This review presents an overview of bacterial blight, the predominant and emerging hazelnut disease worldwide. Here, disease symptomatologies, disease cycle, epidemiology, detection and identification methods are thoroughly discussed. It also focuses on plant health regulations and control strategies. The information reported throughout the review could help to give a better understanding of the hazelnut–bacterial blight pathosystem. A thorough knowledge of this pathosystem is important for the effective management of bacterial blight across the hazelnut orchards of the world.