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Targeted destruction of fungal structures of Erysiphe trifoliorum on flat leaf surfaces of Marchantia polymorpha

Authors

  • Y. Takikawa,

    1. Plant Center, Institute of Advanced Technology, Kinki University, Wakayama, Japan
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  • Y. Senga,

    1. Laboratory of Plant Protection and Biotechnology, Department of Agricultural Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Kinki University, Nara, Japan
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  • T. Nonomura,

    Corresponding author
    1. Laboratory of Plant Protection and Biotechnology, Department of Agricultural Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Kinki University, Nara, Japan
    • Correspondence

      T. Nonomura, Laboratory of Plant Protection and Biotechnology, Department of Agricultural Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Kinki University, Nara 631-8505, Japan.

      E-mail: nonomura@nara.kindai.ac.jp

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  • Y. Matsuda,

    1. Laboratory of Plant Protection and Biotechnology, Department of Agricultural Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Kinki University, Nara, Japan
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  • K. Kakutani,

    1. Pharmaceutical Research and Technology Institute, Kinki University, Osaka, Japan
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  • H. Toyoda

    1. Laboratory of Plant Protection and Biotechnology, Department of Agricultural Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Kinki University, Nara, Japan
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Abstract

In this study, we observed the germination behaviour of airborne conidia from powdery mildews that settle on thalloid surfaces. We inoculated thalli (flat, sheet-like leaf tissues) and gemmae (small, flat, sheet-like leaf tissues that propagate asexually via bud-like structures) of the common liverwort (Marchantia polymorpha) with conidia from tomato powdery mildew (Oidium neolycopersici; KTP-02) and red clover powdery mildew (Erysiphe trifoliorum; KRCP-4N) and examined their germination and subsequent appressorium formation under a high-fidelity digital microscope. Conidial bodies and germ tubes of the inoculated KRCP-4N conidia were destroyed on both the thalli and gemmae. The destruction of these fungal structures was observed only for KRCP-4N conidia inoculated onto M. polymorpha on both leaf surfaces. No differences in destruction of the KRCP-4N fungal structures between thalli and gemmae were observed. At 4 h post-inoculation, destruction of the germ tube tip was observed when it reached the gemmae leaf surface. At 6 h post-inoculation, the conidial bodies and germ tubes were destroyed. In contrast, KTP-02 conidia were not destroyed and formed normal, well-lobed appressoria on the surface of M. polymorpha gemmae.

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