• Bipolaris sorokiniana ;
  • disease assessment;
  • epidemiology;
  • foliar disease;
  • phytopathometry;
  • Triticum aestivum

This study aimed to develop and validate a standard area diagram (SAD) set to quantify the severity of spot blotch, caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana, on wheat leaves. The proposed SAD set includes images of leaves with 11 distinct disease severities (0·1, 1, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 and 83%). The SAD set was validated by 12 raters without experience in evaluating plant disease. Lin's concordance correlation analysis of estimated versus actual disease severity (based on image analysis) showed that precision and accuracy improved for all raters using the SAD set in contrast to assessments made without it. The SAD set improved accuracy (coefficient of bias, C= 0·88 and 0·99, without and with the SAD set, respectively) and agreement (Lin's concordance correlation coefficient, ρc = 0·81 and 0·96 without and with the SAD set, respectively) of the estimates of severity. The severity estimates were also more reliable when using the SAD set (coefficient of determination, R= 0·76 unaided and R= 0·92 with the SAD set, and intra-class correlation ρ = 0·79 without the SAD set and ρ = 0·95 using the SAD set). The SAD set proposed in this study will improve the accuracy and reliability of estimates of spot blotch severity on wheat leaves.