Photochemistry and Photobiology

Cover image for Vol. 91 Issue 5

September/October 2015

Volume 91, Issue 5

Pages 993–1250

  1. Invited Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Invited Reviews
    3. Research Articles
    4. Letters to the Editor
    1. You have free access to this content
      How Does Photoreceptor UVR8 Perceive a UV-B Signal? (pages 993–1003)

      Xiaojing Yang, Sherwin Montano and Zhong Ren

      Article first published online: 11 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12470

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      Light perception of UV-B photoreceptor UVR8 is triggered by light-induced molecular events originating in two epicenters located at the dimer interface. Clustered tryptophan residues serve as UV-B pigments and undergo concerted conformational changes upon absorbing UV-B photons, which disrupt the dimer interface and lead to dimer dissociation of UVR8.

    2. You have free access to this content
      Green Light to Plant Responses to Pathogens: The Role of Chloroplast Light-Dependent Signaling in Biotic Stress (pages 1004–1011)

      María Laura Delprato, Adriana R. Krapp and Néstor Carrillo

      Article first published online: 11 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12466

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      The effect of light on ROS production by chloroplasts during a non-host pathogen interaction causing LCD is illustrated by infiltrating tobacco leaves with Xanthomonas campestris (see reference [16] in the text). Leaves were incubated with a ROS-reacting probe and observed 19 h post-infiltration by confocal laser microscopy, merging bright field, chlorophyll self-fluorescence (red), and ROS fluorescence (green). In leaves kept in the dark (left), chloroplasts were visualized as a red necklace around the central vacuole. Illuminated tissue (right) shows chloroplasts in yellow due to combination of red and green fluorescence, indicating that pathogen interaction results in light-dependent plastid ROS production.

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      Photoreceptors in Chemotrophic Prokaryotes: The Case of Acinetobacter spp. Revisited (pages 1012–1020)

      Clara B. Nudel and Klaas J. Hellingwerf

      Article first published online: 8 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12491

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      Most members of the genus Acinetobacter have at least one BLUF protein encoded in their genome. A. baylyi ADP1 has four of them, of which three are jointly involved in the inhibition of twitching motility in response to blue light at suboptimal temperatures.

    4. You have free access to this content
      The Evolution and Functional Role of Flavin-based Prokaryotic Photoreceptors (pages 1021–1031)

      Aba Losi, Carmen Mandalari and Wolfgang Gärtner

      Article first published online: 11 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12489

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      Blue-light photosensors of the LOV type, related to plant phototropins, are wide spread among bacteria. What is their role in vivo and by which pathways did they evolve? Why to bacterial pathogens often see the same blue color as they host plants and in the same way? News and views on a burning photobiology topic.

    5. You have free access to this content
      Activation of the General Stress Response of Bacillus subtilis by Visible Light (pages 1032–1045)

      Jeroen B. van der Steen and Klaas J. Hellingwerf

      Article first published online: 11 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12499

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      The general stress response of Bacillus subtilis can be activated with blue and red light. The mechanism of its activation is well understood, to the extent that computational analysis allows one to recognize mutationally altered properties of blue-light photoreceptor protein YtvA (one of the components of high-molecular-weight complexes called stressosomes) in the in vivo output characteristics of the stress response. This system qualifies exceptionally well as a model system for future studies of genome evolution, driven by altered stimulus regimes.

    6. You have free access to this content
      Nonvisual Opsins and the Regulation of Peripheral Clocks by Light and Hormones (pages 1046–1055)

      Maristela O. Poletini, Bruno C. Ramos, Maria Nathalia Moraes and Ana Maria L. Castrucci

      Article first published online: 24 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12494

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      Nonvisual opsins have a wide distribution in all vertebrate classes, even though their role in the modulation of peripheral clocks remains elusive. Together with light, hormones represent an important zeitgeber in the entrainment of peripheral clocks. In this review, we focus the entrainment of peripheral clocks of nonmammalian vertebrates by light and hormones, highlighting the main differences between mammalian and nonmammalian models. In addition, the putative photopigments and the signaling pathways triggered by light in ectothermic vertebrates are also discussed.

