You have full text access to this Open Access content

Physiological Reports

Cover image for Vol. 1 Issue 6

November 2013

Volume 1, Issue 6

  1. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    1. You have full text access to this Open Access content
      Issue Information

      Version of Record online: 31 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/phy2.115

  2. Original Research

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Posttranslational regulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 by calcium-dependent vesicular exocytosis

      Jonathan A. Dranoff, Neal Bhatia, Michel Fausther, Elise G. Lavoie, Susana Granell, Giulia Baldini, DaShawn A. Hickman and Nina Sheung

      Version of Record online: 31 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/phy2.125

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Here, we demonstrate that stimulation of hepatic stellate cells release TIMP-1 via vesicular exocytosis. This finding suggests a potentially new therapeutic target for the treatment and/or prevention of liver fibrosis.

      e00125

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Effects of long-term head-down-tilt bed rest and different training regimes on the coagulation system of healthy men

      Thomas Haider, Hanns-Christian Gunga, Raffaella Matteucci-Gothe, Elke Sottara, Andrea Griesmacher, Daniel L. Belavý, Dieter Felsenberg, Andreas Werner and Wolfgang Schobersberger

      Version of Record online: 31 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/phy2.135

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We investigated if long-term bed rest under simulated microgravity (60 days 6° head-down tilt) influences the coagulation system, that is, induces a prothrombotic situation. There were no relevant changes in thromboelastographic analyses, in D-dimer, thrombin–antithrombin III complex, and prothrombin fragment F1 + 2. We conclude that in healthy subjects long-term bed rest is not associated with a pronounced activation of coagulation.

      e00135

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Suppression of the cough reflex by α2-adrenergic receptor agonists in the rabbit

      Elenia Cinelli, Fulvia Bongianni, Tito Pantaleo and Donatella Mutolo

      Version of Record online: 5 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/phy2.122

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We investigated the effects of the α2-adrenergic receptor agonists, clonidine and tizanidine, on cough responses induced by mechanical and chemical (citric acid) stimulation of the tracheobronchial tree. Drugs were microinjected (30–50 nL) into the caudal nucleus tractus solitarii (cNTS) and the caudal ventral respiratory group (cVRG) as well as administered intravenously in pentobarbital sodium-anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rabbits. The results demonstrate that activation of α2-adrenergic receptors in the rabbit exerts potent inhibitory effects on the central mechanism generating the cough motor pattern with a clear action at the level of the cNTS and the cVRG.

      e00122

    4. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Abnormal tracheal smooth muscle function in the CF mouse

      Helen L. Wallace, Kevin W. Southern, Marilyn G. Connell, Susan Wray and Theodor Burdyga

      Version of Record online: 5 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/phy2.138

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This article investigated tracheal smooth muscle function in the cystic fibrosis mouse airway. Data showed a significant reduction in the amplitude and duration of contraction in response to carbachol in Ca-free conditions. The reduction in contraction was agonist specific and was not associated with changes in the area or distribution of smooth muscle

      e00138

    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Mycophenolate mofetil prevents high-fat diet–induced hypertension and renal glomerular injury in Dahl SS rats

      Frank T. Spradley, Carmen De Miguel, Janet Hobbs, David M. Pollock and Jennifer S. Pollock

      Version of Record online: 5 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/phy2.137

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats were placed on normal diet, high-fat diet (HFD), or HFD supplemented with immunosuppressive therapy for 4 weeks with blood pressure, renal CD3+ cell localization, and renal structural damage assessed. HFD led to hypertension, increased renal glomerular and medullary CD3+ infiltration, and renal glomerulosclerosis. Immunosuppressive therapy abolished the high-fat–induced hypertension, reduced CD3+ infiltration in the glomerulus and glomerular injury.

      e00137

    6. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The truncated splice variants, NT-PGC- and PGC-1α4, increase with both endurance and resistance exercise in human skeletal muscle

      Mia Ydfors, Helene Fischer, Henrik Mascher, Eva Blomstrand, Jessica Norrbom and Thomas Gustafsson

