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Physiological Reports

Cover image for Vol. 2 Issue 6

June 2014

Volume 2, Issue 6

  1. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    4. Corrigendum
    5. Original Research
    1. You have full text access to this Open Access content
      Issue Information

      Version of Record online: 11 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/phy2.214

  2. Original Research

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    4. Corrigendum
    5. Original Research
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Chylomicrons produced by Caco-2 cells contained ApoB-48 with diameter of 80–200 nm

      Andromeda M. Nauli, Yuxi Sun, Judy D. Whittimore, Seif Atyia, Guha Krishnaswamy and Surya M. Nauli

      Version of Record online: 11 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.14814/phy2.12018

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      e12018

      When fully differentiated Caco-2 cells were challenged with oleic acid, lecithin, and sodium taurocholate, they produced 21% chylomicrons that were 80–200 nm in diameter. These chylomicrons contained significant amount of ApoB-48 and triglycerides such that they could be detected without the use of isotope labeling. Our studies identified factors that were important for chylomicron secretion.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Effects of systemic hypoxia on human muscular adaptations to resistance exercise training

      Michihiro Kon, Nao Ohiwa, Akiko Honda, Takeo Matsubayashi, Tatsuaki Ikeda, Takayuki Akimoto, Yasuhiro Suzuki, Yuichi Hirano and Aaron P. Russell

      Version of Record online: 11 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.14814/phy2.12033

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      e12033

      This study investigated the effect of resistance exercise training performed under systemic hypoxia or normoxia on biochemical and molecular muscular adaptations in healthy male subjects. Our findings demonstrate that resistance training under systemic hypoxia led not only muscle hypertrophy, but most interestingly, to a greater increase in muscular endurance. This increase in muscular endurance was potentially caused by the increased angiogenesis as determined by capillary-to-fiber ratio.

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      Hindlimb venous distention evokes a pressor reflex in decerebrated rats

      Katsuya Yamauchi, Audrey J. Stone and Marc P. Kaufman

      Version of Record online: 11 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.14814/phy2.12036

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      e12036

      In decerebrated unanesthetized rats with either freely perfused femoral arteries or arteries that were ligated 3 days before the experiment, we attempted to provide evidence in support of this theory by measuring arterial pressure, heart rate, and renal sympathetic nerve discharge while retrogradely injecting Ringer's solution in increasing volumes into the femoral vein just as it excited the triceps surae muscles. Our findings are consistent with the possibility that distension of small vessels within exercising skeletal muscle can serve as a stimulus to the thin fiber afferents evoking the exercise pressor reflex.

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      Leukocyte margination at arteriole shear rate

      Naoki Takeishi, Yohsuke Imai, Keita Nakaaki, Takami Yamaguchi and Takuji Ishikawa

      Version of Record online: 11 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.14814/phy2.12037

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      e12037

      We numerically investigated margination of leukocytes at arteriole shear rate in straight circular channels with diameters ranging from 10 to 22 µm. Our results demonstrated that passing motion of RBCs effectively induces leukocyte margination not only in small channels but also in large channels. We also show that leukocytes rarely approach the wall surface to within a microvillus length at arteriole shear rate.

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      Startle evoked movement is delayed in older adults: implications for brainstem processing in the elderly

      Ursina A. Tresch, Eric J. Perreault and Claire F. Honeycutt

      Version of Record online: 11 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.14814/phy2.12025

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      e12025

      Our objective was to utilize the noninvasive startReact phenomenon, which is mediated through the brainstem, to gain insight into brainstem processing in older adults. We found that startReact hand extension was intact but delayed in older adults. The observed age-related delay in the startReact response most likely arises from central processing delays within the brainstem. Our result that the startReact response is delayed in older individuals highlights that movements (e.g., posture, locomotion) and reflexes (e.g., long-latency stretch reflexes) that are coordinated by the brainstem may have similar deficits in older adults.

