Current situation and characterization of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae on kiwifruit in Galicia (northwest Spain)



Bacterial canker of kiwifruit, caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa), is a disease that is spreading rapidly in several kiwifruit-producing countries, causing significant economic losses. In 2011, it was detected for the first time in Spain, in the south of Galicia (northwest Spain). Kiwifruit orchards were therefore inspected and sampled in 2011 and 2012 to determine the pathogen distribution, and the isolates obtained were characterized by morphology, fatty acids profile, biochemical tests and molecular techniques. Isolates were obtained from Actinidia deliciosa ‘Hayward’ (from leaves, canes, flower buds, fruits and roots), from A. deliciosa ‘Summer’, from Actinidia chinensis ‘Jin Tao’ (from canes and leaves) and from A. chinensis pollinator ‘Belén’ (from canes). Results of the analysis of the cfl gene (phytotoxin production-related), the tox–argK gene cluster and phylogenetic analysis of the cts gene demonstrated that all Psa isolates from northwest Spain correspond to the Psa3 population, which includes strains of haplotype 2. This is the first record of Psa3 and haplotype 2 in Spain.