synthesis by disulfiram damaged the epidermis (image). These results suggest that endogenously synthesized RA is important in epidermal differentiation and repair following UVB exposure.

    17. Ultraviolet B Inhibits Skin Wound Healing by Affecting Focal Adhesion Dynamics (pages 909–916)

      Han Liu, Jiping Yue, Qiang Lei, Xuewen Gou, Shao-Yu Chen, Yu-Ying He and Xiaoyang Wu

      Article first published online: 16 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12462

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      Skin is the most important barrier protecting us from various environmental damages such as DNA-damaging UV radiation from the sun. Little was known about how UVB affects skin wound healing and migration of epidermal keratinocytes. The aim of this work is to estimate the effects of UVB on keratinocyte cell motility, focal adhesion turnover, cytoskeletal dynamics and skin wound healing both in vitro and in vivo mouse model.

    18. Susceptibility of Ureaplasma urealyticum to Methylene Blue-Mediated Photodynamic Antimicrobial Chemotherapy: An in vitro Study (pages 917–922)

      Tinglu Ye, Bancheng Chen, Bo Yu, Qili Zhong, Guoxin Huang, Xiaoping Hu and Wei Zhang

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12438

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      This work investigated the susceptibility of Ureaplasma urealyticum to methylene blue-mediated photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT). When U. urealyticum strains were incubated with methylene blue for 20 or 60 min, irradiation with 633 nm red light led to a significant inactivation effect on the growth of U. urealyticum. Higher light dose, or longer incubation time with methylene blue induced more extensive inactivation of U. urealyticum. Thus, PACT provides a promising alternative treatment for resistant U. urealyticum infections.

    19. Effects of Silencing Heme Biosynthesis Enzymes on 5-Aminolevulinic Acid-mediated Protoporphyrin IX Fluorescence and Photodynamic Therapy (pages 923–930)

      Xue Yang, Weihua Li, Pratheeba Palasuberniam, Kenneth A. Myers, Chenguang Wang and Bin Chen

      Article first published online: 8 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12454

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      Three heme biosynthesis enzymes porphobilinogen synthase (PBGS), porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD) and ferrochelatase (FECH) were silenced to evaluate its effects on aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-mediated protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence and photodynamic therapy (PDT) in human breast cancer SkBr3 cells. Knockdown of PBGS or PBGD significantly decreased ALA-PpIX fluorescence and rendered resistance to PDT. In contrast, silence of FECH greatly sensitized cells to PDT by increasing ALA-PpIX production.

    20. Promotion of Proapoptotic Signals by Lysosomal Photodamage (pages 931–936)

      David Kessel and John J. Reiners Jr

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12456

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      Dose–response curves showing the ability of a prior low level of lysosomal photodamage (NPe6) to markedly potentiate photokilling by the benzoporphyrin derivative (BPD).

    21. Minimizing Concentration of Sodium Hypochlorite in Root Canal Irrigation by Combination of Ultrasonic Irrigation with Photodynamic Treatment (pages 937–941)

      Yanhuang Wang, Suli Xiao, Dianfu Ma, Xiaojing Huang and Zhiyu Cai

      Article first published online: 10 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12459

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      Enterococcus faecalis plays an important role in root canal treatment failures and persistent periapical infection. The results of this in vitro study confirmed the feasibility to reduce the concentration of NaOCl to a safer level while maintaining its antibacterial efficiency through synergistic effect of PDT with NaOCl ultrasonic irrigation.

    22. Phototherapeutic Effect of Low-Level Laser on Thyroid Gland of Gamma-Irradiated Rats (pages 942–951)

      Nadia Morcos, Manar Omran, Hala Ghanem, Mahmoud Elahdal, Nashwa Kamel and Elbatoul Attia

      Article first published online: 4 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12465

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      Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) would provide a protective effect against radiation-induced oxidative damage in the thyroid, liver and hemopoietic system depending on the frequency of its application.