      Corrected by:

      Erratum: Erratum

      Vol. 5, Issue 6, Version of Record online: 22 MAR 2017

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      The effects of aging on the functional and structural properties of the rat basilar artery

      Nihal Tümer, Hale Z. Toklu, Judy M. Muller-Delp, Şehkar Oktay, Payal Ghosh, Kevin Strang, Michael D. Delp and Philip J. Scarpace

      Version of Record online: 11 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.14814/phy2.12031

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      e12031

      The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of advancing age on the structure and vasomotor responses of the basilar artery as well as the serum antioxidant capacity. Advanced aging (24 months) decreased responses of the basilar artery to both the contractile and relaxing agents, whereas, DEA-induced dilation was significantly higher in the 8-month-old group compared with the younger and older rats. The arterial wall-to-lumen ratio was significantly increased in 24-month-old rats. Smooth muscle cell count was also decreased in old rats. Our findings demonstrate that aging is associated with functional impairment in endothelium-dependent and -independent relaxation responses and contractility in the basilar arteries, and these diminished responses are accompanied by structural remodeling and decreased antioxidant capacity of the serum.

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      Forearm vasodilator responses to a β-adrenergic receptor agonist in premenopausal and postmenopausal women

      Ronee E. Harvey, Jill N. Barnes, Nisha Charkoudian, Timothy B. Curry, John H. Eisenach, Emma C. Hart and Michael J. Joyner

      Version of Record online: 11 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.14814/phy2.12032

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      e12032

      This study assessed potential differences in β-adrenergic receptor responsiveness to forearm isoproterenol infusion in young premenopausal and older postmenopausal women. Our data showed that β-receptor vasodilator responses to low-dose isoproterenol are blunted in postmenopausal women in comparison to young women, and responses to higher doses of isoproterenol are similar between the two groups. These results suggest that there is some attenuation of β-receptor responsiveness in aging women while maximum vasodilator responses remain intact.

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      Essential role of vesicular nucleotide transporter in vesicular storage and release of nucleotides in platelets

      Miki Hiasa, Natsuko Togawa, Takaaki Miyaji, Hiroshi Omote, Akitsugu Yamamoto and Yoshinori Moriyama

      Version of Record online: 11 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.14814/phy2.12034

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      e12034

      VNUT is highly expressed and associated with dense granules in platelets. VNUT plays an essential role in vesicular storage of nucleotide in platelets.

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      Heart rate slopes during 6-min walk test in pulmonary arterial hypertension, other lung diseases, and healthy controls

      Adriano R. Tonelli, Xiao-Feng Wang, Laith Alkukhun, Qi Zhang, Raed A. Dweik and Omar A. Minai

      Version of Record online: 11 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.14814/phy2.12038

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      e12038

      For the first time, we studied study the heart rate (HR) acceleration and decay slopes during the 6-min walk test (6MWT) in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and compared them to subjects with parenchymal lung diseases and healthy controls. We analyzed a large number (>600) of standardized HR determinations in each patient and applied modern statistical analysis (nonlinear mixed models) to construct the slopes during the activity and recovery phases of the 6MWT. We found that the slopes are less steeper in PAH patients when compared with controls. The slopes of patients with parenchymal lung disease fell in-between individuals with PAH and healthy controls. More importantly, patients with PAH or parenchymal lung disease has a lower acceleration or deceleration slope if their disease progressed during the follow-up.

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      A role for the age-dependent loss of α(E)-catenin in regulation of N-cadherin expression and cell migration

      LaNita A. Nichols, Elizabeth A. Grunz-Borgmann, Xinhui Wang and Alan R. Parrish

      Version of Record online: 11 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.14814/phy2.12039

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      e12039

      Aging is associated with loss of α-catenin and N-cadherin expression in the kidney. In these studies, we demonstrate that α-catenin regulates, in part, N-cadherin expression and migration in tubular epithelial cells.

