Photochemistry and Photobiology

Cover image for Vol. 92 Issue 1

January/February 2016

Volume 92, Issue 1

Pages 1–219

  1. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Invited Reviews
    4. Research Articles
    5. Research Note
    1. Issue Information (pages 1–2)

      Article first published online: 20 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12513

  2. Invited Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Invited Reviews
    4. Research Articles
    5. Research Note
    1. You have free access to this content
      Emerging Hubs in Plant Light and Temperature Signaling (pages 3–13)

      Christian D. Lorenzo, Maximiliano Sanchez-Lamas, Mariana S. Antonietti and Pablo D. Cerdán

      Article first published online: 17 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12535

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      Temperature and Light Perception integration.

    2. You have free access to this content
      Forged Under the Sun: Life and Art of Extremophiles from Andean Lakes (pages 14–28)

      Virginia Helena Albarracín, Wolfgang Gärtner and María Eugenia Farias

      Article first published online: 30 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12555

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      High-altitude Andean lakes are a treasure chest for microbiological research in South America. Their indigenous microbial communities including the highest modern stromatolites are exposed to outstandingly high UV irradiation and share a complex system of genetic and physiological mechanisms called as UV-resistome.

    3. You have free access to this content
      Melanopsin and the Non-visual Photochemistry in the Inner Retina of Vertebrates (pages 29–44)

      Nicolás M. Díaz, Luis P. Morera and Mario E. Guido

      Article first published online: 15 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12545

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      The inner retina of most vertebrates expresses the photopigment melanopsin (Opn4). Opn4 has been involved in a number of nonimage forming tasks (synchronization of circadian rhythms, pupillary light reflexes, etc.) and although it has been characterized as a bi/tristable photopigment, little is known about the mechanism/s involved in its chromophore regeneration. Based on some molecular and biochemical similarities with rhabdomeric photoreceptors (the biochemical nature of phosphoinositol-photocascade and opsin homology), we can infer that a novel visual cycle may operate in Opn4 (+) cells further cooperating to the chromophore regeneration via a supplementary alternative process as described in Drosophila.

    4. You have free access to this content
      UV-induced DNA Damage: The Role of Electronic Excited States (pages 45–51)

      Dimitra Markovitsi

      Article first published online: 18 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12533

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      Electronic interactions among DNA bases give rise to excited states delocalized over two or more bases. As a result, the excited state properties depend strongly on conformational motions.

    5. You have free access to this content
      Photobiological Origins of the Field of Genomic Maintenance (pages 52–60)

      Ann Ganesan and Philip Hanawalt

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12542

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      Although sunlight is essential for life, the UV wavelengths constitute a threat to life. Cellular responses evolved to deal with DNA damage inflicted by UV; the study of these responses spawned the burgeoning field of DNA repair and genomic maintenance.

  3. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Invited Reviews
    4. Research Articles
    5. Research Note
    1. Charge Separation and Catalytic Activity of Fe3O4@Ag “Nanospheres” (pages 61–68)

      Bahram Hemmateenejad, Mojtaba Shamsipur and Naser Jalili–Jahani

      Article first published online: 4 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12534

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      Current knowledge (and unknowns) about photocatalytic activity of Fe3O4@Ag-NPs.

    2. Choline Chloride Assisted Synthesis of N and Metal Codoped TiO2 and their Photocatalytic Activity under Visible Light (pages 69–75)

      Navneet Kaur, Satwant Kaur Shahi and Vasundhara Singh

      Article first published online: 17 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12532

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      Mechanism involved for degradation of dye with (a) undoped TiO2 (b) N-doped TiO2 (c) N, metal codoped TiO2 under visible light.

    3. In Situ Photo Sonosynthesis of Organic/Inorganic Nanocomposites on Wool Fabric Introducing Multifunctional Properties (pages 76–86)

      Amir Behzadnia, Majid Montazer and Mahnaz Mahmoudi Rad

      Article first published online: 15 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12546

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      A novel efficient process is introduced for wool fabric with multifunctional features through facile in situ photo sonosynthesis of organic/inorganic nanocomposites. The fabric was treated with titanium isopropoxide, silver nitrate and ammonia in a sonobath at 75–80°C for 1 h. The uniform distribution of the nanocomposites on the fiber surface was proved by SEM, EDX and mapping. The sono-treated wool fabrics illustrated excellent photocatalytic activities toward discoloration of Methylene Blue under sunlight. Also the fabrics indicated reasonable antibacterial/antifungal activities against S. aureus, E. coli and C. albicans. The tensile properties of the sono-treated fabrics was also enhanced.

