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Our original article (Bizumic & Duckitt, 2012) argued that the first printed use of the concept of ethnocentrism was probably in an article by McGee (1900). This deviates from the almost universally held view that Sumner (1906) coined the concept of ethnocentrism (e.g., Adorno et al., 1950; LeVine & Campbell, 1972; Tajfel, 1982). A further review of early conceptual history suggested that both of these views are incorrect and that there are additional early sources discussing ethnocentrism. It was, however, Ludwig Gumplowicz who may have coined the concept, and he used it in at least seven publications, written in German and Polish from 1879 until 1905. Gumplowicz, one of the fathers of sociology, had influenced Sumner and was cited at times by him. Sumner (1906), however, failed to acknowledge that Gumplowicz and other social scientists had used the concept of ethnocentrism before him. Accordingly, later social scientists who studied ethnocentrism had completely ignored Gumplowicz and others who wrote on ethnocentrism before Sumner (1906) and gave Sumner an undue credit for inventing the concept. This issue and its implications have been elaborated upon in Bizumic (2013; Who coined the concept of ethnocentrism? A brief report [unpublished manuscript]).

References

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  2. References
  • Adorno, T. W., Frenkel-Brunswik, E., Levinson, D. J., & Sanford, R. N. (1950). The authoritarian personality. New York: Harper and Row.
  • Bizumic, B., & Duckitt, J. (2012). What is and is not ethnocentrism? A conceptual analysis and political implications. Political Psychology, 33, 887909. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9221.2012.00907.x
  • McGee, William J. (1900). Primitive numbers. Bureau of American Ethnology Annual Report, 19, 821881.
  • LeVine, R. A., & Campbell, D. T. (1972). Ethnocentrism. New York, NY: John Wiley.
  • Tajfel, H. (1982). Social psychology of intergroup relations. Annual Review of Psychology, 33, 139.
  • Sumner, W. G. (1906). Folkways: A study of the sociological importance of usages, manners, customs, mores, and morals.New York, NY: Mentor.