    23. Biomodulation of Inflammatory Cytokines Related to Oral Mucositis by Low-Level Laser Therapy (pages 952–956)

      Fernanda G. Basso, Taisa N. Pansani, Diana G. Soares, Débora L. Scheffel, Vanderlei S. Bagnato, Carlos Alberto de Souza Costa and Josimeri Hebling

      Article first published online: 28 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12445

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      This study evaluated the effects of low level laser therapy (LLLT) on the expression of inflammatory cytokines involved in the development and severity of oral mucositis. Human gingival fibroblasts treated with LPS (Escherichia coli, 1 μg mL−1) were subjected to LLLT irradiation (LaserTABLE—InGaAsP diode prototype—780 nm, 25 mW) delivering 0, 0.5, 1.5, or 3 J cm². LLLT promoted significant decreases in the expression of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 at 1.5 J cm−2 and 3 J cm−2. These results demonstrate that LLLT promoted a beneficial biomodulatory effect on the expression of inflammatory cytokines related to oral mucositis by human gingival fibroblasts.

    24. High Final Energy of Low-Level Gallium Arsenide Laser Therapy Enhances Skeletal Muscle Recovery without a Positive Effect on Collagen Remodeling (pages 957–965)

      Carlos Eduardo Assumpção de Freitas, Raquel Santilone Bertaglia, Ivan José Vechetti Júnior, Edson Assunção Mareco, Rondinelle Artur Simões Salomão, Tassiana Gutierrez de Paula, Gisele Alborghetti Nai, Robson Francisco Carvalho, Francis Lopes Pacagnelli and Maeli Dal-Pai-Silva

      Article first published online: 28 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12446

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      This study investigated the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) at a high final energy (4.8 J) during muscle regeneration after cryoinjury. Gallium Arsenide (GaAs, 904 nm) laser applied for 5 days in two points of the lesion resulted in a significant decrease in the TNF-α and myogenin, without change in the TGF-β gene expression. The Injured/LLLT group presented a higher number of regenerating fibers and fewer degenerating fibers without changes in the collagen remodeling. The results suggest that the GaAs laser at a high final energy (4.8 J) promotes muscle recovery without changing the collagen remodeling.

    25. Human Hair as a Natural Sun Protection Agent: A Quantitative Study (pages 966–970)

      María Victoria de Gálvez, José Aguilera, Jean-Luc Bernabó, Cristina Sánchez-Roldán and Enrique Herrera-Ceballos

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12433

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      Hair provides a barrier against both UVB and UVA radiation which is significantly increased with respect to the hair density (A), thickness (B) and the presence of melanins (hair color) (C). This is the first study to quantify sun protection factor offered by hair, namely hair ultraviolet protection factor (HUPF). Hair should be recognized as an important natural sun barrier in the prevention of UV-induced skin cancers.

    26. Solar Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure of South African Marathon Runners During Competition Marathon Runs and Training Sessions: A Feasibility Study (pages 971–979)

      Victoria Nurse, Caradee Y. Wright, Martin Allen and Richard L. McKenzie

      Article first published online: 19 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12461

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      Marathon runners spend considerable time outdoors training for and participating in marathons, and may experience high solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure. South Africa, where running is popular, experiences high UVR levels that may be associated with adverse health effects. This feasibility study explores use of personal dosimeters to determine solar UVR exposure patterns of four marathon runners during marathons and training sessions. Runners running marathons that started early in the day, and that did not exceed 4 h, yielded low total solar UVR exposure doses. Several challenges hindered analysis including accounting for anatomical position of personal dosimeter and natural shade.

  3. Research Notes

    1. Top of page
    2. Invited Review
    3. Research Articles
    4. Research Notes
    1. An Optimized Firefly Luciferase Bioluminescent Assay for the Analysis of Free Fatty Acids (pages 980–984)

      Simone M. Marques, Luís M. Gonçalves and Joaquim C. G. Esteves da Silva

      Article first published online: 3 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12458

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      An optimized bioluminescent assay for free fatty acids is herein presented. The method is based on ATP depletion followed by bioluminescence detection. Optimization was achieved through experimental design methodology. The method is linear from 1 to 20 μm, with limits of detection and quantitation of 1.3 and 4.5 μm, respectively. The method is fast, simple to perform, sensitive and robust.

    2. Origins of the Intermediate Spectral Form in M100 Mutants of Photoactive Yellow Protein (pages 985–991)

      Anil Kumar and George Andrew Woolley

      Article first published online: 28 MAY 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12464

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      Mutations at the M100 site (large red ball) in photoactive yellow protein produce the intermediate spectral form (shoulder in the UV-Vis spectrum) by affecting a network of residues (cyan balls) including those that are H-bonded to the hydroxyl group of the chromophore (small red balls).