Mechanical Restraint in Psychiatry: Preventive Factors in Theory and Practice. A Danish–Norwegian Association Study


  • Conflict of Interest Statement

    There are no known financial, personal, ethical, political, academic, or other conflicts of interest.



To examine how potential mechanical restraint preventive factors in hospitals are associated with the frequency of mechanical restraint episodes.

Design and Methods

This study employed a retrospective association design, and linear regression was used to assess the associations.


Three mechanical restraint preventive factors were significantly associated with low rates of mechanical restraint use: mandatory review (exp[B] = .36, p < .01), patient involvement (exp[B] = .42, p < .01), and no crowding (exp[B] = .54, p < .01).

Practice Implications

None of the three mechanical restraint preventive factors presented any adverse effects; therefore, units should seriously consider implementing these measures.