  2. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Invited Reviews
    3. Research Articles
    4. Letters to the Editor
    1. Photophysics and Rotational Dynamics of a Hydrophilic Molecule in a Room Temperature Ionic Liquid (pages 1056–1063)

      Aninda Chatterjee, Banibrata Maity, Sayeed Ashique Ahmed and Debabrata Seth

      Article first published online: 24 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12472

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      This paper focuses on the photophysics and rotational diffusion of a hydrophilic solute 7-(N, N′-diethylamino)coumarin-3-carboxylic acid (7-DCCA) in a room temperature ionic liquid methyltrioctylammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide ([N1888][NTf2]).

    2. The Effect of pH Values on the Synthesis, Microstructure and Photocatalytic Activity of Ce-Bi2O3 by a Two-Step Hydrothermal Method (pages 1064–1070)

      Fengjun Zhang, Wei Lu, Guosheng Xiao, Zhuojing Liu, Fanwei Xing and Cong Lyu

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12496

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      The pH values had effect on the microstructure and photocatalytic activity of Ce-Bi2O3 catalysts. At pH 5, the Ce-Bi2O3 exhibited a best morphology with irregular nanosheets. Correspondingly, it possessed largest surface area (24.641m2 g−1) and pore volume (9.825E-02cm3 g−1). Ce-Bi2O3 (pH of 5) exhibited as tetragonal crystal with the bismuth oxide in the form of the composites, which could reduce the band gap width (2.61 eV) and suppress the charge-carrier recombination, subsequently possessing great photocatalytic activity for acid orange II under visible light irradiation.

    3. Doping of Zinc Oxide with Selected First Row Transition Metals for Photocatalytic Applications (pages 1071–1077)

      Darina Schelonka, Jakub Tolasz and Václav Štengl

      Article first published online: 24 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12469

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      ZnO samples doped with selected first row transition metals were used for degradation of an organic dye Reactive Black 5. The results of the photocatalytic experiments showed that the samples were active under VIS light. The most photocatalytically active was the Fe-doped ZnO.

    4. Enhanced Self-Cleaning Properties on Polyester Fabric Under Visible Light Through Single-Step Synthesis of Cuprous Oxide Doped Nano-TiO2 (pages 1078–1087)

      Hamdam Gaminian and Majid Montazer

      Article first published online: 20 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12478

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      Here, Cu2O-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized simultaneous with alkali hydrolysis on the polyester fabric through a simple sonochemical technique. A statistical method namely central composite design was used to determine the effect of three different variables including CuSO4.5H2O, glucose and pH on the self-cleaning properties and weight of the fabric. FE-SEM images and XRD/EDX patterns confirmed formation of Cu2O-doped TiO2 nanoparticles on the polyester fabric. The treated polyester fabric indicated superior durable self-cleaning properties along with high tensile strength.

    5. Reclamation of Water Polluted with Flubendiamide Residues by Photocatalytic Treatment with Semiconductor Oxides (pages 1088–1094)

      José Fenoll, Nuria Vela, Isabel Garrido, Ginés Navarro, Gabriel Pérez-Lucas and Simón Navarro

      Article first published online: 17 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12479

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      The degradation of flubendiamide in aqueous suspensions of binary (ZnO and TiO2) and ternary (Zn2TiO4 and ZnTiO3) oxides of zinc and titanium under artificial light (300–460 nm) irradiation has been studied. The results show that the use of photosensitizer/Na2S2O8, especially with TiO2 and ZnO, is a very effective and rapid method for the elimination of this pesticide in water. In addition, the main photocatalytic intermediate (desiodo-flubendiamide) detected during the degradation of flubendiamide was identified. These results have high environmental interest for the treatment of polluted water and therefore a significant scientific impact.

    6. Kinetic Model of Photoautotrophic Growth of Chlorella sp. Microalga, Isolated from the Setúbal Lagoon (pages 1095–1102)

      Josué Miguel Heinrich and Horacio Antonio Irazoqui

      Article first published online: 29 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12468

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      Photosynthesis and Microalgal growth rate depends on the local light availability; in this work a kinetic expression for algal growth under light controlling conditions has been derived from a simplified pathway of the light-dependent step of photosynthesis.