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      Differential effects of glyoxalase 1 overexpression on diabetic atherosclerosis and renal dysfunction in streptozotocin-treated, apolipoprotein E-deficient mice

      Michèle Geoffrion, Xueliang Du, Zehra Irshad, Barbara C. Vanderhyden, Kerri Courville, Guangzhi Sui, Vivette D. D'Agati, Sylvie Ott-Braschi, Naila Rabbani, Paul J. Thornalley, Michael Brownlee and Ross W. Milne

      Version of Record online: 11 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.14814/phy2.12043

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      e12043

      Increased levels of methylglyoxal and methylglyoxal-derived advanced glycation end products may contribute to the development of diabetic complications. We show that overexpression of an enzyme that participates in the pathway of methylglyoxal detoxification, glyoxalase 1, protects streptozotocin-treated, apolipoprotein E-deficient mice from diabetic kidney disease but not from diabetes-induced accelerated aortic atherosclerosis.

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      Reciprocal activation of gastrocnemius and soleus motor units is associated with fascicle length change during knee flexion

      Benedikt Lauber, Glen A. Lichtwark and Andrew G. Cresswell

      Version of Record online: 11 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.14814/phy2.12044

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      e12044

      This study show that under dynamic conditions, drive to the medial gastrocnemius muscle is modulated such that motor unit de-recruitment occurs with progressive medial gastrocnemius fascicle shortening and recruitment occurs with progressive lengthening. Furthermore, the results also indicate that muscle length rather than joint angle accounts for the changes in medial gastrocnemius recruitment during knee flexion and extension. This has important consequences for our understanding of the control of multiarticular joint muscles.

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      Cytochrome P4504A inhibitors attenuate the exaggerated natriuretic response to volume expansion in thyroidectomized rats

      Cecilia Colombero, Marcela Venara, Daniel Gonzalez, Richard J. Roman and Susana Nowicki

      Version of Record online: 11 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.14814/phy2.12040

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      e12040

      Thyroidectomy increases the natriuretic response to volume expansion; however, the mechanism remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that P-450 metabolites of arachidonic acid contribute to the enhanced natriuretic response to an acute sodium load in hypothyroid rats. Our results indicate that inhibition of the formation of 20-HETE (a CYP4A- arachidonic acid metabolite) blunts the enhanced natriuretic response to volume expansion in thyroidectomized animals by enhancing sodium transport in the distal nephron.

  3. Corrigendum

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    4. Corrigendum
    5. Original Research
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Corrigendum

      Version of Record online: 11 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.14814/phy2.12024

      This article corrects:

      FGF2 modulates cardiac remodeling in an isoform- and sex-specific manner

      Vol. 1, Issue 4, Version of Record online: 17 SEP 2013

  4. Original Research

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. Original Research
    4. Corrigendum
    5. Original Research
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The effects of resting and exercise serum from children with cystic fibrosis on C2C12 myoblast proliferation in vitro

      Thanh Nguyen, Jeff M. Baker, Joyce Obeid, Sandeep Raha, Gianni Parise, Linda Pedder and Brian W. Timmons

      Version of Record online: 24 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.14814/phy2.12042

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      e12042

      Chronic systemic inflammation is a clinical symptom in children with cystic fibrosis (CF), but the effects on muscle development are unknown. We exposed C2C12 myoblasts to the serum of children with CF and healthy children, and found that systemic factors from children with CF at rest and after exercise can alter myoblast proliferation.

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      A physiological increase in insulin suppresses muscle-specific ubiquitin ligase gene activation in fetal sheep with sustained hypoglycemia

      Laura D. Brown, Stephanie R. Thorn, Meghan C. O'Meara, Jinny R. Lavezzi and Paul J. Rozance

      Version of Record online: 24 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.14814/phy2.12045

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      e12045

      This study shows the importance of the ubiquitin–proteosome pathway for regulating protein accretion during chronic fetal hypoglycemia. Furthermore, we show that this pathway can be suppressed by physiological concentrations for fetal insulin.