      Version of Record online: 5 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/phy2.140

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      e00140

      Recently, a truncated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) splice variant was shown to be induced by resistance exercise and to elicit muscle hypertrophy without coactivation of previously identified PGC-1α aerobic targets. We investigated the expression of truncated and nontruncated PGC-1α splice variants following a single bout of resistance and endurance exercise as well as in 5-amino-imidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR)-treated human myotubes. Resistance exercise did not increase the truncated forms of PGC-1α to a greater extent than endurance exercise. Induction of specific PGC-1α splice variants does not appear to underlie distinct adaptations, for example, to resistance versus endurance exercise.

    7. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Differential regulation of nitric oxide synthase function in aorta and tail artery from 5/6 nephrectomized rats

      Frank T. Spradley, John J. White, William D. Paulson, David M. Pollock and Jennifer S. Pollock

      Version of Record online: 5 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/phy2.145

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      e00145

      Vascular function in renal failure patients is typically assessed in peripheral arteries like the brachial artery, whereas animal studies often use the centrally located aorta. We examined whether peripheral tail artery and aortic nitric oxide synthase (NOS) function are differentially regulated by blood pressure in rats with chronic renal failure. NOS inhibition showed that renal failure reduced and increased NOS function in aorta and tail artery, respectively, for both vasorelaxation and vasoconstriction responses. These alterations were abolished when blood pressure was normalized.

    8. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Lysine deacetylase inhibition promotes relaxation of arterial tone and C-terminal acetylation of HSPB6 (Hsp20) in vascular smooth muscle cells

      Aiqing Chen, Magdalena Karolczak-Bayatti, Michèle Sweeney, Achim Treumann, Kelly Morrissey, Scott M. Ulrich, G. Nicholas Europe-Finner and Michael J. Taggart

      Version of Record online: 7 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/phy2.127

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      There is increasing interest in establishing the roles that lysine acetylation of non nuclear proteins may exert in modulating cell function. We report that inhibition of lysine deacetylase activity non-epigenetically relaxes arterial tone and introduces site-specific changes in lysine acetylation of the myofilament interacting protein HSPB6. These data contribute to an increasing appreciation that myofilament-associated protein acetylation is an important regulator of arterial tone.

      e00127

    9. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The human sodium-dependent ascorbic acid transporters SLC23A1 and SLC23A2 do not mediate ascorbic acid release in the proximal renal epithelial cell

      Peter Eck, Oran Kwon, Shenglin Chen, Omar Mian and Mark Levine

      Version of Record online: 7 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/phy2.136

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The identity of the cellular efflux protein for ascorbic acid in the renal proximal tubule is unknown. The presented data show that SLC23A1 and SLC23A2 do not have a role in cellular release of ascorbic acid across the basolateral membrane of the proximal tubular epithelial cell, and that SLC23A1 alone is responsible for ascorbic acid uptake across the apical membrane.

      e00136

    10. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Bilateral sectioning of the anterior ethmoidal nerves does not eliminate the diving response in voluntarily diving rats

      Jill S. Chotiyanonta, Karyn M. DiNovo and Paul F. McCulloch

      Version of Record online: 7 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/phy2.141

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      e00141

      We found that in the absence of intact anterior ethmoidal nerve (AENs) rats can initiate (1) a full diving response during voluntary diving, and (2) a full nasopharyngeal response during nasal stimulation. Therefore the cardiorespiratory responses to nasal stimulation are diminished immediately after acute bilateral AEN sectioning but fully restored by at least 9 days later. The delay in activating the cardiorespiratory responses after nasal stimulation may be due to neuronal plasticity within the Central Nervous System (CNS).

    11. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Effect of decompression-induced bubble formation on highly trained divers microvascular function

      Kate Lambrechts, Jean-Michel Pontier, Aleksandra Mazur, Peter Buzzacott, Jean Morin, Qiong Wang, Michael Theron and Francois Guerrero

      Version of Record online: 7 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/phy2.142

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      e00142

      This study points out the effect of diving on microcirculatory endothelium-dependent and -independent function using laser Doppler flowmetry and plasmatic markers, which was not reported before to the best of our knowledge. These data may be helpful in the comprehension and in the prevention of the mechanism underlying decompression sickness.