    4. Improved Photodegradation of Organic Contaminants Using Nano-TiO2 and TiO2–SiO2 Deposited on Portland Cement Concrete Blocks (pages 87–101)

      Hoda Jafari and Shahrara Afshar

      Article first published online: 29 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12554

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      We studied the photocatalytic activity of nano-TiO2 and TiO2–SiO2 particles for degradation of some organic dyes on cementitious materials. Grain sizes were calculated by Scheerer's equation and were estimated to be around 10 nm. For the photocatalytic degradation test, 10 mg L−1 aqueous solution of Methylene Blue and Malachite Green oxalate at acidic pH were used as organic pollutants. The results showed that both samples have significant ability to oxidize dyes completely under visible and UV lighting. With other conditions unchanged, the lower the pH value, the lower the concentration of dyes, the higher decolorizing rate recorded for TiO2–SiO2/Portland cement concrete blocks.

    5. Interaction of Methanol Spray and Water-Deficit Stress on Photosynthesis and Biochemical Characteristics of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Sadry (pages 102–110)

      Nezam Armand, Hamzeh Amiri and Ahmad Ismaili

      Article first published online: 29 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12548

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      The study of interaction of methanol spray and water-deficit stress on beans characteristics showed that there was a significant increase between these treatments for chlorophyll (Chl) a and Chl b, carotenoid (Car), total Chl, PN (net photosynthesis), Ci (intercellular CO2), Fv/Fm (maximal quantum yield of photosystem II photochemistry), water use efficiency (WUE) and relative water content (RWC) and decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase activity (POX) and catalase activity (CAT). The trait, leaf moisture (LM), was not significant. The results suggest that foliar application of methanol can decrease the negative effects of water-deficit stress on Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Sadry.

    6. Integration of Cyanine, Merocyanine and Styryl Dye Motifs with Synthetic Bacteriochlorins (pages 111–125)

      Eunkyung Yang, Nuonuo Zhang, Michael Krayer, Masahiko Taniguchi, James R. Diers, Christine Kirmaier, Jonathan S. Lindsey, David F. Bocian and Dewey Holten

      Article first published online: 18 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12547

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      The photophysical properties (Φf, τs, ΦT, τT, kf, kic, kisc) of three free base bacteriochlorins bearing previously unexplored conjugating substituents have been characterized and interpreted with the aid of molecular-orbital calculations. The bacteriochlorins absorb strongly in the 780–850 nm region and provide models for photosynthetic bacteriochlorophylls.

    7. Acute Effects of Light on Alternative Splicing in Light-Grown Plants (pages 126–133)

      Estefania Mancini, Sabrina E. Sanchez, Andres Romanowski, Ruben G. Schlaen, Maximiliano Sanchez-Lamas, Pablo D. Cerdán and Marcelo J. Yanovsky

      Article first published online: 15 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12550

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      Light modulates plant growth and development to a great extent by regulating gene expression programs. Here, we evaluated the effect of light on alternative splicing (AS) in light-grown Arabidopsis thaliana plants using high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). Interestingly, the effect of a red-light pulse on AS of a gene encoding a splicing factor was not impaired in a quintuple phytochrome mutant, providing unequivocal evidence that nonphotosensory photoreceptors control AS in light-grown plants.

    8. Assessment of Fatty Acid Profile and Seed Mineral Nutrients of Two Soybean (Glycine max L.) Cultivars Under Elevated Ultraviolet-B: Role of ROS, Pigments and Antioxidants (pages 134–143)

      Krishna Kumar Choudhary and Shashi Bhushan Agrawal

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12544

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      Elevated UV-B exposure to soybean led to an increase in unsaturation of fatty acids and changes in acid, iodine and saponification values of oil. This indicated that eUV-B stress favored the synthesis of long-chain fatty acids with fewer carboxylic acid groups, making the oil more rancid, with undesirable flavor and low nutritional value. Negative effects were also observed on seeds mineral nutrients. Adverse effects resulted due to insufficient quenching of ROS by the defense system (i.e. antioxidative enzymes, flavonoids, lignin and wax) and thus unable to counteract the imposed oxidative stress.

