Stripe rust of wheat caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici has recently become a production problem on wheat in Alberta, Canada, and stripe rust of barley caused by P. striiformis f. sp. hordei occurs regularly. A total of 261 isolates of P. striiformis were collected from wheat, barley, Hordeum jubatum and triticale plants in Alberta, Canada from 2007 to 2012, and compared to isolates from other provinces and the USA. The genetic diversity of the pathogen was assessed using 11 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and by examining a length polymorphism in the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) intergenic spacer 1 (IGS1) region. A total of 28 SSR genotypes were detected within Alberta. The 13 genotypes common on wheat (P. striiformis f. sp. tritici) were distinct from the 15 genotypes common on barley (P. striiformis f. sp. hordei). Four SSR genotypes, two within each forma specialis, represented 85% of the isolates recovered. Genotypic diversity was low, population genetic analysis indicated a clonal structure, and the genotypes were widely dispersed. In both formae speciales, the dominant genotype varied between years. The second most common P. striiformis f. sp. hordei genotype was found to be more closely related to older P. striiformis f. sp. tritici genotypes from the USA than to other P. striiformis f. sp. hordei genotypes.