    12. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Interaponeurosis shear strain modulates behavior of myotendinous junction of the human triceps surae

      Ryuta Kinugasa, Toshiaki Oda, Toshihiko Komatsu, V. Reggie Edgerton and Shantanu Sinha

      Version of Record online: 7 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/phy2.147

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      e00147

      Interaponeurosis shear strain is a mechanism enabling individual muscle contraction and thus specific loading of the tendon and joint.

    13. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Multimodal imaging reveals a role for Akt1 in fetal cardiac development

      Katrien Vandoorne, Moriel H. Vandsburger, Karen Weisinger, Vlad Brumfeld, Brian A. Hemmings, Alon Harmelin and Michal Neeman

      Version of Record online: 7 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/phy2.143

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      e00143

      Akt1−/− fetuses displayed smaller hearts and reduced fetal weight. (A and B) Ex vivo μCT images and volume-rendered hearts revealing reduced size with a thinner myocardium and ventricular septum with a dilated morphology in Akt1−/− mice (B, arrowheads). (C and D) Quantification of volumes of fetal heart at E16.5 (C) and E18.5 (D), illustrates reduced Akt1−/− myocardial volume. (E) Akt1−/− fetuses displayed significantly lower weight at E16.5 compared to Akt1+/+ fetuses. RV, right ventricle; LV, left ventricle; +/+, Akt1+/+; +/, Akt1+/−; /, Akt1−/−; *P < 0.05.

    14. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Concurrent muscle and bone deterioration in a murine model of cancer cachexia

      EunHi Choi, Kadir Carruthers, Li Zhang, Nathan Thomas, Ricardo A. Battaglino, Leslie R. Morse and Jeffrey J. Widrick

      Version of Record online: 7 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/phy2.144

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      e00144

      Bone mineral density was significantly reduced in young mice inoculated with the Lewis lung carcinoma. Extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and diaphragm muscles (DIA), but not soleus muscles (SOL), from these animals showed a loss in tetanic force that greatly exceeded the degree of muscle wasting, suggesting an impact of cachexia on cellular mechanisms of contraction in addition to its effect on gross muscle mass. The Lewis lung carcinoma model may be a useful preclinical tool for investigating cachexia-related changes to the musculoskeletal systems.

    15. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Subject-specific measures of Achilles tendon moment arm using ultrasound and video-based motion capture

      Kurt Manal, Justin D. Cowder and Thomas S. Buchanan

      Version of Record online: 7 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/phy2.139

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      e00139

      In this study we present an alternate method combining ultrasound and video-based motion capture to measure the Achilles tendon (AT) moment arm in vivo. Moment arms for 10 healthy male subjects were measured in 10° increments ranging from 20° of dorsiflexion (DF) to 20° of plantar flexion (PF) while at rest and during MVC. Moment arms increased in magnitude for both conditions as the ankle moved from DF to PF. In 20° of DF the moment arm at rest averaged 34.6 ± 1.8 mm and increased to a maximum value of 36.9 ± 1.9 mm when plantar flexed to 10°. Moment arms during MVC ranged from 35.7 ± 1.8 mm to 38.1 ± 2.6 mm.

    16. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Renal vasoconstriction is augmented during exercise in patients with peripheral arterial disease

      Rachel C. Drew, Matthew D. Muller, Cheryl A. Blaha, Jessica L. Mast, Matthew J. Heffernan, Lauren E. Estep, Jian Cui, Amy B. Reed and Lawrence I. Sinoway

      Version of Record online: 7 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/phy2.154

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      e00154

      We investigated renal vascular responses during exercise in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and healthy controls (CON). Our findings show that renal vasoconstriction is augmented during exercise in PAD patients compared to controls, and can be attenuated with an antioxidant infusion, suggesting that oxidative stress partly contributes to this exaggerated response.