    9. Oxidative Modification in Human Hair: The Effect of the Levels of Cu (II) Ions, UV Exposure and Hair Pigmentation (pages 144–149)

      Anita J. Grosvenor, Jennifer Marsh, Ancy Thomas, James A. Vernon, Duane P. Harland, Stefan Clerens and Jolon M. Dyer

      Article first published online: 5 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12537

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      Human hair is exposed to a wide range of potentially modifying or damaging factors through daily routine, including sunlight and chemicals. This study describes molecular mapping of the effects of UV insult on the proteins of human hair, and how this modification varies with varying levels of copper (II) ions (introduced through washing) and differing levels of hair pigmentation. Advanced redox proteomic approaches were used to locate and track protein oxidation and correlate this modification to hair treatment.

    10. Novel In Vitro Antioxidant and Photoprotection Capacity of Plants from High Altitude Ecosystems of Colombia (pages 150–157)

      Juan C. Mejía-Giraldo, Kelly Henao-Zuluaga, Cecilia Gallardo, Lucia Atehortúa and Miguel A. Puertas-Mejía

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12543

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      Selected plants grow on high mountains of tropical zones that are exposed to high UVR levels all year long. Their extracts showed an exceptional absorption coefficient and their sunscreen formulations displayed values of SPF, UVAPF, UVA/UVB ratio, and critical wavelength high enough to satisfy requirements for broad-spectrum UVB/UVA protection. In addition, the photostability study in formulations showed an in vitro SPF effectiveness (%SPFeff) greater than 80%. Therefore, the proposed natural formulation could be considered as a photostable product.

    11. The Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer from Firefly Luciferase to a Synthetic Dye and its Application for the Rapid Homogeneous Immunoassay of Progesterone (pages 158–165)

      Daria V. Smirnova, Jeanne V. Samsonova and Natalia N. Ugarova

      Article first published online: 29 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12556

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      The sensitive BRET system for homogeneous immunoassay was developed using progesterone as an example. Two thermostable mutants of the Luciola mingrelica firefly luciferase (the “red” and “green” with λmax.em at 590 and 550 nm, respectively) were tested as the donors. The water-soluble Alexa Fluor 610× (AF) dye was selected as acceptor. The luciferase–progesterone (Luc–Pg) conjugate and the conjugate of the dye and the polyclonal antiprogesterone antibody (AF–Ab) were obtained, that retained their functional properties and demonstrated a high BRET signal. The homogeneous immunoassay system based on the BRET demonstrated the minimum detectable progesterone concentration of 0.5 ng mL−1.

    12. Fluorinated Photodynamic Therapy Device Tips and their Resistance to Fouling for In Vivo Sensitizer Release (pages 166–172)

      Ashwini A. Ghogare, Joann M. Miller, Bikash Mondal, Alan M. Lyons, Keith A. Cengel, Theresa M. Busch and Alexander Greer

      Article first published online: 4 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12538

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      A one-step process (i.e. simultaneous delivery of sensitizer, oxygen and light) has been developed to simplify the application of PDT. We have analyzed the potential fouling of the PDT device tips with biomaterial from SQ20B squamous cell carcinoma tumors and whole blood. Measurements included sensitizer output inhibition and also biomaterial adhesion by a bicinchoninic acid assay and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A fluorinated device tip led to improved biofouling resistance based on sensitizer photorelease performance and other factors.

    13. Phloroglucinol Reduces Photodamage in Hairless Mice via Matrix Metalloproteinase Activity Through MAPK Pathway (pages 173–179)

      A-Rang Im, Kung-Woo Nam, Jin Won Hyun and Sungwook Chae

      Article first published online: 18 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12549

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      The phloroglucinol showed the photoprotective effect on UVB-induced skin damage in terms of epidermis thickness and collagen change based on histological examination.

