Molecular and biological characterization of Cowpea mild mottle virus isolates infecting soybean in Brazil and evidence of recombination



The biological and molecular characterization of six isolates of a new Cowpea mild mottle virus strain (CPMMV; Carlavirus, Betaflexiviridae) are reported. Soybean plants with mosaic and stem necrosis were collected in Bahia, Goiás, Mato Grosso and Minas Gerais states, Brazil. Complete genomes of the CPMMV isolates are 8180–8198 nucleotides (nt) long, excluding the 3′-polyadenylated tail, and have 67–68% nt sequence identity with a Ghana isolate of CPMMV, the only CPMMV isolate for which the genome has previously been sequenced. The replicase has only 60–61% nt sequence identity with the Ghana CPMMV isolate, and the coat protein (CP) is highly conserved (79% nt sequence identity and 95–96% amino acid sequence identity). The high CP identity and the phylogenetic analyses supported the classification of the Brazilian isolates as CPMMV. Biological and molecular differences with the Ghana CPMMV isolate were found and indicated that the six isolates represent a distinct CPMMV strain denominated as CPMMV-BR. Furthermore, it is shown that recombination occurred mainly in the polymerase gene, and may occur less frequently in other regions of the CPMMV genome.