• 1
    McCormick MC. The contribution of low birth weight to infant mortality and childhood morbidity. New England Journal of Medicine 1985; 312:8290.
  • 2
    Kramer MS. Determinants of low birth weight: methodological assessment and meta-analysis. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 1987; 65:663737.
  • 3
    Das UG, Sysyn GD. Abnormal fetal growth: intrauterine growth retardation, small for gestational age, large for gestational age. Pediatric Clinics of North America 2004; 51:639654, viii.
  • 4
    Resnik R. Intrauterine growth restriction. Obstetrics and Gynecology 2002; 99:490496.
  • 5
    Kramer MS, Victora CG. Low birth weight and perinatal mortality. In: Nutrition and Health in Developing Countries. Editors: Semba RD , Bloem MW . Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, 2001; pp. 5769.
  • 6
    Clausson B, Cnattingius S, Axelsson O. Preterm and term births of small for gestational age infants: a population-based study of risk factors among nulliparous women. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1998; 105:10111017.
  • 7
    Kramer MS. Birthweight and infant mortality: perceptions and pitfalls. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 1990; 4:381390.
  • 8
    de Onis M, Blossner M, Villar J. Levels and patterns of intrauterine growth retardation in developing countries. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1998; 52 (Suppl. 1):S515.
  • 9
    Villar J, Belizan JM. The relative contribution of prematurity and fetal growth retardation to low birth weight in developing and developed societies. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1982; 143:793798.
  • 10
    Steer P. The epidemiology of preterm labor – a global perspective. Journal of Perinatal Medicine 2005; 33:273276.
  • 11
    Kramer MS, Demissie K, Yang H, Platt RW, Sauve R, Liston R. The contribution of mild and moderate preterm birth to infant mortality. Fetal and Infant Health Study Group of the Canadian Perinatal Surveillance System. JAMA 2000; 284:843849.
  • 12
    Kristensen S, Salihu HM, Keith LG, Kirby RS, Fowler KB, Pass MA. SGA subtypes and mortality risk among singleton births. Early Human Development 2007; 83:99105.
  • 13
    WHO. World Health Report 2005: Making Every Mother and Child Count. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2005.
  • 14
    Fawzi WW, Msamanga GI, Urassa W, Hertzmark E, Petraro P, Willett WC, et al. Vitamins and perinatal outcomes among HIV-negative women in Tanzania. New England Journal of Medicine 2007; 356:14231431.
  • 15
    Oken E, Kleinman KP, Rich-Edwards J, Gillman MW. A nearly continuous measure of birth weight for gestational age using a United States national reference. BMC Pediatrics 2003; 3:6.
  • 16
    Cox D. Regression models and life-tables. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series B (Methodological) 1972; 34:187220.
  • 17
    Miettinen OS. Theoretical Epidemiology: Principles of Occurrence Research in Medicine, 19th edn. Canada: John Wiley, 1985.
  • 18
    Spiegelman D, Hertzmark E, Wand HC. Point and interval estimates of partial population attributable risks in cohort studies: examples and software. Cancer Causes and Control 2007; 18:571579.
  • 19
    Santolaya J, Faro R. Twins – twice more trouble? Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology 2012; 55:296306.
  • 20
    Blencowe H, Cousens S, Oestergaard MZ, Chou D, Moller AB, Narwal R, et al. National, regional, and worldwide estimates of preterm birth rates in the year 2010 with time trends since 1990 for selected countries: a systematic analysis and implications. Lancet 2012; 379:21622172.
  • 21
    Wei R, Msamanga GI, Spiegelman D, Hertzmark E, Baylin A, Manji K, et al. Association between low birth weight and infant mortality in children born to human immunodeficiency virus 1-infected mothers in Tanzania. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 2004; 23:530535.
  • 22
    Ashworth A. Effects of intrauterine growth retardation on mortality and morbidity in infants and young children. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1998; 52 (Suppl. 1):S34S41.
  • 23
    Marchant T, Willey B, Katz J, Clarke S, Kariuki S, Ter Kuile F, et al. Neonatal mortality risk associated with preterm birth in East Africa, adjusted by weight for gestational age: individual participant level meta-analysis. PLoS Medicine 2012; 9:e1001292.
  • 24
    Sharma P, McKay K, Rosenkrantz TS, Hussain N. Comparisons of mortality and pre-discharge respiratory outcomes in small-for-gestational-age and appropriate-for-gestational-age premature infants. BMC Pediatrics 2004; 4:9.
  • 25
    Thomas JG, Reese C, James AT. Intrauterine growth restriction increases morbidity and mortality among premature neonates. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2004; 191:481487.
  • 26
    Chen HY, Chauhan SP, Ward TC, Mori N, Gass ET, Cisler RA. Aberrant fetal growth and early, late, and postneonatal mortality: an analysis of Milwaukee births, 1996–2007. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2011; 204: 261,e110.
  • 27
    Kulmala T, Vaahtera M, Ndekha M, Koivisto AM, Cullinan T, Salin ML, et al. The importance of preterm births for peri- and neonatal mortality in rural Malawi. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 2000; 14:219226.
  • 28
    White LJ, Lee SJ, Stepniewska K, Simpson JA, Dwell SL, Arunjerdja R, et al. Estimation of gestational age from fundal height: a solution for resource-poor settings. Journal of the Royal Society, Interface 2012; 9:503510.
  • 29
    Lynch CD, Zhang J. The research implications of the selection of a gestational age estimation method. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 2007; 21 (Suppl. 2):8696.
  • 30
    Khashu M, Narayanan M, Bhargava S, Osiovich H. Perinatal outcomes associated with preterm birth at 33 to 36 weeks' gestation: a population-based cohort study. Pediatrics 2009; 123:109113.
  • 31
    Alexander GR, Allen MC. Conceptualization, measurement, and use of gestational age. I. Clinical and public health practice. Journal of Perinatology 1996; 16:5359.
  • 32
    DiPietro JA, Allen MC. Estimation of gestational age: implications for developmental research. Child Development 1991; 62:11841199.
  • 33
    Bang AT, Bang RA, Baitule SB, Reddy MH, Deshmukh MD. Effect of home-based neonatal care and management of sepsis on neonatal mortality: field trial in rural India. Lancet 1999; 354:19551961.
  • 34
    Edmond KM, Zandoh C, Quigley MA, Amenga-Etego S, Owusu-Agyei S, Kirkwood BR. Delayed breastfeeding initiation increases risk of neonatal mortality. Pediatrics 2006; 117:e380e386.
  • 35
    Lawn JE, Mwansa-Kambafwile J, Barros FC, Horta BL, Cousens S. ‘Kangaroo mother care’ to prevent neonatal deaths due to pre-term birth complications. International Journal of Epidemiology 2010; 39(Suppl. 1):i144154.
  • 36
    Mwansa-Kambafwile J, Cousens S, Hansen T, Lawn JE. Antenatal steroids in preterm labour for the prevention of neonatal deaths due to complications of preterm birth. International Journal of Epidemiology 2010; 39 (Suppl. 1):i122i133.
  • 37
    Boersma ER, Mbise RL. Intrauterine growth of live-born Tanzanian infants. Tropical and Geographical Medicine 1979; 31:719.