    14. Gp91phox-derived Reactive Oxygen Species/Urocortin 2/Corticotropin-releasing Hormone Receptor Type 2 Play an Important Role in Long-term Ultraviolet A Eye Irradiation-induced Photoaging (pages 180–186)

      Keiichi Hiramoto and Yurika Yamate

      Article first published online: 28 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12553

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      In this experiment, photoaging was induced using long-term ultraviolet A (UVA) eye irradiation for 12 months. According to our observations, UVA eye irradiation increases the production of ROS from gp91phox in the brain, and this gp91phox-induced ROS stimulates urocortin 2. Moreover, urocortin 2 increases the degranulation of tryptase and histamine from mast cells of the skin, thereby leading to photoaging.

    15. Acute Ultraviolet Radiation Perturbs Epithelialization but not the Biomechanical Strength of Full-thickness Cutaneous Wounds (pages 187–192)

      Patricia L. Danielsen, Catharina M. Lerche, Hans Christian Wulf, Lars N. Jorgensen, Ann-Sofie H. Liedberg, Christer Hansson and Magnus S. Ågren

      Article first published online: 4 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12552

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      Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) elicits an inflammatory response in the skin and increases the proliferation of basal cells of the epidermis. The consequences of these effects on wound healing remain unknown and were therefore studied here. We exposed immunocompetent hairless mice for escalating does of solar-simulated UVR. Twenty-four hours later full-thickness wounds were made in the skin and their postoperative healing followed. We found that UVR dose-dependently impaired epidermal coverage of the wounds (Figure), whereas UVR had no effect on the biomechanical strength of the surgical wounds. Our results ought to be taken into account when planning for surgical procedures in the skin.

    16. Estimating Sun Exposure of Children in Day Care Nurseries in South Oxfordshire, UK (pages 193–200)

      Katarzyna A. Baczynska, Luke L. A. Price, Michael P. Higlett and John B. O'Hagan

      Article first published online: 26 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12536

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      The aim of this study was to assess variations in the available erythema effective radiant doses to young children in day care nurseries in South Oxfordshire, UK over 7 years between 2008 and 2014. The data were analyzed in three distinct seasons according to a series of realistic exposure scenarios, taking into account nursery routines. The results indicate the time of year when high doses are to be expected and provide strong support for arguments in favor of raising public awareness of sun protection earlier in the year.

    17. Suberythemal Sun Exposures at Swedish Schools Depend on Sky Views of the Outdoor Environments – Possible Implications for Pupils’ Health (pages 201–207)

      Peter Pagels, Ulf Wester, Margareta Söderström, Bernt Lindelöf and Cecilia Boldemann

      Article first published online: 18 DEC 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12540

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      Erythemal UV- exposures in Swedish pupils were measured. Exposures largely correlated to the schools’ outdoor environments differing in amount of shade, vegetation, and peripheral city-scape quantified as percentage of free sky view calculated from fish-eye photographs. The exposures were suberythemal and below the threshold limit of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) for hazard evaluation of UVR but were potentially enough for adequate vitamin D formation according to a cited model calculation.

    18. Comparing Handheld Meters and Electronic Dosimeters for Measuring Ultraviolet Levels under Shade and in the Sun (pages 208–214)

      Suzanne Dobbinson, Philippa Niven, David Buller, Martin Allen, Peter Gies and Charles Warne

      Article first published online: 20 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12551

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      Comparisons of UV measurements and other practical information are provided to assist public health researchers with choice of portable radiometers for future studies.

  4. Research Note

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Invited Reviews
    4. Research Articles
    5. Research Note
    1. Sensitivity of UV Erythemal Radiation to Total Ozone Changes under Different Sky Conditions: Results for Granada, Spain (pages 215–219)

      Manuel Antón, Alberto Cazorla, David Mateos, Maria J. Costa, Francisco J. Olmo and Lucas Alados-Arboledas

      Article first published online: 4 NOV 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12539

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      The analysis of the sensitivity of UV erythemal radiation (UVER) to total ozone changes during different sky conditions differs if the analysis is performed in relative terms (from the RAF) or in absolute terms (from the OE). Both RAF and OE exhibit a great dependence on the cloud optical depth (COD) during overcast conditions, but with opposite sign: while RAF increases with increasing COD, the OE substantially reduces its value as COD increases. To sum up, the UVER sensitivity to ozone changes is strongly affected by the sky conditions related to the cloud cover.