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      Variable reactive hyperemia in normotensive strains of rat

      J. Brett Heimlich and David M. Pollock

      Version of Record online: 24 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.14814/phy2.12052

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      e12052

      Much of the scientific literature presumes that the physiology of so-called normal rat strains is identical even when obtained from different suppliers. We demonstrate here that the blood flow response in the hindlimb of the rat to acute ischemia shows consistency within a given strain, but vary tremendously from different strains of rat even though both are considered “normal” control strains, the Sprague–Dawley and Wistar–Kyoto rats.

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      Epigenetic heredity of human height

      Pasquale Simeone and Saverio Alberti

      Version of Record online: 24 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.14814/phy2.12047

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      e12047

      Epigenetic heredity appears to be a determinant of adult human height. Major findings in mouse models and in human genetic diseases support this model. Modulation of DNA methylation is candidate to mediate environmental influence on epigenetic traits.

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      Demonstration and biological significance of a gastrin-P21-activated kinase 1 feedback loop in colorectal cancer cells

      Nhi Huynh, Kevin H. Liu, Mildred Yim, Arthur Shulkes, Graham S. Baldwin and Hong He

      Version of Record online: 24 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.14814/phy2.12048

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      e12048

      The results in this study indicate that PAK1 is required for the stimulation of CRC cells by gastrins, and suggest the existence of an inhibitory feedback loop by which PAK1 downregulates gastrin production in CRC cells.

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      The daily rhythm of milk synthesis is dependent on the timing of feed intake in dairy cows

      L. Whitney Rottman, Yun Ying, Kan Zhou, Paul A. Bartell and Kevin J. Harvatine

      Version of Record online: 24 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.14814/phy2.12049

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      e12049

      Regulation of the daily rhythm of milk synthesis is important to production animals and breastfeeding. The objective of this study was to determine if the timing of food intake entrains a daily pattern of milk synthesis. A circadian pattern of milk synthesis was observed that was responsive to the timing of food intake.

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      A new twist on an old idea part 2: cyclosporine preserves normal mitochondrial but not cardiomyocyte function in mini-swine with compensated heart failure

      Jessica A. Hiemstra, Manuel Gutiérrez-Aguilar, Kurt D. Marshall, Kyle S. McCommis, Pamela J. Zgoda, Noelany Cruz-Rivera, Nathan T. Jenkins, Maike Krenz, Timothy L. Domeier, Christopher P. Baines and Craig A. Emter

      Version of Record online: 24 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.14814/phy2.12050

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      e12050

      In a recently developed a translational mini-swine model of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), we hypothesized inhibiting mitochondrial permeability transition using cyclosporine (CsA) would improve cardiomyocyte function and calcium handling by supporting mitochondrial function. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of inhibiting cyclophilin D on mitochondrial function and subsequent cardiomyocyte calcium handling using a reduced, nonimmunosuppressive dose of CsA chronically. We found improved mitochondrial function following chronic CsA treatment was not associated with a parallel improvement in cardiomyocyte calcium handling and contractile function, and demonstrate for the first time impaired cardiomyocyte calcium handling and contractile function are present early in the disease process in our HFpEF model.

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      Modular organization across changing task demands in healthy and poststroke gait

      Rebecca L. Routson, Steven A. Kautz and Richard R. Neptune

      Version of Record online: 24 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.14814/phy2.12055

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      e12055

      The overall goal of this study was to begin linking impaired module patterns to mobility task performance in persons poststroke. We found that the same underlying modules (number and composition) that contribute to steady-state walking also contribute to mobility capability tasks in healthy subjects and in subjects poststroke.

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      Obesity decreases both whole muscle and fascicle strength in young females but only exacerbates the aging-related whole muscle level asthenia

      David J. Tomlinson, Robert M. Erskine, Keith Winwood, Christopher Ian Morse and Gladys L. Onambélé

      Version of Record online: 24 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.14814/phy2.12030

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      e12030

      Our study demonstrates for the first time that at both whole muscle and fascicular levels, high body mass index (BMI) or adiposity categories of obesity are associated with significantly lower skeletal muscle contractile capacity in young adults. Interestingly, the aging effect on obese individuals classified by both BMI and adiposity was foremost observed through the loss of muscle tissue content as well as total muscle strength.

      Corrected by:

      Erratum: Erratum

      Vol. 2, Issue 8, Version of Record online: 19 AUG 2014

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      Small changes in lung function in runners with marathon-induced interstitial lung edema

      Gerald S. Zavorsky, Eric N.C. Milne, Federico Lavorini, Joseph P. Rienzi, Paul T. Cutrufello, Sridhar S. Kumar and Massimo Pistolesi

      Version of Record online: 27 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.14814/phy2.12056

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      e12056

      This study assessed lung function in runners with marathon-induced interstitial lung edema. Pulmonary function tests and chest radiographs were obtained pre- and post marathon finish. Seventeen percent of subjects developed edema but the edema was of minimal physiological importance.

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      Vasohibin-1 deficiency enhances renal fibrosis and inflammation after unilateral ureteral obstruction

      Hiroyuki Watatani, Yohei Maeshima, Norikazu Hinamoto, Hiroko Yamasaki, Haruyo Ujike, Katsuyuki Tanabe, Hitoshi Sugiyama, Fumio Otsuka, Yasufumi Sato and Hirofumi Makino

      Version of Record online: 27 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.14814/phy2.12054

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      e12054

      In the present study, we evaluated the role of endogenous Vasohibn-1 VASH-1 in regulating tubulointerstitial alterations induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO), and assessed its regulatory role on fibrogenesis and the activation of TGF-beta/Smad3 signaling in renal fibroblasts. This is the first study to demonstrate the potential protective role for endogenous VASH-1 on tubulointerstitial alterations via regulating inflammation and fibrosis, partly mediated via its direct anti-fibrotic effects on renal fibroblasts through modulating TGF-β1 signaling.

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      The effect of hypercapnia on static cerebral autoregulation

      Blake G. Perry, Samuel J. E. Lucas, Kate N. Thomas, Darryl J. Cochrane and Toby Mündel

      Version of Record online: 27 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.14814/phy2.12059

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      e12059

      This experiment investigated the effects of Hypercapnia on static cerebral autoregulation in healthy humans using lower body positive pressure mediated increases in MAP. It was found that nonpharmacological increases in MAP are translated to the cerebral circulation during hypercapnia.

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      Reperfusion-induced sustained ventricular tachycardia, leading to ventricular fibrillation, in chronically instrumented, intact, conscious mice

      Heidi L. Lujan and Stephen E. DiCarlo

      Version of Record online: 27 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.14814/phy2.12057

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      e12057

      We describe, for the first time, the use of an intact, conscious, murine model of reperfusion-induced lethal arrhythmias. This model has the potential to be of major importance for advancing the concepts and methods that drive antiarrhythmic therapies.

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      SGLT2 inhibitors act from the extracellular surface of the cell membrane

      Chiara Ghezzi, Bruce A. Hirayama, Edurne Gorraitz, Donald D. F. Loo, Yin Liang and Ernest M. Wright

      Version of Record online: 27 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.14814/phy2.12058

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      e12058

      An emerging class of new drugs to treat diabetes is the SGLT2 inhibitors which control blood glucose levels by excreting glucose into the urine. Questions have arisen about how these inhibitors reach SGLT2 in the brush border membrane of the S1 and S2 segments of the renal proximal tubule. Using patch-clamp technique, we characterized the effect of a canagliflozin derivative (TA-3404) on glucose-induced currents and we showed that the inhibitor binds to SGLT2 from the extracellular side of the plasma membrane. This provides indirect evidence that SGLT2-specific drugs act from the tubular lumen and not from the blood through the tubular epithelium.

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