    17. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The fetal sheep lung does not respond to cortisol infusion during the late canalicular phase of development

      Erin V. McGillick, Sandra Orgeig, I. Caroline McMillen and Janna L. Morrison

      Version of Record online: 11 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/phy2.130

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The prepartum surge in plasma cortisol concentrations in humans and sheep promotes fetal lung and surfactant system maturation in the support of air breathing after birth. In the very preterm fetal sheep lung we have demonstrated that increased plasma cortisol concentrations are not able to increase the expression of genes regulating fetal lung liquid reabsorption and surfactant system development. For infants born at the limits of fetal viability, exposure to glucocorticoids may not be beneficial to support the lung in the transition to air breathing following birth.

      e00130

    18. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Interleukin-10 protects against aging-induced endothelial dysfunction

      Dale A. Kinzenbaw, Yi Chu, Ricardo A. Peña Silva, Sean P. Didion and Frank M. Faraci

      Version of Record online: 11 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/phy2.149

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      e00149

      Our findings suggest that interleukin (IL)-10 protects against age-related increases in expression of IL-6, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction.

    19. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Heparanase mediates renal dysfunction during early sepsis in mice

      Melissa I. Lygizos, Yimu Yang, Christopher J. Altmann, Kayo Okamura, Ana Andres Hernando, Mario J. Perez, Lynelle P. Smith, Daniel E. Koyanagi, Aneta Gandjeva, Rhea Bhargava, Rubin M. Tuder, Sarah Faubel and Eric P. Schmidt

      Version of Record online: 11 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/phy2.153

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      e00153

      Glomerular heparanase activity increases in early murine sepsis and mediates the onset of renal dysfunction. The mechanisms underlying heparanase-mediated renal dysfunction are disparate from those underlying heparanase-mediated ARDS, demonstrating pathophysiologic heterogeneity of organ injury during sepsis.

    20. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Vascular effects of deletion of melanocortin-4 receptors in rats

      David W. Stepp, Christabell C. Osakwe, Eric J. Belin de Chantemele and James D. Mintz

      Version of Record online: 13 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/phy2.146

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      e00146

      Obesity causes hypertension, but links remain incompletely understood. Prior studies have suggested that metabolic signals that target melanocortin-4 receptors (MC4R)-expressing neurons in the brain play an important role in linking weight gain to blood pressure. In this study, we demonstrate that in rats genetically devoid of MC4R receptors, morbid obesity fails to produce increases in blood pressure, providing further evidence that MC4R are an important link between increased weight and hypertension.

    21. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Cardioprotective effects of angiotensin III against ischemic injury via the AT2 receptor and KATP channels

      Byung Mun Park, Shan Gao, Seung Ah Cha, Byung Hyun Park and Suhn Hee Kim

      Version of Record online: 13 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/phy2.151

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      e00151

      Ang III improved cardiac function induced by I/R injury. The cardioprotective effects of Ang III against I/R injury were attenuated by pretreatment with both AT2R and KATP channels blocker. These effects may be partly related to activating antioxidant and antiapoptotic enzymes.

    22. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The effects of exercise on dynamic sleep morphology in healthy controls and patients with chronic fatigue syndrome

      Akifumi Kishi, Fumiharu Togo, Dane B. Cook, Marc Klapholz, Yoshiharu Yamamoto, David M. Rapoport and Benjamin H. Natelson

      Version of Record online: 13 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/phy2.152

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      e00152

      We studied the effects of exercise on dynamic sleep morphology in healthy controls and patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). We found that exercise promotes transitions to deeper sleep stages and inhibits transitions to lighter sleep stages for controls and CFS, but CFS also reported increased fatigue and continued to have rapid eye movement (REM) sleep disruption. This dissociation suggests possible mechanistic pathways for the underlying pathology of CFS.