    7. Estimating the Diurnal Cycle and Daily Insolation of Ultraviolet and Photosynthetically Active Radiation at the Sea Surface (pages 1103–1111)

      Victor S. Kuwahara and Satoru Taguchi

      Article first published online: 17 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12474

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      The diurnal variability of in situ surface (0+) and subsurface (0) ultraviolet radiation and photosynthetically active radiation were measured, modeled and tested. The diurnal variability in UVR and PAR were wavelength dependent and were modeled by a simple sinusoidal equation. Higher n values in the UV-B spectrum suggest sharper increase/decrease near sunrise and sunset hours, ultimately reducing the daily insolation at specific wavelengths and altering the UV-B/(UV-A + PAR) ratio throughout the day.

    8. Effects of Light and Salinity Stresses in Production of Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids by Gymnodinium catenatum (Dinophyceae) (pages 1112–1122)

      Paulo Vale

      Article first published online: 30 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12488

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      Mycosporine-like amino acids concentration increased with salinity, in particular high polar MAAs. Abrupt changes in light intensity increased rapidly the low polar palythene. In both cases, mycosporine–glycine was one of the MAAs with the greatest increase, while biosynthesis of M370, a major MAA in G. catenatum, progressed slowly. Experiments put into evidence the biosynthetic relations between MAAs and its degradation pathways. MAAs might play a multifunctional role to cope with salinity (shinorine, porphyra-334) and photooxidative (mycosporine–glycine, palythene, M-370) stresses. High salinity and high light conditions also altered chain formation toward shorter chains or solitary cells.

    9. Functional Characterization of a LOV-Histidine Kinase Photoreceptor from Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (pages 1123–1132)

      Ivana Kraiselburd, Alexander Gutt, Aba Losi, Wolfgang Gärtner and Elena G. Orellano

      Article first published online: 20 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12493

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      Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) is the bacterium responsible for citrus canker. Xcc-LOV is a blue-light (BL) sensing, hybrid histidine-kinase protein. This spectroscopic characterization confirmed that Xcc-LOV presents a canonical LOV-photochemistry, involving the BL-induced formation of a covalent cystein-chromophore (flavin) adduct, preceded by a transient flavin triplet state and followed by thermal conversion into the dark state. Moreover, Xcc-LOV showed BL-induced kinase activity, initiating a signal transduction cascade. Therefore, we correlated the previously observed regulatory effects of BL on Xcc physiology and synthesis of effectors for maintaining plant energetic metabolism and counteracting plant defense, with the molecular activation of Xcc-LOV.

    10. Melanopsins: Localization and Phototransduction in Xenopus laevis Melanophores (pages 1133–1141)

      Maria Nathália Moraes, Bruno C. Ramos, Maristela O. Poletini and Ana Maria L. Castrucci

      Article first published online: 6 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12484

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      Xenopus laevis melanophores express two melanopsins, Opn4x and Opn4m. Their proteins are differentially located: Opn4x is present in the cytoplasm and the cell membrane, and Opn4m is located in the nuclear region. In this model, blue light, which maximally activates melanopsins, increases clock gene expression. Given the localization of melanopsins and our pharmacological data, the light-induced clock gene expression seems to be mediated by Opn4x through the activation of the phosphoinositide cascade. This intracellular signaling ultimately cross-talks with cGMP-producing pathway, leading to the reset of the biological clock in X. laevis melanophores.

    11. Effects of UV-C and Vacuum-UV TiO2 Advanced Oxidation Processes on the Acute Mortality of Microalgae (pages 1142–1149)

      Eric McGivney, Magnus Carlsson, Jon Petter Gustafsson and Elena Gorokhova

      Article first published online: 2 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12473

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      In response to the transport of invasive species through ballast tanks, the shipping industry has begun employing disinfection treatment systems. This study compares the efficiencies of common treatment systems that employ TiO2 and different UV wavelengths on a freshwater alga (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) and a marine alga (Tetraselmis suecica). Treatment efficacy increased in the presence of TiO2 and when Vacuum UV light was added as a part of the irradiation. However, the effects were dependent on the algal species used as test organisms.

