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Toward a Safer Working Environment on Psychiatric Wards: Service Users' Delayed Perspectives of Aggression and Violence-Related Situations and Development Ideas


  • Conflict of Interest Statement
  • The authors report no actual or potential conflicts of interest.



To explore service users' (n = 9) delayed perceptions of and suggestions for improvement of management of aggression/violence in psychiatry.

Design and Method

Focus group interviews, inductive content analysis.


Participants reported aggression/violence-related negative perceptions (including loneliness, boredom, excessive control, and fear) but also memories of humane and caring personnel. The suggestions included meaningful activities and humane, interactive nursing.

Practice Implications

Delayed perceptions and proposals resembled the proximate ones. Perceptions may persist for years. Such perceptions and proposals, if taken into account from the beginning of treatment, may prevent negative long-term consequences of witnessed or experienced aggression/violence. Humane, interactive nursing models should be studied and disseminated.