    23. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Renal effects of a novel endogenous natriuretic agent xanthurenic acid 8-o-β-d-glucoside in rats

      Aaron Hoffman, Marina Okun-Gurevich, Elena Ovcharenko, Ilia Goltsman, Tony Karram, Cristopher Cain, Zaid Abassi and Joseph Winaver

      Version of Record online: 13 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/phy2.155

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      e00155

      Xanthurenic glucoside is a new endogenous mild natriuretic/diuretic agent acting on amiloride-sensitive renal epithelial sodium channels. In addition, the in vivo natriuretic effects are partially mediated by NO-dependent mechanisms.

    24. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Maternal-to-fetal allopurinol transfer and xanthine oxidase suppression in the late gestation pregnant rat

      Andrew D. Kane, Emily J. Camm, Hans G. Richter, Ciara Lusby, Deodata Tijsseling, Joepe J. Kaandorp, Jan B. Derks, Susan E. Ozanne and Dino A. Giussani

      Version of Record online: 13 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/phy2.156

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      e00156

      No small animal model of allopurinol administration to the mother during pregnancy has been established. Such a model is indispensable in species with a comparatively shorter life span to allow follow up of the effects of xanthine oxidase inhibition during pregnancy on the physiology of the offspring in later life. This study provides the capacity to investigate the long-term consequences of maternal treatment with allopurinol on the physiology of the offspring, and to help establish the lasting safety of xanthine oxidase inhibition in human high-risk pregnancy in current clinical obstetric practice.

    25. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Temperature and transmural region influence functional measurements in unloaded left ventricular cardiomyocytes

      Charles S. Chung and Kenneth S. Campbell

      Version of Record online: 14 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/phy2.158

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      e00158

      Intact cardiomyocyte experiments are valuable for discovery of contractile mechanisms and therapeutic drugs. Optimal experimental conditions are not well described. This study shows the importance of using physiologic temperature (37°C) and isolation from transmural regions.

    26. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Cardiac power integral: a new method for monitoring cardiovascular performance

      Audun E. Rimehaug, Oddveig Lyng, Dag O. Nordhaug, Lasse Løvstakken, Petter Aadahl and Idar Kirkeby-Garstad

      Version of Record online: 19 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/phy2.159

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      e00159

      The continuous product of aortic flow and aortic pressure is the cardiac power curve. The time integral of this curve is the cardiac power integral, and represents the energy transferred from the heart to the aorta. Using a porcine model, we have validated a system for acquiring the cardiac power integral, and found a strong correlation between the cardiac power integral and stroke work across multiple different loading and contractility conditions.

    27. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Maintained expression of genes associated with metabolism in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus despite development of leptin resistance during pregnancy in the rat

      Hollian R. Phillipps, Sharon R. Ladyman and David R. Grattan

      Version of Record online: 19 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/phy2.162

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      e00162

      Despite significantly elevated plasma leptin and insulin concentrations, and lower blood glucose levels, no significant changes in gene expression of pituitary adenylate cyclase–activated polypeptide (Pacap), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf), or glucokinase in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMN) were detected between nonpregnant and day 14 pregnant groups. These data suggest that loss of leptin and insulin sensitivity during pregnancy in the VMN might allow gene expression to be maintained at normal/control levels in this nucleus, despite marked changes in the levels of these important regulatory hormones. These data provide further evidence for development of leptin resistance in the VMN as an adaptive response during pregnancy.

    28. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Identification of compound heterozygous KCNJ1 mutations (encoding ROMK) in a kindred with Bartter's syndrome and a functional analysis of their pathogenicity

      Shalabh Srivastava, Dimin Li, Noel Edwards, Ann-M. Hynes, Katrina Wood, Mohamed Al-Hamed, Anna C. Wroe, David Reaich, Shabbir H. Moochhala, Paul A. Welling and John A. Sayer

      Version of Record online: 19 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/phy2.160

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      e00160

      A multiplex family was identified with biochemical and clinical features suggestive of Bartter's syndrome. We detected S219R/L220F compound heterozygous missense changes in KCNJ1, encoding the potassium channel ROMK. Studies in Xenopus oocytes revealed that both S219R and L220F had a deleterious effect on ROMK-mediated potassium currents and that coinjection to mimic the compound heterozygosity produced a synergistic decrease in channel function and revealed a loss of PKA-dependent stabilization of PIP2 binding.

