Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic immunologic mucocutaneous inflammatory disease of the oral mucosa. Since the etiopathology of OLP is idiopathic, treatment is usually symptomatic, therefore showing low predictability. Currently, topical corticosteroids are widely accepted as the standard therapy. However, for patients unresponsive to standard therapy for OLP, new treatment modalities have been sought. Phototherapy has recently been accepted as an alternative or adjunctive treatment modality for many conditions in medicine and dentistry. The aim of this study is to present the advantages and disadvantages of the different kinds of phototherapy used in treatment of OLP (UV phototherapy, lasers, and photodynamic therapy). The main outcome measures compared were improvement of signs and symptoms and OLP recurrence. Although some phototherapy techniques in the selected articles have demonstrated limited effects, there is no solid basis in evidence for the effectiveness of any of these treatments for OLP. Therefore, further research, especially randomized controlled clinical trials with long-term follow-up, is needed to give any solid recommendation on the use of phototherapy in the field of OLP treatment.