Polyamines are low-molecular weight biogenic amines. They are a specific group of cell growth and development regulators. In the past decade biochemical, molecular and genetic studies have contributed much to a better understanding of the biological role of polyamines in the plant cell. Substantial evidence has also been added to our understanding of the role of polyamines in plastid development. In developing chloroplasts, polyamines serve as a nitrogen source for protein and chlorophyll synthesis. In chloroplast structure, thylakoid proteins linked to polyamines belong mainly to antenna proteins of light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b–protein complexes. The fact that LHCII oligomeric forms are much more intensely labelled by polyamines, in comparison to monomeric forms, suggests that polyamines participate in oligomer stabilisation. In plastid metabolism, polyamines modulate effectiveness of photosynthesis. The role of polyamines in mature chloroplasts is also related to the photo-adaptation of the photosynthetic apparatus to low and high light intensity and its response to environmental stress. The occurrence of polyamines and enzymes participating in their metabolism at every stage of plastid development indicates that polyamines play a role in plastid differentiation, structure, functioning and senescence.