    29. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide prevents contrast-induced nephropathy in a novel mouse model

      Altaf-M. Khan, Jerome L. Maderdrut, Min Li, Herman L. Toliver, David H. Coy, Eric E. Simon and Vecihi Batuman

      Version of Record online: 19 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/phy2.163

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      e00163

      Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP38) protects HK-2 cells against the toxicity caused by ionic and nonionic contrast media. PACAP38 protects the structure and function of the kidney in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-deficient mice against the deleterious effects of the ionic contrast medium Urografin. PACAP38 is a potential therapeutic agent to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy.

    30. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Multiple mechanisms underlying rectification in retinal cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNGA1) channels

      Manuel Arcangeletti, Arin Marchesi, Monica Mazzolini and Vincent Torre

      Version of Record online: 22 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/phy2.148

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      e00148

      In cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNGA1) channels, current–voltage (I-V) relationship depends, in a complex way, on the radius of permeating ion. We show that distinct mechanisms underlie rectification in CNG channels. A restricted motion of the S4 helix render CNGA1 channels poorly sensitive to voltage in the presence of physiological Na+ and K+.

    31. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Evidence for a common mechanism for spontaneous rhythmic contraction and myogenic contraction induced by quick stretch in detrusor smooth muscle

      S. Omid Komari, Patrick C. Headley, Adam P. Klausner, Paul H. Ratz and John E. Speich

      Version of Record online: 22 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/phy2.168

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      e00168

      Detrusor smooth muscle exhibits myogenic contraction in response to a quick stretch (QS) as well as spontaneous rhythmic contraction (SRC); however, whether the same population of actomyosin crossbridges with a common regulatory mechanism is responsible for these two types of contraction has not been determined. Nadir-to-peak (NTP) tension of a QS-induced contraction was larger when a QS was imposed during a portion the SRC cycle when tension was smaller, suggesting that when the rhythmic mechanism was mostly inactive, a larger portion of a shared population of crossbridges was available to produce a myogenic response to a QS. Rho kinase, cyclooxygenase-1, and cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors affected SRC amplitude and NTP amplitude following a QS to the same degree, providing additional evidence to support the hypothesis that a common mechanism is responsible for SRC and myogenic contraction due to QS.

    32. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Axonal projections of Renshaw cells in the thoracic spinal cord

      Shane A. Saywell, Timothy W. Ford and Peter A. Kirkwood

      Version of Record online: 24 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/phy2.161

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      e00161

      Renshaw cells in T7 or T8 segments of the cat were intracellularly labeled with neurobiotin and their axons traced for distances ≥6 mm from the somata. Their patterns of termination were remarkably similar to that previously described in the lumbosacral segments, despite much more widespread inhibition of motoneurons by Renshaw cells in thoracic than in lumbosacral segments. We conclude that characteristic features of that pattern, extensive collateralization within a millimeter or so of the soma plus more widely spaced, shorter collaterals more distally, do not represent the pattern of motoneuronal inhibition.

    33. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Inhibitory collaterals in genetically identified medium spiny neurons in mouse primary corticostriatal cultures

      Rupa R. Lalchandani and Stefano Vicini

      Version of Record online: 24 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/phy2.164

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      e00164

      D1 and D2 MSNs extend inhibitory collaterals that shape neuron firing and striatal output. Using BAC transgenics and paired whole-cell recordings, we describe a paradigm that allows for the simultaneous identification of both MSN subtypes and the targeted study of MSN collaterals.