    12. Effect of 808 nm Diode Laser on Swimming Behavior, Food Vacuole Formation and Endogenous ATP Production of Paramecium primaurelia (Protozoa) (pages 1150–1155)

      Andrea Amaroli, Silvia Ravera, Steven Parker, Isabella Panfoli, Alberico Benedicenti and Stefano Benedicenti

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12486

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      Photobiomodulation and Low-Level Laser Therapy are terms applied to the manipulation of cellular behavior using low-intensity light sources and work on the principle of inducing a biological response through energy transfer. In our work, the effect of laser therapy by 808-nm infrared diode laser with a flat-top handpiece (1 W in CW–64 J cm−2) on Paramecium (Protozoa) has been investigated. The therapy increases Paramecium's swimming speed and food vacuole formation and positively affects adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. The increment of ATP without a thermal effect highlights the positive photobiomodulating effect of the therapy and the optimal irradiation conditions by the flat-top handpiece.

    13. The Effect of Surface Charge Saturation on Heat-induced Aggregation of Firefly Luciferase (pages 1156–1164)

      Jamileh Gharanlar, Saman Hosseinkhani, Reza H. Sajedi and Parichehr Yaghmaei

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12467

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      The effect of surface charge saturation on heat-induced aggregation of firefly luciferase. Different surface charge distribution has an effect on thermal aggregation of mutant luciferases at 45°C.

    14. Identification and Purification of the CPD Photolyase in Vibrio parahaemolyticus RIMD2210633 (pages 1165–1172)

      Zehong Su, Gaojian Lian, Kazuaki Mawatari, Ping Tang, Shuya He, Takaaki Shimohata, Yimou Wu, Weidong Yin and Akira Takahashi

      Article first published online: 7 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12481

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      Vibrio parahaemolyticus possesses the photoreactivation ability when it utilizes blue light as energy. However, ΔVPA1471 abolished this capacity completely, whereas complementation of VPA1417 could make this ability recover partly. Some cells of UVC radiated VPA0203 KO and VPA0204 KO strains recovered by the following UVA illumination.

    15. DNA Ligases I and III Support Nucleotide Excision Repair in DT40 Cells with Similar Efficiency (pages 1173–1180)

      Katja Paul-Konietzko, Juergen Thomale, Hiroshi Arakawa and George Iliakis

      Article first published online: 3 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12487

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      Higher eukaryotes utilize three types of DNA ligases, Lig1, Lig3 and Lig4, which, in the classical view, have dedicated functions in DNA metabolism. We have reported that contrary to previous assumptions, Lig3 can efficiently support DNA replication and DNA double strand break repair. Here, we demonstrate that Lig3 also supports nucleotide excision repair with efficiency similar to Lig1. Collectively, these observations lead to a new model of DNA ligase functions and raise Lig3 from a niche ligase to a universal ligase that can efficiently substitute or backup the functions of Lig1 and Lig4.

    16. Effectiveness of the Photoactive Dye Methylene Blue versus Caspofungin on the Candida parapsilosis Biofilm in vitro and ex vivo (pages 1181–1190)

      Lucia Černáková, Jaroslava Chupáčová, Katarína Židlíková and Helena Bujdáková

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12480

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      PDI (photodynamic inactivation) is useful approach for eradication of microorganisms. This work compared effectiveness of methylene blue (MB) with clinically used drug – caspofungin (CAS). Biofilms of Candida parapsilosis were formed in 96-well microtiter plates and irradiated with red LED light (15 J cm−2) for 2.5 h after addition of different MB concentrations. Evaluation of results using CFU and XTT reduction assay showed effectiveness of PDI in contrast to CAS. Microscopic examination of in vitro and ex vivo biofilms formed on mouse tongues confirmed effect of MB on C. parapsilosis strains in the concentration range of 0.7–1.35 mmol L−1.

    17. A Family of Potent Ru(II) Photosensitizers with Enhanced DNA Intercalation: Bimodal Photokillers (pages 1191–1202)

      Eleftherios K. Pefkianakis, Theodossis A. Theodossiou, Dimitra K. Toubanaki, Evdokia Karagouni, Polycarpos Falaras, Kyriakos Papadopoulos and Georgios C. Vougioukalakis

      Article first published online: 8 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12485

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      “Bipolar killers”: A novel series of Ru-based photosensitizers was synthesized and extensively characterized. All photosensitizers exhibited strong absorbance bands, widely spread in the UV–Vis spectral region and were found to be highly efficient in generating cytotoxic singlet oxygen, with quantum yields up to ΦΔ~0.8. More importantly, the Ru compounds were found to possess a bimodal cytotoxic profile: (1) They proved to be excellent DNA intercallators with potent DNA-photocleavage abilities; and (2) The compounds were very efficiently internalized by DU145 human prostate cancer cells, against which they exerted profound phototoxicity.

    18. Photodynamic Action Mechanism Mediated by Zinc(II) 2,9,16,23-Tetrakis[4-(N-methylpyridyloxy)]phthalocyanine in Candida albicans Cells (pages 1203–1209)

      María Albana Di Palma, María Gabriela Alvarez and Edgardo N. Durantini

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12483

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      The photoreaction type I/type II pathways mediated by ZnPPc4+ was studied in Candida albicans cells. Photoinactivation was investigated in presence of specific molecular probes to detect the presence of ROS, under different experimental conditions and in presence of scavengers of ROS to find information about the photoprocesses that produces the cell death. These investigation indicates that O2(1Δg) is generated in the cells, although a minor extension other radical species can also be involved in the photoinactivation of C. albicans mediated by ZnPPc4+.

    19. Measuring the Physiologic Properties of Oral Lesions Receiving Fractionated Photodynamic Therapy (pages 1210–1218)

      Shannon M. Gallagher-Colombo, Harry Quon, Kelly M. Malloy, Peter H. Ahn, Keith A. Cengel, Charles B. Simone II, Ara A. Chalian, Bert W. O'Malley, Gregory S. Weinstein, Timothy C. Zhu, Mary E. Putt, Jarod C. Finlay and Theresa M. Busch

      Article first published online: 2 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12475

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      Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy with a contact probe was employed as part of a fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy system to measure the tissue hemoglobin oxygen saturation and hemoglobin content of lesions of premalignant or early microinvasive cancer of the oral cavity. Studies demonstrate the feasibility of incorporating these measurements into treatment with fractionated (two-part) photodynamic therapy (PDT) using 5-aminolevulinic acid. Patient-specific differences in physiologic parameters were detectable at baseline and at times during and after PDT. Photobleaching of photosensitizer was measured by its fluorescence. Results establish the utility of rationally designed spectroscopy probes toward personalized dosimetry in PDT of oral disease.

    20. Impact of Substituents in Tumor Uptake and Fluorescence Imaging Ability of Near-Infrared Cyanine-like Dyes (pages 1219–1230)

      Nayan J. Patel, Ethirajan Manivannan, Penny Joshi, Tymish J. Ohulchanskyy, Roger R. Nani, Martin J. Schnermann and Ravindra K. Pandey

      Article first published online: 30 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12482

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      Impact of substituents in tumor uptake and fluorescence imaging ability of near-infrared heterocyclic polymethine dyes.

    21. Phototherapy on the Treatment of Burning Mouth Syndrome: A Prospective Analysis of 20 Cases (pages 1231–1236)

      Lúcia de Fátima C. dos Santos, Samantha C. de Andrade, Gessé E. C. Nogueira, Jair C. Leão and Patrícia M. de Freitas

      Article first published online: 4 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12490

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      Laser Phototherapy (LPT) consists of an effective alternative for treating the symptoms of Burning Mouth Syndrome. This prospective clinical study reports on preliminary outcomes of volunteers diagnosed with BMS that have undergone the conventional treatment prior to laser phototherapy (660 nm). All volunteers reported reduced burning intensity in all sessions when compared to the previous one and reduction in Visual Analog Scale scores by up to 49% in the last clinical session when compared to the first session.

    22. International Intercomparison of Solar UVR Spectral Measurement Systems in Melbourne in 2013 (pages 1237–1246)

      Peter Gies, Rebecca Hooke, Richard McKenzie, John O'Hagan, Stuart Henderson, Andy Pearson, Marina Khazova, John Javorniczky, Kerryn King, Matt Tully, Michael Kotkamp, Bruce Forgan and Stephen Rhodes

      Article first published online: 22 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12492

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      A new CCD array spectrometer from the UK and two double monochromators based in Australia that make regular measurements of solar ultraviolet radiation were intercompared in Melbourne for a week in October and November of 2013. Each of the units is calibrated independently via a different calibration pathway and are used to underpin UV measurement networks in Australia, New Zealand and the UK. The CCD array spectrometer performed well in measuring UV index values in comparison with the other two traditional spectral systems.

  3. Letters to the Editor

    1. Top of page
    2. Invited Reviews
    3. Research Articles
    4. Letters to the Editor