    34. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Effects of hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning on cardiac stress markers after simulated diving

      Arve Jørgensen, Philip P. Foster, Alf O. Brubakk and Ingrid Eftedal

      Version of Record online: 24 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/phy2.169

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      e00169

      Cardiac ischemia and acute heart failure may develop from exposure to high loads of vascular gas emboli due to a rapid ambient pressure reduction (e.g., diving, aviation, spaceflight) or as a result of gas entry into the vasculature during inhospital procedures (e.g., extracorporal bypass and invasive catheters). This study shows that hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning appears to prevent cardiac injury induced by vascular gas embolism in rats.

    35. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The vortex formation time to diastolic function relation: assessment of pseudonormalized versus normal filling

      Erina Ghosh and Sándor J. Kovács

      Version of Record online: 26 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/phy2.170

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      e00170

      Vortex formation time incorporating constant volume physiologic attributes derived from kinematic modeling of filling allows differentiation between pseudonormal and normal E-waves.

    36. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Baroreceptor reflex control of heart rate in angiotensin type 1A receptor knockout mice

      Yan-Ting Choong, Clement Menuet, Nikola Jancovski and Andrew M. Allen

      Version of Record online: 26 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/phy2.171

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      e00171

      An aberrant baroreceptor-heart rate (HR) reflex has been reported in anesthetized angiotensin type 1A receptor knockout mice. Using a different anesthetic and two approaches to activate the reflex, we find no difference in the reflex compared to wild-type mice. Our observations are congruent with a previous report using spontaneous baroreceptor reflex measurements in conscious mice and suggest that the baroreceptor-HR reflex is normal in type 1A receptor knockout mice.

    37. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Spinal plasticity in stroke patients after botulinum neurotoxin A injection in ankle plantar flexors

      Claire Aymard, Louis-Solal Giboin, Alexandra Lackmy-Vallée and Véronique Marchand-Pauvert

      Version of Record online: 26 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/phy2.173

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      e00173

      Botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT-A) induces plasticity in the central nervous system through direct and indirect mechanisms, particularly it reduces recurrent inhibition mediated by Renshaw cells, which also control group Ia interneurones mediating reciprocal inhibition. Reciprocal facilitation of ankle dorsiflexor electromyographic activity observed after stroke, has been found depressed and even reversed into inhibition after BoNT-A in plantar flexors at the beginning of swing phase, as normally observed during locomotion, but the facilitation was found reinforced in late swing. The effect of BoNT-A muscular injection in stroke is not only peripheral but it also induces spinal plasticity participating in the improvement of muscle synergies at ankle level during locomotion.

    38. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Validation of SenseWear Armband and ActiHeart monitors for assessments of daily energy expenditure in free-living women with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

      Nighat Farooqi, Frode Slinde, Lena Håglin and Thomas Sandström

      Version of Record online: 26 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/phy2.150

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      e00150

      SenseWear Armband version 5.1 reliably estimates total daily energy expenditure (TEE) in free-living women with COPD. However, the SenseWear Armband 6.1 and ActiHeart monitors tend to underestimate TEE when compared with doubly labeled water.

    39. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Role of tongue pressure production in oropharyngeal swallow biomechanics

      Kazuhiro Hori, Hiroshige Taniguchi, Hirokazu Hayashi, Jin Magara, Yoshitomo Minagi, Qiang Li, Takahiro Ono and Makoto Inoue

      Version of Record online: 29 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/phy2.167

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      e00167

      The present results suggested the temporal coordination among tongue pressure generation, hyoid and bolus movement, and muscle activity.

    40. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Modification by KCNE1 variants of the hERG potassium channel response to premature stimulation and to pharmacological inhibition

      Chunyun Du, Aziza El Harchi, Henggui Zhang and Jules C. Hancox

      Version of Record online: 29 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/phy2.175

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      e00175

      This study shows that two clinically occurring long QT syndrome (LQTS) KCNE1 mutations and a further KCNE1 polymorphism modulate the response of human Ether-à-go-go-Related Gene (hERG) potassium channels to premature stimulation and to drugs associated with drug-induced LQTS. KCNE1 variants may therefore reduce the protective role of the cardiac “IKr” current early during diastole and, potentially, act as modifiers of susceptibility to drugs associated with acquired LQTS.

SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION